The Lords Prayer is a venerated Christian prayer that, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray. The context of the prayer in Matthew is a discourse deploring people who pray ostentatiously, the original text of the prayer uniquely contains the word epiousios, which does not appear in any other extant classical or Koine Greek literature, and is the only adjective in the prayer. While controversial, the most common English language translation of word is daily. The prayer concludes with deliver us from evil in Matthew, the first three of the seven petitions in Matthew address God, the other four are related to human needs and concerns. Some Christians, particularly Protestants, conclude the prayer with a doxology, underscoring the scope and foundational importance of the Lords Prayer, initial words on the topic from the Catechism of the Catholic Church teach that it is truly the summary of the whole gospel. The prayer is used by most Christian churches in their worship, with exceptions, the form is the Matthean.
There are several different English translations of the Lords Prayer from Greek or Latin, the Anglican Book of Common Prayer adds it in some services but not in all. It is absent in the oldest manuscripts and is not considered to be part of the text of Matthew 6. For more information on this doxology, see Doxology, scholarship demonstrated that the manuscript was actually a late addition based on Eastern liturgical tradition. Other English translations are used, though Matthew 6,12 uses the term debts, the older English versions of the Lords Prayer uses the term trespasses, while ecumenical versions often use the term sins. The latter choice may be due to Luke 11,4, which uses the word sins, while the former may be due to Matthew 6,14, as early as the third century, Origen of Alexandria used the word trespasses in the prayer. Though the Latin form that was used in Western Europe has debita, most English-speaking Christians. The dialect of Syriac in which it is written is not the dialect that would have been spoken by Jesus of Nazareth or his followers, the dialects are quite similar.
Thy kingdom come, This petition has its parallel in the Jewish prayer, May he establish his Kingdom during your life and during your days. In the gospels Jesus speaks frequently of Gods kingdom, but never defines the concept, when malkuth is used of God, it almost always refers to his authority or to his rule as the heavenly King. This petition looks to the establishment of Gods rule in the world in the future. This idea is frequently challenged by groups who believe that the Kingdom will come by the hands of faithful who work for a better world. These believe that Jesus commands to feed the hungry and clothe the needy are the kingdom to which he was referring, graef notes that the operative Greek word, means both kingdom and kingship, but that the English word kingdom loses this double meaning
A blessing is the infusion of something with holiness, spiritual redemption, or divine will. The modern English language term bless likely derives from the 1225 term blessen, due to this, the term is related to the term blōd, meaning blood. References to this practice, Blót, exist in related Icelandic sources. To be blessed means to be favored by God, Blessings therefore are directly associated with God and come from God. Thus to express a blessing is like bestowing a wish on someone that they experience the favor of God. May you have a blessed Christmas, therefore can be translated as, a curse, at least in its most formal sense, is the opposite of a blessing. In the Bible and curses are related, the book of Deuteronomy prescribes that obedience to the Law of Moses brings Gods blessing, similar constructions appear in the New Testament, as in the blessings and curses of Jesus recorded in the Beatitudes of Luke 6, 20-22. One of the first incidences of blessing in the Bible is in Genesis 12, 1-2 where Abram is ordered by the LORD to leave his country and is told, I will bless you, I will make your name great.
In Judaism, a blessing is recited at a moment during a prayer, ceremony or other activity, especially before. The function of these blessings is to acknowledge God as the source of all blessing, a berakhah typically starts with the words, Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe. Judaism teaches that food ultimately is a gift of the one great Provider, within Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Anglicanism and similar traditions, formal blessings of the church are performed by bishops and deacons. Particular formulas may be associated with episcopal blessings and papal blessings and they give blessings to begin divine services and at the dismissal at the end. In the Orthodox Church liturgical blessings are performed over people, objects, or are given at specific points during divine services. A priest or bishop blesses with his hand, but may use a blessing cross, candles, an icon. When blessing with the hand, a priest uses his hand, holding his fingers so that they form the Greek letters IC XC.
A bishop does the same, except he uses both hands, or may hold the crozier in his hand, using both to make the Sign of the Cross. A bishop may bless with special candlesticks known as the dikirion and trikirion, when blessing an object, the rubrics often instruct Orthodox bishops and priests to make use of such substances as incense and holy water. Also, formal ecclesiastical permission to undertake an action is referred to as a blessing, the blessing may be bestowed by a bishop or priest, or by ones own spiritual father
Early Christianity is the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325. It is typically divided into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period, the early Gospel message was spread orally, probably in Aramaic, but almost immediately in Greek. After the conversion of Paul the Apostle, he claimed the title of Apostle to the Gentiles, Pauls influence on Christian thinking is said to be more significant than that of any other New Testament author. As the New Testament canon developed, the Pauline epistles, the canonical gospels, Early Christians demonstrated a wide range of beliefs and practices, many of which were denounced as heretical. The earliest followers of Jesus composed an apocalyptic, Second Temple Jewish sect, the first part of the period, during the lifetimes of the Twelve Apostles, is called the Apostolic Age. The relationship of Paul the Apostle and Judaism is still disputed although Pauls influence on Christian thinking is said to be more significant than any other New Testament author and they think the Christians the cause of every public disaster, of every affliction with which the people are visited.
The first action taken against Christians by the order of an emperor occurred half a century earlier under Nero after the Great Fire of Rome in 64 AD. During the Ante-Nicene Period following the Apostolic Age, a diversity of views emerged simultaneously with strong unifying characteristics lacking in the apostolic period. Part of the trend was an increasingly harsh anti-Judaism and rejection of Judaizers. Early Christianity gradually grew apart from Judaism during the first two centuries and established itself as a predominantly gentile religion in the Roman Empire. From the writings of early Christians, historians have tried to piece together an understanding of various early Christian practices including worship services, Early Christian writers such as Justin Martyr described these practices. Early Christian beliefs regarding baptism probably predate the New Testament writings and it seems certain that numerous Jewish sects and certainly Jesuss disciples practised baptism, which became integral to nearly every manifestation of the religion of the Jews.
John the Baptist had baptized many people, before took place in the name of Jesus Christ. Many of the interpretations that would become Orthodox Christian beliefs concerning baptism can be traced to such as Paul. On the basis of this description, it was supposed by some modern theologians that the early Christians practised baptism by submersion and this interpretation is debated between those Christian denominations who advocate immersion baptism exclusively and those who practice baptism by affusion or aspersion as well as by immersion. Yet the Didache, one of the earliest Christian writings on liturgical practices, the Orthodox Church continues this practice, submerging the baptized and pouring water on the head in that formula. Infant baptism was practised at least by the 3rd century. Others believe that infants were excluded from the baptism of households, citing verses of the Bible that describe the baptized households as believing, in the 2nd century, bishop of Lyons, may have referred to it
The Pharisees /ˈfærəˌsiːz/ were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple Judaism. After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Pharisaic beliefs became the foundational, conflicts between Pharisees and Sadducees took place in the context of much broader and longstanding social and religious conflicts among Jews, made worse by the Roman conquest. Another conflict was cultural, between those who favored Hellenization and those who resisted it, a third was juridico-religious, between those who emphasized the importance of the Second Temple with its rites and services, and those who emphasized the importance of other Mosaic Laws. Josephus, believed by historians to be a Pharisee, estimated the total Pharisee population before the fall of the Second Temple to be around 6,000. Josephus claimed that Pharisees received the full-support and goodwill of the people, apparently in contrast to the more elite Sadducees.
The phrase common people in Josephus writings suggests that most Jews were just Jewish people, outside of Jewish history and literature, Pharisees have been made notable by references in the New Testament to conflicts with John the Baptist and with Jesus. There are references in the New Testament to the Apostle Paul being a Pharisee. The relationship between Early Christianity and Pharisees was not always hostile however, e. g. Gamaliel is often cited as a Pharisaic leader who was sympathetic to Christians, other sects emerged at this time, such as the Early Christians in Jerusalem and the Therapeutae in Egypt. Judah haNasi redacted the Mishnah, a codification of Pharisaic interpretations. Most of the authorities quoted in the Mishnah lived after the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE, none of the Rabbinic sources include identifiable eyewitness accounts of the Pharisees and their teachings. During the 70-year exile in Babylon, Jewish houses of assembly and houses of prayer were the meeting places for prayer.
In 539 BCE the Persians conquered Babylon, and in 537 BCE Cyrus the Great allowed Jews to return to Judea and he did not, allow the restoration of the Judean monarchy, which left the Judean priests as the dominant authority. Without the constraining power of the monarchy, the authority of the Temple in civic life was amplified and it was around this time that the Sadducee party emerged as the party of priests and allied elites. However, the Second Temple, which was completed in 515 BCE, had constructed under the auspices of a foreign power. The Temple was no longer the only institution for Jewish religious life, after the building of the Second Temple in the time of Ezra the Scribe, the houses of study and worship remained important secondary institutions in Jewish life. Outside of Judea, the synagogue was often called a house of prayer, while most Jews could not regularly attend the Temple service, they could meet at the synagogue for morning and evening prayers. On Mondays and Shabbats, a weekly Torah portion was read publicly in the synagogues, although priests controlled the rituals of the Temple, the scribes and sages, called rabbis, dominated the study of the Torah.
These sages maintained a tradition that they believed had originated at Mount Sinai alongside the Torah of Moses
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles, were the primary historical disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity. During the life and ministry of Jesus in the 1st century AD, the word disciple is sometimes used interchangeably with apostle, for instance, the Gospel of John makes no distinction between the two terms. In modern usage, prominent missionaries are often called apostles, a practice which stems from the Latin equivalent of apostle, i. e. missio, for example, Saint Patrick was the Apostle of Ireland, and Saint Boniface was the Apostle to the Germans. The commissioning of the Twelve Apostles during the ministry of Jesus is recorded in the Synoptic Gospels, after his resurrection, Jesus sent 11 of them by the Great Commission to spread his teachings to all nations. This event is called the Dispersion of the Apostles. There is an Eastern Christian tradition derived from the Gospel of Luke of there having been as many as 70 apostles during the time of Jesus ministry.
Prominent figures in early Christianity, notably Paul, were called apostles. The period of early Christianity during the lifetimes of the apostles is called the Apostolic Age, during the 1st century AD, the apostles established churches throughout the territories of the Roman Empire and, according to tradition, through the Middle East and India. In his writings, the epistles to Christian churches throughout the Levant, Paul did not restrict the term apostle to the Twelve, the restricted usage appears in the Revelation to John. By the 2nd century AD, association with the apostles was esteemed as an evidence of authority, Churches which are believed to have been founded by one of the apostles are known as apostolic sees. Pauls epistles were accepted as scripture, and two of the four gospels were associated with apostles, as were other New Testament works. Various Christian texts, such as the Didache and the Apostolic Constitutions, were attributed to the apostles, bishops traced their lines of succession back to individual apostles, who were said to have dispersed from Jerusalem and established churches across great territories.
Christian bishops have traditionally claimed authority deriving, by apostolic succession, early Church Fathers who came to be associated with apostles, such as Pope Clement I with St. Peter, are referred to as the Apostolic Fathers. The Apostles Creed, popular in the West, was said to have composed by the apostles themselves. The word apostle comes from the Greek word ἀπόστολος, formed from the prefix ἀπό- and root στέλλω and originally meaning messenger and it has, however, a stronger sense than the word messenger, and is closer to a delegate. The Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament argues that its Christian use translated a Jewish position known in Hebrew as the sheliach and this ecclesiastical meaning of the word was translated into Latin as missio, the source of the English missionary. In the New Testament, the names of the majority of the apostles are Hebrew names, Mark 6, 7-13 states that Jesus initially sent out these twelve in pairs to towns in Galilee. The text states that their initial instructions were to heal the sick and their carrying of just a staff is sometimes given as the reason for the use by Christian bishops of a staff of office in those denominations that believe they maintain an apostolic succession
Matthew Henry was a Nonconformist minister and author, born in Wales but spending much of his life in England. Henry was born at Broad Oak, Iscoyd, a farmhouse on the borders of Flintshire and Shropshire and his father, Philip Henry, was a Church of England cleric and had just been ejected under the Act of Uniformity 1662. Unlike most of his fellow-sufferers, Philip possessed some private means, Matthew went first to a school at Islington, at that time a village just outside London, and to Grays Inn, in the heart of the capital. He soon gave up his studies for theology, and in 1687 became minister of a Presbyterian congregation at Chester. While in Chester, Henry founded the Presbyterian Chapel in Trinity Street and he moved again in 1712 to Mare Street, Hackney. Two years later, he died suddenly of apoplexy at the Queens Aid House in Nantwich, Matthew Henrys well-known six-volume Exposition of the Old and New Testaments or Complete Commentary, provides an exhaustive verse by verse study of the Bible.
Covering the whole of the Old Testament, and the Gospels, after the authors death, the work was finished by thirteen other nonconformist ministers, partly based upon notes taken by Henrys hearers, and edited by George Burder and John Hughes in 1811. Henrys commentaries are primarily exegetical, dealing with the text as presented, with his prime intention being explanation. It was considered sensible and stylish, a commentary for devotional purposes, spurgeon stated, Every minister ought to read it entirely and carefully through once at least. John Wesley wrote of Henry, He is allowed by all competent judges, to have been a person of strong understanding, of learning, of solid piety. And his exposition is clear and intelligible, the thoughts being expressed in plain words, It is found, agreeable to the tenor of scripture. It is frequently full, giving a sufficient explication of the passages which require explaining and it is in many parts deep, penetrating farther into the inspired writings than most other comments do.
It does not entertain us with vain speculations, but is practical throughout, and usually spiritual too teaching us how to worship God, not in form only, Henrys Miscellaneous Writings, including a Life of Mr. The collection was issued several times by different publishers, the Miscellaneous Works of the Rev. Matthew Henry, Containing in Addition to Those Heretofore Published. The Miscellaneous Works of the Rev. Matthew Henry, Containing in Addition to Those Heretofore Published, the author lists three blasphemous titles that he states have been attached to the bishops of Rome. This stridently anti-papist commentary was not directly authored by Matthew Henry, worthy of note is that this Son of Perdition sets himself forth as God. The present participle reveals that this posture is characteristic of the Man of Sin. Clearly, the Man of Sin is an ecclesiastical character, recall the description of John’s lamb-like beast in Revelation 13,11 https, //www. christiancourier
The Jesus Prayer or The Prayer is a short formulaic prayer esteemed and advocated especially within the Eastern churches, Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner. The prayer has been taught and discussed throughout the history of the Orthodox Church. The ancient and original form did not include the words, a sinner and it is often repeated continually as a part of personal ascetic practice, its use being an integral part of the eremitic tradition of prayer known as Hesychasm. The prayer is particularly esteemed by the fathers of this tradition as a method of opening up the heart. The Prayer of The Heart is considered to be the Unceasing Prayer that the apostle Paul advocates in the New Testament, St. Theophan the Recluse regarded the Jesus Prayer stronger than all other prayers by virtue of the power of the Holy Name of Jesus. As distinct from the prayer itself, the Eastern Orthodox theology of the Jesus Prayer enunciated in the 14th century by St, in the Jesus Prayer can be seen the Eastern counterpart of the Rosary, which has developed to hold a similar place in the Christian West.
The prayers origin is most likely the Egyptian desert, which was settled by the monastic Desert Fathers in the 5th century, a formula similar to the standard form of the Jesus Prayer is found in a letter attributed to John Chrysostom, who died in 407. This Letter to an Abbot speaks of Lord Jesus Christ, son of God, have mercy and Lord Jesus Christ, some consider this letter dubious or spurious and attribute it to an unknown writer of unknown date. What may be the earliest explicit reference to the Jesus Prayer in a form that is similar to that today is in Discourse on Abba Philimon from The Philokalia. The version cited by Philimon is, Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy upon me, while the prayer itself was in use by that time, John S. Romanides writes that We are still searching the Fathers for the term Jesus prayer. A similar idea is recommended in the Ladder of Divine Ascent of St. John Climacus, the hesychastic practice of the Jesus Prayer is founded on the biblical view by which Gods name is conceived as the place of his presence.
Orthodox mysticism has no images or representations, the mystical practice doesnt lead to perceiving representations of God. Thus, the most important means of a life consecrated to praying is the name of God, as it is emphasized since the 5th century by the Thebaid anchorites. For the Orthodox the power of the Jesus Prayer comes not only from its content and it stands that Gods essence is distinct from Gods energies, or manifestations in the world, by which men can experience the Divine. The energies are unbegotten or uncreated and they were revealed in various episodes of the Bible, the burning bush seen by Moses, the Light on Mount Tabor at the Transfiguration. Apophatism is the characteristic of the Eastern theological tradition. Therefore, dogmas are often expressed antinomically and this form of contemplation, is experience of God, illumination called the Vision of God or in Greek theoria. For the Eastern Orthodox the knowledge or noesis of the energies is usually linked to apophatism
God in Christianity
In Christianity, God is the eternal being who created and preserves all things. Christians believe God to be both transcendent and immanent, although the Judæo-Christian sect of the Ebionites protested against this apotheosis of Jesus, the great mass of Gentile Christians accepted it. This began to differentiate the Gentile Christian views of God from traditional Jewish teachings of the time, in the 8th century, John of Damascus listed eighteen attributes which remain widely accepted. As time passed, theologians developed systematic lists of these attributes, some based on statements in the Bible and this never becomes a tritheism, i. e. this does not imply three Gods. The doctrine of the Trinity can be summed up as, The One God exists in Three Persons and One Substance, as God the Father, God the Son, who form the large majority of Christians, hold it as a core tenet of their faith. Nontrinitarian denominations define the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit in a number of different ways, early Christian views of God are reflected in Apostle Pauls statement in 1 Corinthians, written ca.
In John 14,26 Jesus refers to the Holy Spirit, by the middle of the 2nd century, in Against Heresies Irenaeus had emphasized that the Creator is the one and only God and the maker of heaven and earth. These preceded the presentation of the concept of Trinity by Tertullian early in the 3rd century. This did not exclude either the fact the father of the universe was the Father of Jesus the Christ or that he had even vouchsafed to adopt as his son by grace. Eastern creeds began with an affirmation of faith in one God and almost always expanded this by adding the Father Almighty, as time passed and philosophers developed more precise understandings of the nature of God and began to produce systematic lists of his attributes. These varied in detail, but traditionally the attributes fell into two groups, those based on negation and those based on eminence. Throughout the Christian development of ideas about God, the Bible “has been, in Christian theology the name of God has always had much deeper meaning and significance than being just a label or designator.
It is not an invention, but has divine origin and is based on divine revelation. This is reflected in the first petition in the Lords Prayer addressed to God the Father, in Revelation 3,12 those who bear the name of God are destined for Heaven. John 17,6 presents the teachings of Jesus as the manifestation of the name of God to his disciples, the Bible usually uses the name of God in the singular, generally using the terms in a very general sense rather than referring to any special designation of God. However, general references to the name of God may branch to other forms which express his multifaceted attributes. Scripture presents many references to the names for God, but the key names in the Old Testament are, God the High and Exalted One, El-Shaddai, in the New Testament Theos and Pater are the essential names. The theological underpinnings of the attributes and nature of God have been discussed since the earliest days of Christianity
The discourse is generally seen as having distinct components. First, Jesus tells the disciples that he will be going away to the Father, Jesus bestows peace on the disciples and commands them to love one another. The next part of the discourse contains the allegory of The Vine which positions Jesus as the vine and the disciples as the branches, building on the pattern of discipleship in the gospels. The Vine again emphasizes the love among the disciples, but Jesus warns the disciples of upcoming persecutions, If the world hates you, I have told you these things, so that in me you may have peace. In this world you will have trouble, John 16,33 In the final part of the discourse Jesus prays for his followers and the coming Church. This is the longest prayer of Jesus in any of the gospels, the key themes of the prayer are the glorification of the Father and petitions for the unity of the disciples through love. Jesus prays to the Father that his followers may all be one as we are one and that the love with which you love me may be in them, the discourse starts after the literal cleansing and the figurative cleansing of the community of disciples via the departure of Judas.
The discourse may be separated into four components, First discourse,14, 1-31, The theme of this part is departure and return and joy, and is similar to the third discourse. Jesus states that he will be going to the Father, but will send the Comforter for the disciples Second discourse,15 and this part is called the Vine and deals with Jesus love and how Jesus is the source of life for the community. At the end of this, it leads to the discussion of the hatred in the next section. This section again deals with Jesus departure and the Comforter which will come to the disciples, here Jesus submits five specific petitions to the Father as he prays for his disciples and the community of followers. However, this four part structure is not subject to universal agreement among scholars, and at times, some scholars use a three part structure in which chapters 15 and 16 form one unit. The statement these things I have spoken to you occurs several times throughout the discourse, the statement while I am still with you also underscores the importance of the final instructions given.
This discourse is rich with Christological content, e. g. it reiterates the Pre-existence of Christ in John 17,5 when Jesus refers to the glory which he had with the Father before the world was. Yet he assures them that he go to prepare a place for them in his Fathers house. The statement in John 14,6, I am the way, and the truth, and the life, no one cometh unto the Father, to identify Jesus as the only path to salvation. Jesus asserts his unity with the Father in John 14, 7-9, If you know me, the statement in John 14,11 I am in the Father, and the Father in me further asserts the special relationship of Jesus and the father. The statement in John 14,26, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name is within the framework of the sending relationships in Johns gospel
Acts of the Apostles
The Acts of the Apostles, often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament, it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire. Acts and the Gospel of Luke make up a work, Luke–Acts, by the same anonymous author. The first part, the Gospel of Luke, tells how God fulfilled his plan for the salvation through the life and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. Acts continues the story of Christianity in the 1st century, beginning with Jesuss Ascension to Heaven, the early chapters, set in Jerusalem, describe the Day of Pentecost and the growth of the church in Jerusalem. Initially the Jews are receptive to the Christian message, but soon turn against the followers of Jesus. Rejected by the Jews, under the guidance of the Apostle Peter the message is taken to the Gentiles. The chapters tell of Pauls conversion, his mission in Asia Minor and the Aegean, and finally his imprisonment in Rome, the title Acts of the Apostles was first used by Irenaeus in the late 2nd century.
It is not known whether this was a title or one invented by Irenaeus, it does seem clear, however. The Gospel of Luke and Acts make up a work which scholars call Luke–Acts. The author is not named in either volume. )He admired Paul, the earliest possible date for the composition of Acts is set by the events with which it ends, Pauls imprisonment in Rome c.63 AD, but an early date is now rarely put forward. In either case there is evidence that it was still being revised well into the 2nd century. Luke aligned his work, Luke–Acts, to the narratives which many others had written, the second part, is widely thought of as a history, but it lacks exact analogies in Hellenistic or Jewish literature. The title Acts of the Apostles would seem to identify it with the telling of the deeds and achievements of great men. By and large the sources for Acts can only be guessed at, but Luke would have had access to the Septuagint, the gospel of Mark and the collection of sayings of Jesus called the Q source.
)There are points of contacts with 1 Peter, the Letter to the Hebrews, and 1 Clement. Other sources can only be inferred from internal evidence—the traditional explanation of the three we passages, for example, is that they represent eye-witness accounts, the search for such inferred sources was popular in the 19th century, but by the mid-20th it had largely been abandoned. Acts was read as a history of the early church well into the post-Reformation era. The mid-19th century scholar Ferdinand Baur suggested that Luke had re-written history to present a united Peter and Paul, Baur continues to have enormous influence, but today there is less interest in determining Lukes historical accuracy than in understanding his theological program. Luke was written to be read aloud to a group of Jesus-followers gathered in a house to share the Lords supper, the author assumes an educated Greek-speaking audience, but directs his attention to specifically Christian concerns rather than to the Greco-Roman world at large
The Book of Psalms, commonly referred to simply as Psalms or the Psalms, is the first book of the Ketuvim, the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament. The title is derived from the Greek translation, ψαλμοί psalmoi, meaning instrumental music and, by extension, the book is an anthology of individual psalms, with 150 in the Jewish and Western Christian tradition and more in the Eastern Christian churches. Many of the psalms are linked to the name of David, over a third appear to be musical directions, addressed to the leader or choirmaster, including such statements as with stringed instruments and according to lilies. Others appear to be references to types of composition, such as A psalm and Song. Many superscriptions carry the names of individuals, the most common being of David, others named include Moses, the Sons of Korah and Solomon. A natural way of understanding these attributions is as a claim to authorship, Psalms are usually identified by a sequence number, often preceded by the abbreviation Ps.
Numbering of the Psalms differs—mostly by one digit, see table—between the Hebrew and it is generally admitted that Pss.9 and 10 were originally a single acrostic poem, they have been wrongly separated by Massorah, rightly united by the Septuagint and Vulgate. On the other hand, Ps.144 is made up of two songs — verses 1–11 and 12–15, Pss.42 and 43 are shown by identity of subject, of metrical structure and of refrain, to be three strophes of one and the same poem. The Hebrew text is correct in counting as one Ps.146, liturgical usage would seem to have split up these and not a few other psalms. Zenner combines into what he deems were the original choral odes,1,2,3,4,6 +13,9 +10,19,20,21,56 +57,69 +70,114 +115,148,149,150. A choral ode would seem to have been the form of Pss.14 +70. The two strophes and the epode are Ps,14, the two antistrophes are Ps.70. It is noteworthy that, on the breaking up of the ode, each portion crept twice into the Psalter, Ps.14 =53, Ps.70 =40. Other such duplicated psalms are Ps and this loss of the original form of some of the psalms is allowed by the Biblical Commission to have been due to liturgical uses, neglect of copyists, or other causes.
The Septuagint bible, present in Eastern Orthodox churches, includes a Psalm 151, Some versions of the Peshitta include Psalms 152–155. There are the Psalms of Solomon, which are a further 18 psalms of Jewish origin, likely written in Hebrew. These and other indications suggest that the current Western Christian and Jewish collection of 150 psalms were selected from a wider set, gunkel divided the psalms into five primary types, songs of praise for Gods work in creation or in history. They typically open with a call to praise, describe the motivation for praise, two sub-categories are enthronement psalms, celebrating the enthronement of Yahweh as king, and Zion psalms, glorifying Mount Zion, Gods dwelling-place in Jerusalem
It is one of the eight most ancient Christian hymns and perhaps the earliest Marian hymn. Its name comes from the incipit of the Latin version of the canticles text, the text of the canticle is taken directly from the Gospel of Luke where it is spoken by Mary upon the occasion of her Visitation to her cousin Elizabeth. In the narrative, after Mary greets Elizabeth, who is pregnant with John the Baptist, Elizabeth praises Mary for her faith, and Mary responds with what is now known as the Magnificat. Within the whole of Christianity, the Magnificat is most frequently recited within the Liturgy of the Hours, in Western Christianity, the Magnificat is most often sung or recited during the main evening prayer service, Vespers in the Catholic and Lutheran churches, and Evening Prayer in Anglicanism. In Eastern Christianity, the Magnificat is usually sung at Sunday Matins, among Protestant groups, the Magnificat may be sung during worship services, especially in the Advent season during which these verses are traditionally read.
These songs are Marys Magnificat, Zechariahs Benedictus, the angels Gloria in Excelsis Deo, in form and content, these four canticles are patterned on the hymns of praise in Israels Psalter. In structure, these reflect the compositions of pre-Christian contemporary Jewish hymnology. The balance of the two lines bursts out into a dual Magnificat of declaring the greatness of and finding delight in God. Mary symbolizes both ancient Israel and the Lucan faith-community as the author/singer of the Magnificat, the canticle echoes several biblical passages, but the most pronounced allusions are to the Song of Hannah, from the Books of Samuel. Scriptural echoes from the Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings complement the main allusions to Hannahs magnificat of rejoicing. Along with the Benedictus, as well as several Old Testament canticles, the Magnificat is included in the Book of Odes, the original language of the Magnificat is Koine Greek, the language of the New Testament. However, in the liturgical and devotional use in Western Christianity, Μεγαλύνει ἡ ψυχή μου τὸν Κύριον καὶ ἠγαλλίασεν τὸ πνεῦμά μου ἐπὶ τῷ Θεῷ τῷ σωτῆρί μου, ὅτι ἐπέβλεψεν ἐπὶ τὴν ταπείνωσιν τῆς δούλης αὐτοῦ. ἰδοὺ γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν μακαριοῦσίν με πᾶσαι αἱ γενεαί, ὅτι ἐποίησέν μοι μεγάλα ὁ δυνατός, καὶ ἅγιον τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, Ἐποίησεν κράτος ἐν βραχίονι αὐτοῦ, διεσκόρπισεν ὑπερηφάνους διανοίᾳ καρδίας αὐτῶν· καθεῖλεν δυνάστας ἀπὸ θρόνων καὶ ὕψωσεν ταπεινούς, πεινῶντας ἐνέπλησεν ἀγαθῶν καὶ πλουτοῦντας ἐξαπέστειλεν κενούς. ἀντελάβετο Ἰσραὴλ παιδὸς αὐτοῦ, μνησθῆναι ἐλέους, καθὼς ἐλάλησεν πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν τῷ Αβραὰμ καὶ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.
The translation of the hymn into Church Slavonic is as follows, Transcription in modern Cyrillic alphabet, Вели́чит душа́ Моя́ Го́спода, Честне́йшую херуви́м и сла́внейшую без сравне́ния серафи́м, без истле́ния Бо́га Сло́ва ро́ждшую, су́щую Богоро́дицу, Тя велича́ем. Я́ко призре́ на смире́ние рабы́ Своея́, се бо от ны́не ублажа́т Мя вси ро́ди, Честне́йшую херуви́м… Я́ко сотвори́ Мне вели́чие Си́льный, и свя́то и́мя Его́, и ми́лость Его́ в ро́ды родо́в боя́щимся Его́. Честне́йшую херуви́м… Сотвори́ держа́ву мы́шцею Свое́ю, расточи́ го́рдыя мы́слию се́рдца их, Честне́йшую херуви́м… Низложи́ си́льныя со престо́л, и вознесе́ смире́нныя, а́лчущия испо́лни благ, и богатя́щияся отпусти́ тщи. Честне́йшую херуви́м… Восприя́т Изра́иля о́трока Своего́, помяну́ти ми́лости, я́коже глаго́ла ко отце́м на́шим, Честне́йшую херуви́м…, Magnificat anima mea Dominum, et exultavit spiritus meus in Deo salvatore meo, quia respexit humilitatem ancillae suae