Malik Kafur known as Taj al-Din Izz al-Dawla, was a prominent eunuch slave-general of the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji. He was captured by Alauddin's general Nusrat Khan during the 1299 invasion of Gujarat, rose to prominence in the 1300s; as a commander of Alauddin's forces, Kafur defeated the Mongol invaders in 1306. Subsequently, he led a series of expeditions in the southern part of India, against the Yadavas, the Kakatiyas, the Hoysalas, the Pandyas. During these campaigns, he obtained a large number of treasures and horses for the Delhi Sultanate. During 1313-1315, Kafur served as Alauddin's governor of Devagiri; when Alauddin fell ill in 1315, he was recalled to Delhi, held the actual power as the Na'ib. After Alauddin's death, he tried to usurp the power by appointing Alauddin's minor son Shihabuddin Omar as a puppet monarch, his regency lasted for about a month, he was assassinated by Alauddin's former bodyguards. Alauddin's elder son, Mubarak Shah, succeeded him as the regent, usurped the power shortly after.
Kafur is described as of Hindu descent. In his youth, he was a slave of a wealthy Khwaja of Khambhat, he was a eunuch slave of great physical beauty, said to have been purchased by his original master for 1,000 dinars, resulting in the epithet hazar-dinari. It is unlikely that the price was 1,000 dinars: the description seems to be a metaphorical compliment for Kafur. Ibn Batuta refers to Kafur by the epithet al-Alfi, again in reference to the price paid for him but Ibn Batuta may be in error in stating that the epithet refers to a sum paid by the sultan himself for Kafur. Kafur was captured from the port city of Khambhat by Alauddin's general Nusrat Khan, during the 1299 invasion of Gujarat, converted to Islam, he was presented by Nusrat Khan to Sultan Alauddin in Delhi. Nothing is known about Kafur's early career in Alauddin's service. According to the 14th-century chronicler Isami, Alauddin favoured Kafur because "his counsel had always proved appropriate and fit for the occasion". Kafur rose in official position because of his proven ability as a wise counsellor and military commander.
By 1306, Kafur held the rank barbeg, used to designate a chamberlain who served as a military commander. By 1309-10, he held the iqta' of Rapri. In 1306, Alauddin sent an army led by Kafur to Punjab to repulse a Mongol invasion from the Chagatai Khanate; the Mongol army had advanced up to the Ravi River. This army included three contingents, led by Kopek and Tai-Bu. Kafur routed the Mongol army, with support from other commanders such as Malik Tughluq. By this time, Kafur was referred to as Na'ib-i Barbak from where his name Malik Na'ib may have originated, although some historians believe he was called Malik Na'ib because of his and more important role of Na'ib-i Sultan; the 16th-century chronicler `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni credits Kafur with leading Alauddin's army in the 1305 Battle of Amroha, but this claim is based on the erroneous identification of another officer called Malik Nayak with Malik Kafur. Kafur was next sent as commander of a series of great military raids into the Deccan, which laid the foundations of Muslim power in that region.
In 1307, Alauddin decided to invade the Yadava kingdom of Devagiri, whose king Ramachandra had discontinued tribute payments to Delhi for three or four years. Alauddin had thought of selecting another slave Malik Shahin to lead this invasion. However, as a governor of Chittor, Malik Shahin had fled fearing a Vaghela resurgence in the neighbouring territory of Gujarat. Therefore, Alauddin selected Kafur instead. Alauddin took definite steps to place Kafur above all other officers: The royal canopy and the royal pavilion were sent with him. Kafur subjugated the Yadavas, took Ramachandra to Delhi with rich spoils, where the Yadava king acknowledged Alauddin's suzerainty. In 1309, Alauddin sent Kafur on an expedition to the Kakatiya kingdom. Kafur's army reached the Kakatiya capital Warangal in January 1310, breached its outer fort after a month-long siege; the Kakatiya ruler Prataparudra agreed to pay tribute. Kafur returned to Delhi in June 1310 with a huge amount of wealth obtained from the defeated king.
The Koh-i-Noor diamond was said to be among the loot. Alauddin was pleased with Kafur, rewarded him generously. In Warangal, Kafur had learned that the southernmost regions of India were very wealthy. Therefore, he obtained Alauddin's permission to lead an expedition there. On 19 October 1310 he was dispatched upon that expedition, which reached the extremity of peninsular India. On 25 February 1311, Kafur besieged the Hoysala capital, with 10,000 soldiers; the Hoysala king Ballala surrendered a huge amount of wealth as part of a truce negotiation, agreed to pay an annual tribute to the Delhi Sultanate. From Dwarasamudra, Kafur proceeded to the Pandya kingdom, where he raided several places, obtaining a large number of treasures and horses. Kafur occupied Madurai on 24 April and reached Delhi in triumph on 18 October 1311. At court, Kafur seems to have excited the enmity of a faction led by Khizr Khan and Alp Khan. In 1313 at his own request, Kafur led another expedition to Devagiri, when Ramachandra's succ
Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India in the state of Karnataka, by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and abroad. The language has 43.7 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-Kannada speakers living in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.6 million speakers. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka; the Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with 8 Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.
Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India. In July 2011, a center for the study of classical Kannada was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore to facilitate research related to the language. Kannada is a Southern Dravidian language, according to Dravidian scholar Sanford B. Steever, its history can be conventionally divided into three periods: Old Kannada from 450–1200 CE, Middle Kannada from 1200–1700, Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present. Kannada is influenced to an appreciable extent by Sanskrit. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit and Pali can be found in the Kannada language; the scholar Iravatham Mahadevan indicated that Kannada was a language of rich oral tradition earlier than the 3rd century BCE, based on the native Kannada words found in Prakrit inscriptions of that period, Kannada must have been spoken by a widespread and stable population.
The scholar K. V. Narayana claims that many tribal languages which are now designated as Kannada dialects could be nearer to the earlier form of the language, with lesser influence from other languages; the sources of influence on literary Kannada grammar appear to be three-fold: Pāṇini's grammar, non-Paninian schools of Sanskrit grammar Katantra and Sakatayana schools, Prakrit grammar. Literary Prakrit seems to have prevailed in Karnataka since ancient times; the vernacular Prakrit speaking people may have come into contact with Kannada speakers, thus influencing their language before Kannada was used for administrative or liturgical purposes. Kannada phonetics, vocabulary and syntax show significant influence from these languages; some naturalised words of Prakrit origin in Kannada are: baṇṇa derived from vaṇṇa, hunnime from puṇṇivā. Examples of naturalized Sanskrit words in Kannada are: varṇa, arasu from rajan, paurṇimā, rāya from rāja. Like the other Dravidian languages Kannada has borrowed words such as dina, surya, nimiṣa and anna.
Purava HaleGannada: This Kannada term translated means "Previous form of Old Kannada" was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana, Chutu Satakarni and Kadamba periods and thus has a history of over 2500 years. The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri has been suggested to contain words in identifiable Kannada. According to Jain tradition, the daughter of Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, invented 18 alphabets, including Kannada, which points to the antiquity of the language. Supporting this tradition, an inscription of about the 9th century CE, containing specimens of different alphabets Dravidian, was discovered in a Jain temple in the Deogarh fort. In some 3rd–1st century BCE Tamil inscriptions, words of Kannada influence such as'nalliyooraa','kavuDi' and posil' have been introduced; the use of the vowel a' as an adjective is not prevalent in Tamil but its usage is available in Kannada. Kannada words such as'gouDi-gavuDi' transform into Tamil's kavuDi' for lack of the usage of Ghosha svana in Tamil.
Hence the Kannada word'gavuDi' becomes'kavuDi' in Tamil.'Posil' was introduced into Tamil from Kannada and colloquial Tamil uses this word as'Vaayil'. In a 1st-century CE Tamil inscription, there is a personal reference to ayjayya', a word of Kannada origin. In a 3rd-century CE Tamil inscription there is usage of'oppanappa vIran'. Here the honorific'appa' to a person's name is an influence from Kannada. Another word of Kannada origin is found in a 4th-century CE Tamil inscription. S. Settar studied the'sittanvAsal' inscription of first century CE as the inscriptions at'tirupparamkunram','adakala' and'neDanUpatti'; the inscriptions were studied in detail by Iravatham Mahadevan also. Mahadevan argues that the words'erumi','kavuDi','poshil' and'tAyiyar' have their origin in Kannada because Tamil cognates are not available. Settar adds the words'nADu' and'iLayar' to this list. Mahadevan feels that some grammatical categories found in these inscriptions are unique to Kannada rather than Tamil. Both these scholars attribute these influences to the movements and spread of Jainas in these regions.
These inscriptions belong to the period between the first century BCE and fourth century CE. These are some examples that are proof of the early usage of a few Kannada origin words in early Tamil inscriptions before the common era and in the
The Delhi Sultanate was a sultanate based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty; the sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongols, enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240. Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former Turkic Mamluk slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi, his Mamluk dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty was able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian subcontinent; the sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent. This was followed by decline due to Hindu reconquests, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire and Mewar asserting independence, new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off.
During and in the Delhi Sultanate, there was a synthesis of Indian civilization with that of Islamic civilization, the further integration of the Indian subcontinent with a growing world system and wider international networks spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society, as well as the wider world. The time of their rule included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture, increased growth rates in India's population and economy, the emergence of the Hindi-Urdu language; the Delhi Sultanate was responsible for repelling the Mongol Empire's devastating invasions of India in the 13th and 14th centuries. However, the Delhi Sultanate caused large scale destruction and desecration of temples in the Indian subcontinent. In 1526, the Sultanate was succeeded by the Mughal Empire; the context behind the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in India was part of a wider trend affecting much of the Asian continent, including the whole of southern and western Asia: the influx of nomadic Turkic peoples from the Central Asian steppes.
This can be traced back to the 9th century, when the Islamic Caliphate began fragmenting in the Middle East, where Muslim rulers in rival states began enslaving non-Muslim nomadic Turks from the Central Asian steppes, raising many of them to become loyal military slaves called Mamluks. Soon, Turks were becoming Islamicized. Many of the Turkic Mamluk slaves rose up to become rulers, conquered large parts of the Muslim world, establishing Mamluk Sultanates from Egypt to Afghanistan, before turning their attention to the Indian subcontinent, it is part of a longer trend predating the spread of Islam. Like other settled, agrarian societies in history, those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history. In evaluating the impact of Islam on the subcontinent, one must note that the northwestern subcontinent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia in the pre-Islamic era. In that sense, the Muslim intrusions and Muslim invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium.
By 962 AD, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia. Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni, the son of a Turkic Mamluk military slave, who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030. Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab; the wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni. The raids did not extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms; the Ghurid sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori known as Muhammad of Ghor, began a systematic war of expansion into north India in 1173. He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world. Muhammad of Ghor sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river, he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim kingdom called the Delhi Sultanate.
Some historians chronicle the Delhi Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Muhammad Ghori in South Asia by that time. Ghori was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia Muslims in some accounts or by Hindu Khokhars in others. After the assassination, one of Ghori's slaves, the Turkic Qutb al-Din Aibak, assumed power, becoming the first Sultan of Delhi. Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori, was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. Aibak was of Cuman-Kipchak origin, due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk dynasty. Aibak reigned as the Sultan of Delhi for four years, from 1206 to 1210. After Aibak died, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated in 1211 by Shams ud-Din Iltutmish. Iltutmish's power was precarious, a number of Muslim amirs challenged his authority as they had been supporters of Qutb al-Din Aibak. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, Iltutmish consolidated his power, his rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, this led to a series of wars.
Iltumish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranthambore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers. He
Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah
Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah Khalji was a ruler of the Delhi Sultanate of present-day India. A member of the Khalji dynasty, he was a son of Alauddin Khalji. After Alauddin's death, Mubarak Shah was imprisoned by Malik Kafur, who appointed his younger brother Shihabuddin Omar as a puppet monarch. After Malik Kafur's murder, Mubarak Shah became the regent. Soon after, he blinded his brother, usurped the power. After ascending the throne, he resorted to populist measures, such as abolishing the heavy taxes and penalties imposed by his father, releasing thousands of prisoners, he curbed a rebellion in Gujarat, recaptured Devagiri, besieged Warangal to extract a tribute. He was murdered by his slave general Khusrau Khan. Mubarak Shah called Mubarak Khan, was a son of Alauddin Khalji. After Alauddin died on 4 January 1316, his slave-general Malik Kafur appointed Alauddin's 6-year-old son Shihabuddin as a puppet monarch, himself held the power as regent. At Shihabuddin's coronation ceremony, Mubarak Shah and other sons of Alauddin were ordered to kiss Shihabuddin's feet.
Kafur started persecuting Alauddin's family members, whom he considered a threat to his control over the throne. Mubarak Shah, a major threat as one of the few adult sons of Alauddin, was imprisoned; the former bodyguards of Alauddin, who disapproved of Kafur's actions, freed Mubarak Shah after killing Kafur. According to an account mentioned by the 16th century chronicler Firishta, Kafur had sent some paiks to blind Mubarak Shah, but the captive prince gave them his jeweled necklace, convinced them to kill Kafur instead. However, this account is a later-day fabrication: according to the earlier chronicler Ziauddin Barani, the paiks took the initiative to kill Kafur on their own. After Kafur's murder, the nobles offered the post of regent to Mubarak Shah. However, Mubarak Shah believed, he rejected the offer, instead requested to be allowed to flee to another country with his mother. The nobles persuaded him to accept the regency. Mubarak Shah thus became the regent of his younger step-brother Shihabuddin.
Some weeks he accused Shihabuddin's mother Jhatyapalli of trying to poison him. Subsequently, he had Shihabuddin imprisoned in Gwalior and blinded, usurped the throne. Mubarak Shah ascended the throne with the title Qutubuddin on 14 April 1316, when he was 17 or 18 years old. Mubarak Shah retained Alauddin's officers and governors, which ensured a stable government during the first year of his reign, he made some new appointments: Malik Dinar, who held the office of shuhna-i pil under Alauddin, was given the title of Zafar Khan. Mubarak Shah married his daughter. Muhammad Maulana, a maternal uncle of Mubarak Shah, was given the title Sher Khan. Maulana Ziauddin, the son of the Sultan's calligraphy teacher Maulana Bahauddin, was given the title Qazi Khan and the office of sadr-i jahan. A gold dagger studded with jewels was presented to him. Malik Qara Beg, one of Alauddin's senior officers, was given around 14 offices, his sons received high posts. Malik Fakhruddin Juna, a son of Ghazi Malik, was given the office of Amir Akhur.
The slave Hasan was given the title Khusrau Khan, with the fief of Malik Kafur. Within Mubarak Shah's first regnal year, he was promoted to vazir; the paiks who had killed Malik Kafur claimed credit for putting Mubarak Shah on the throne, demanded high positions in his court. Mubarak Khan had them beheaded instead. Mubarak Shah attributed his rise to power to the divine will, he once asked his courtiers. When they replied in negative, he declared that the Allah had made him the king, only the Allah could remove him from that position, he assumed the title Khalifatullah. To win popular support, Mubarak Shah revoked several of Alauddin's decisions: Alauddin had ordered imprisonment of around 17,000-18,000 officers for a variety of reasons, including corruption and political offences. Mubarak Shah ordered the release of all these prisoners. During the last years of his reign, Alauddin had stopped receiving public petitions. Mubarak Shah revived the petition system, often, issued orders favouring the petitioners.
Alauddin's administration had incorporated a number of private lands in the crown territory. Mubarak Shah reinstated these lands to their private owners. Mubarak Shah abolished severe fines and taxes, prohibited the revenue ministry from using harsh measures such as flogging and imprisonment to recover taxes; the lower land taxes improved the conditions of the peasants. Ziauddin Barani, an orthodox Muslim, lamented that the Hindus, reduced to destitution during Alauddin's reign, now wore fine clothes and rode on horses, he revoked Alauddin's price control measures, leading to increased inflation. The prices of grains and commodities rose substantially. According to Barani, the Multani merchants rejoiced at Alauddin's death, now resorted to profiteering; the price of beautiful slave girls and young boys rose to 500 tankas, sometimes, as high as 2,000 tankas. Besides inflation, the high demand was a factor in this price increase: the new Sultan was fond of sensual pleasures, the general public followed suit.
The average wages increased four-fold. The annual pay of servants increased from 10-12 tankas to as high as 100 tankas. Mubarak Shah rewarded the army soldiers with an amount equal to six months of salary, increased the officers' allowances and stipends, he increased the grants to the Sayyids
Alauddin Khalji's conquest of Devagiri
Around 1308, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji sent a large army led by his general Malik Kafur to Devagiri, the capital of the Yadava king Ramachandra. Alauddin had earlier raided Devagiri in 1296, forced Ramachandra to pay him tribute. However, Ramachandra had discontinued these tribute payments, had given asylum to the Vaghela king Karna, whom Alauddin had displaced from Gujarat in 1304. A section of the Delhi army, commanded by Alp Khan, invaded Karna's principality in the Yadava kingdom, captured the Vaghela princess Devaladevi, who married Alauddin's son Khizr Khan. Another section, commanded by Malik Kafur captured Devagiri after a weak resistance by the defenders. Ramachandra agreed to become a vassal of Alauddin, aided Malik Kafur in the Sultanate's invasions of the southern kingdoms. There is some confusion over the date of Alauddin's second invasion of Devagiri, his courtier Amir Khusrau dates this invasion to March 1307, but describes it after the Siege of Siwana, which occurred in 1308.
The 16th century writer Firishta dates the Devagiri campaign to 1306, but states that it happened in same year as the Siege of Siwana. The near-contemporary writer Ziauddin Barani dates the invasion to 1308, which according to historian Kishori Saran Lal, appears to be correct; the Yadava king Ramachandra had agreed to pay an annual tribute to Alauddin after the Alauddin's 1296 raid of the Yadava capital Devagiri. However, in the mid-1300s, he stopped sending the tribute, as Alauddin remained occupied with his campaigns in northern India; as a result, Alauddin sent. According to the 14th century chronicler Isami, the decision of not paying the tribute was that of Ramachandra's son and his associates: Ramachandra himself remained loyal to Alauddin, appealed the Sultan to punish his son, resulting in Malik Kafur's invasion; this seems true, because according to Amir Khusrau's Khazainul Futuh, Alauddin ordered his army not to harm Ramachandra and his family during the invasion. According to some medieval writers, another reason for this campaign was the pursuit of the Vaghela princess Devaladevi.
During his 1299 invasion of Gujarat, Alauddin had captured the Vaghela queen Kamaladevi, who married him in Delhi. In 1304, Alauddin annexed Gujatat to the Delhi Sultanate, forcing the Vaghela king Vaghela to flee to the Yadava kingdom, where Ramachandra gave Karna the principality of Baglana. According to the 16th century historian Firishta, Kamaladevi requested Alauddin to bring her daughter Devaladevi to Delhi. Ziauddin Barani mentions that Malik Kafur invaded Devagiri on his way to the Kakatiya capital Warangal, but this is not correct. Malik Kafur returned to Delhi after his conquest of Devagiri, invaded the Kakatiaya kingdom at a time. Alauddin had thought of selecting Malik Shahin, the former governor of Chittor, as the commander of the Devagiri campaign. However, Malik Shahin had earlier fled Chittor fearing a Vaghela resurgence in the neighbouring territory of Gujarat. Therefore, Alauddin selected another general - Malik Kafur - to lead the invasion of Devagiri. According to Firishta, Alauddin took special care to ensure that all the officers participating in the campaign obeyed Malik Kafur.
He sent his royal canopy and pavilion with Kafur, ordered his officers to pay respects to him daily. These officers included Sirajuddin Khwaja Haji, the minister of war, who held immediate charge of the army; the Malwa governor Ainul Mulk Multani and the Gujarat governor Alp Khan were ordered to extend all possible support to Kafur. Malik Kafur assembled a 30,000-strong cavalry at Tilpat near Delhi, marched towards Devagiri via Dhar, his army was reinforced by the forces of Ainul Mulk Multani and Alp Khan. After crossing Malwa, Malik Kafur sent Alp Khan to Baglana to capture Devaladevi forcefully, while he himself marched to Devagiri. In the past, Ramachandra's son Simhana had offered to marry Karna's daughter Devaladevi, but Karna had refused this proposal; as Alp Khan invaded Baglana, Karna found himself in a difficult situation, agreed to marry his daughter to Simhana. Devaladevi was sent on a journey to Devagiri, escorted by a small party under Simhana's brother Bhillama. According to one account, soon after Devaladevi's departure, Alp Khan defeated Karna in a battle.
Karna fled towards Devagiri, pursued by the Delhi forces. He was denied asylum at Devagiri, had to seek shelter from the Kakatiyas in Warangal. Meanwhile, Bhillama's party was intercepted by a contingent of Alp Khan's army. Devaladevi's horse was wounded by arrow, she was captured by Dilawar Panchami, an officer of Alp Khan, she was taken to Alp Khan. Firishta offers a different account of Devaladevi's capture. According to him, Simhana had sent Bhillama to escort Devaladevi without Ramachandra's permission. Alp Khan was unable to find Karna in Baglana, retired to a riverbank, where his army rested for two days. There, around 300-400 of his soldiers took his permission to visit the famous Ellora Caves. During this journey, these soldiers encountered Bhima's party escorting Devaladevi to Devagiri, they defeated Bhillama, captured Devaladevi, took her to Alp Khan. Meanwhile, at Devagiri, the defenders offered a weak resistance, Malik Kafur achieved an easy victory. According to Isami, Kafur plundered Devagiri, but Firishta states that Kafur did not harm the general public.
Historian Banarsi Prasad Saksena believes Isami to be incorrect. Amir Khusrau states that the defending army split into two sections: one section led by Ramachandra surrendered, while another section led by his son Bhillama fled. Ramachandra left his son Simhana at Devagiri, came to meet Kafur. Kafur took Ramachandra and his family to Delhi
Raichur Fort is a fortress located on a hilltop in the heart of the Raichur in North Karnataka. The Raichur region has been ruled by several families. Fortifications have existed since the time of the Chalukyas of Badami; the present fort was constructed in 1294 CE during Kakatiya rule. An inscription records that it was built by Raja Vithala by order of Raja Gore Gangaya Raddivaru, minister of Queen Rudramma Devi. During the rule of Vijayanagara Empire, Krishnadevaraya built the north entrance in celebration of one of his conquests; the fort is known in several languages. In March 2011, 95 red granite balls and a cannon dated to the 13th Century were discovered by engineers cleaning the north west wall of the fort
Kanchipuram, a known as Kānchi or Kancheepuram, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in Tondaimandalam region, 72 km from Chennai – the capital of Tamil Nadu. The city covers an area of 11.605 km2 and had a population of 164,265 in 2011. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanchipuram District. Kanchipuram is well-connected by rail. Chennai International Airport is the nearest domestic and international airport to the city, located at Tirusulam in Kanchipuram district. Located on the banks of the Vegavathy river, Kanchipuram has been ruled by the Pallavas, the Medieval Cholas, the Later Cholas, the Later Pandyas, the Vijayanagara Empire, the Carnatic kingdom, the British, who called the city "Conjeeveram"; the city's historical monuments include the Vaikunta Perumal Temple. Kanchipuram was a centre of education and was known as the ghatikasthanam, or "place of learning"; the city was a religious centre of advanced education for Jainism and Buddhism between the 1st and 5th centuries.
In Vaishnavism Hindu theology, Kanchipuram is one of the seven Tirtha sites, for spiritual release. The city houses Varadharaja Perumal Temple, Ekambareswarar Temple, Kamakshi Amman Temple, Kumarakottam Temple which are some of major Hindu temples in the state. Of the 108 holy temples of the Hindu god Vishnu, 15 are located in Kanchipuram; the city is important to Sri Vaishnavism, but is a holy pilgrimage site in Shaivism. The city is well known for its hand woven silk sarees and most of the city's workforce is involved in the weaving industry. Kanchipuram is administered by a Special grade municipality constituted in 1947, it is the headquarters of the Kanchi matha, a Hindu monastic institution believed to have been founded by the Hindu saint and commentator Adi Sankaracharya, was the capital city of the Pallava Kingdom between the 4th and 9th centuries. Kanchipuram has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India.
Kanchipuram was known in early Tamil literature as Kachi or Kachipedu but was Sanskritized to Kanchi or Kanchipuram. In Tamil the word split into anchi. Ka means Brahma and anchi means worship, showing that Kanchi stands for the place where Lord Shiva was worshipped by Lord Brahma. In Sanskrit the term Kanci means girdle and explanation is given that the city is like a girdle to the earth; the earliest inscription from the Gupta period denote the city as Kanchipuram, where King Visnugopa was defeated by Samudragupta. Patanjali refers to the city in his Mahabhasya as Kanchipuraka; the city was referred to by various Tamil names like Kanchi and Sanskrit names like Kanchipuram. The Pallava inscriptions from and the inscriptions of the Chalukya dynasty refers the city as Kanchipura. Jaina Kanchi refers to the area around Tiruparutti Kundram. During the British rule, the city was known as Conjeevaram and as Kanchipuram; the municipal administration was renamed Kancheepuram, while the district and city retains the name Kanchipuram.
While it is accepted that Kanchipuram had served as an Early Chola capital, the claim has been contested by Indian historian P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar who wrote that the Tamil culture of the Sangam period did not spread through the Kanchipuram district, cites the Sanskritic origins of its name in support of his claim; the earliest references to Kanchipuram are found in the books of the Sanskrit grammarian Patanjali, who lived between the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE. The city is believed to have been part of the mythical Dravida Kingdom of the Mahabharatha, was described as "the best among cities" by the 4th-century Sanskrit poet, Kalidasa; the city was regarded as the "Banaras of the South". The city finds mention in the classical Tamil Sangam literature dated 300 BCe like Manimegalai and Perumpāṇāṟṟuppaṭai. Kanchipuram grew in importance when the Pallavas of southern Andhra Pradesh, wary of constant invasions from the north, moved their capital south to the city in the 6th century; the Pallavas fortified the city with ramparts, wide moats, well-laid-out roads, artistic temples.
During the reign of the Pallava King Mahendravarman I, the Chalukya King Pulakesin II invaded the Pallava kingdom as far as the Kaveri River. The Pallavas defended Kanchipuram and foiled repeated attempts to capture the city. A second invasion ended disastrously for Pulakesin II, forced to retreat to his capital Vatapi, besieged and Pulakesin II was killed by Narasimhavarman I, son of Mahendravarman I, at the Battle of Vatapi. Under the Pallavas, Kanchipuram flourished as a centre of Buddhist learning. King Narasimhavarman II built the city's important Hindu temples, the Kanchi Kailasanathar Temple, the Varadharaja Perumal Temple and the Iravatanesvara Temple. Xuanzang, a Chinese traveller who visited Kanchipuram in 640, recorded that the city was 6 miles in circumference and that its people were renowned for their bravery, love of justice, veneration for learning; the Medieval Chola king Aditya I conquered the Pallava kingdom, including Kanchipuram, after defeating the Pallava ruler Aparajitavarman in about 890.
Under the Cholas, the city was the headquarters of the northern viceroyalty. The province was renamed "Jayamkonda Cholamandalam" during the reign of King Raja Raja Chola I, who constructed the Karchapeswarar Temple and renovated the Kamakshi Amman Temple, his son, Rajendra Chola I constructed the Yathothkari Perumal Temple. According to the Siddhantasaravali of Trilocana Sivacharya