In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others. There is controversy about the causes of these similarities, they are considered to be innovations to have developed after the breakup of the Proto-Indo-European language. It is possible that some of these are not innovations, but shared conservative features, i.e. original Indo-European language features which have disappeared in all other language groups. What is accepted is that the shared features may usefully be thought of as Italo-Celtic forms; the traditional interpretation of the data is that these two subgroups of the Indo-European language family are more related to each other than to the other Indo-European languages. This could imply that they are descended from a common ancestor, a Proto-Italo-Celtic which can be reconstructed by the comparative method; those scholars who believe Proto-Italo-Celtic was an identifiable historical language estimate that it was spoken in the third or second millennium BC somewhere in south-central Europe, or that the Italic peoples were a branch of the Celts who settled the Italian peninsula early but diverged due to being cut off from other Celts by the Etruscans.
This hypothesis fell out of favour after being reexamined by Calvert Watkins in 1966. Some scholars, such as Frederik Kortlandt, continued to be interested in the theory. In 2002 a paper by Ringe and Taylor, employing computational methods as a supplement to the traditional linguistic subgrouping methodology, argued in favour of an Italo-Celtic subgroup, in 2007 Kortlandt attempted a reconstruction of a Proto-Italo-Celtic; the most common alternative interpretation is that the close proximity of Proto-Celtic and Proto-Italic over a long period could have encouraged the parallel development of what were quite separate languages. As Watkins puts it, "the community of -ī in Italic and Celtic is attributable to early contact, rather than to an original unity"; the assumed period of language contact could be perhaps continuing well into the first millennium BC. However, if some of the forms are archaic elements of Proto-Indo-European that were lost in other branches, neither model of post-PIE relationship need be postulated.
Italic and Celtic share some distinctive features with the Hittite language and the Tocharian languages, these features are archaisms. The principal Italo-Celtic forms are: the thematic genitive in ī. Both in Italic and in Celtic, traces of the -osyo genitive of Proto-Indo-European have been discovered, which might indicate that the spread of the ī genitive occurred in the two groups independently; the ī genitive has been compared to the so-called Cvi formation in Sanskrit, but that too is a comparatively late development. The phenomenon is related to the feminine long ī stems and the Luwian i-mutation; the formation of superlatives with reflexes of the PIE suffix *-ism̥mo, where branches outside Italic and Celtic derive superlatives with reflexes of PIE *-isto- instead. The ā-subjunctive. Both Italic and Celtic have a subjunctive descended from an earlier optative in -ā-; such an optative is not known from other languages, but the suffix occurs in Balto-Slavic and Tocharian past tense formations, in Hittite -ahh-.
The collapsing of the PIE perfect into a single past tense. In both groups, this is a late development of the proto-languages dating to the time of Italo-Celtic language contact; the assimilation of *p to a following *kʷ. This development predates the Celtic loss of *p: PIE *penkʷe'five' → Latin quīnque. PIE *pekʷ-'cook' → Latin coquere; the r-passive was thought to be an innovation restricted to Italo-Celtic until it was found to be a retained archaism shared with Hittite and the Phrygian language. Jay Jasanoff, "An Italo-Celtic isogloss: the 3 pl. mediopassive in *-ntro," in D. Q. Adams, Festschrift for Eric P. Hamp. Volume I: 146-161. Winfred P. Lehmann, "Frozen Residues and Relative Dating", in Varia on the Indo-European Past: Papers in Memory of Marija Gimbutas, eds. Miriam Robbins Dexter and Edgar C. Polomé. Washington D. C.: Institute for the Study of Man, 1997. Pp. 223–46 Winfred P. Lehmann, "Early Celtic among the Indo-European dialects", in Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 49-50, Issue 1: 440-54.
Schmidt, Karl Horst, “Contributions from New Data to the Reconstruction of the Proto-Language”. In: Polomé, Edgar. Reconstructing Languages and Cultures. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Pp. 35–62. ISBN 978-3-11-012671-6. OCLC 25009339. Schrijver, Peter. "Pruners and trainers of the Celtic family tree: The rise and development of Celtic in light of language contact". Proceedings of the XIV International Congress of Celtic Studies, Maynooth 2011. Dublin
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people in Europe, North America and Southern Africa. The West Germanic languages include the three most spoken Germanic languages: English with around 360-400 million native speakers. Other West Germanic languages include Afrikaans, an offshoot of Dutch, with over 7.1 million native speakers. The main North Germanic languages are Danish, Icelandic and Swedish, which have a combined total of about 20 million speakers; the East Germanic branch included Gothic and Vandalic, all of which are now extinct. The last to die off was Crimean Gothic, spoken until the late 18th century in some isolated areas of Crimea; the SIL Ethnologue lists 48 different living Germanic languages, 41 of which belong to the Western branch and six to the Northern branch. The total number of Germanic languages throughout history is unknown as some of them the East Germanic languages, disappeared during or after the Migration Period.
Some of the West Germanic languages did not survive past the Migration Period, including Lombardic. As a result of World War II, the German language suffered a significant loss of Sprachraum, as well as moribundness and extinction of several of its dialects. In the 21st century, its dialects are dying out anyway due to Standard German gaining primacy; the common ancestor of all of the languages in this branch is called Proto-Germanic known as Common Germanic, spoken in about the middle of the 1st millennium BC in Iron Age Scandinavia. Proto-Germanic, along with all of its descendants, is characterised by a number of unique linguistic features, most famously the consonant change known as Grimm's law. Early varieties of Germanic entered history with the Germanic tribes moving south from Scandinavia in the 2nd century BC, to settle in the area of today's northern Germany and southern Denmark. English is an official language of Belize, Nigeria, Falkland Islands, New Zealand, South Africa, Jamaica, Guyana and Tobago, American Samoa, Palau, St. Lucia, Barbados, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Puerto Rico, Hong Kong, India, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and former British colonies in Asia and Oceania.
Furthermore, it is the de facto language of the United States and Australia. It is a recognised language in Nicaragua and Malaysia. American English-speakers make up the majority of all native Germanic speakers, including making up the bulk of West Germanic speakers. German is an official language of Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein and Switzerland and has regional status in Italy, Poland and Denmark. German continues to be spoken as a minority language by immigrant communities in North America, South America, Central America and Australia. A German dialect, Pennsylvania German, is still present amongst Anabaptist populations in Pennsylvania in the United States. Dutch is an official language of Aruba, Curaçao, the Netherlands, Sint Maarten, Suriname; the Netherlands colonised Indonesia, but Dutch was scrapped as an official language after Indonesian independence and today it is only used by older or traditionally educated people. Dutch was until 1925 an official language in South Africa but evolved in and was replaced by Afrikaans, a mutually intelligible daughter language of Dutch.
Afrikaans is a lingua franca of Namibia. It is used in other Southern African nations, as well. Low German is a collection of diverse dialects spoken in the northeast of the Netherlands and northern Germany. Scots is spoken in parts of Ulster. Frisian is spoken among half a million people who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Denmark. Luxembourgish is a Moselle Franconian dialect, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, where it is considered to be an official language. Similar varieties of Moselle Franconian are spoken in small parts of Belgium and Germany. Yiddish, once a native language of some 11 to 13 million people, remains in use by some 1.5 million speakers in Jewish communities around the world in North America, Europe and other regions with Jewish populations. Limburgish varieties are spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, along the Dutch–Belgian–German border. In addition to being the official language in Sweden, Swedish is spoken natively by the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland, a large part of the population along the coast of western and southern Finland.
Swedish is one of the two official languages in Finland, along with Finnish, the only official language in the Åland Islands. Swedish is spoken by some people in Estonia. Danish is an official language of Denmark and in it
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records, its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Armenian, Coptic and many other writing systems; the Greek language holds an important place in the history of Christianity. Greek is the language in which many of the foundational texts in science astronomy and logic and Western philosophy, such as the Platonic dialogues and the works of Aristotle, are composed. Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world, the study of the Greek texts and society of antiquity constitutes the discipline of Classics. During antiquity, Greek was a spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world, West Asia and many places beyond.
It would become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire and develop into Medieval Greek. In its modern form, Greek is the official language in two countries and Cyprus, a recognised minority language in seven other countries, is one of the 24 official languages of the European Union; the language is spoken by at least 13.2 million people today in Greece, Italy, Albania and the Greek diaspora. Greek roots are used to coin new words for other languages. Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC, or earlier; the earliest written evidence is a Linear B clay tablet found in Messenia that dates to between 1450 and 1350 BC, making Greek the world's oldest recorded living language. Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now-extinct Anatolian languages; the Greek language is conventionally divided into the following periods: Proto-Greek: the unrecorded but assumed last ancestor of all known varieties of Greek.
The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age. Mycenaean Greek: the language of the Mycenaean civilisation, it is recorded in the Linear B script on tablets dating from the 15th century BC onwards. Ancient Greek: in its various dialects, the language of the Archaic and Classical periods of the ancient Greek civilisation, it was known throughout the Roman Empire. Ancient Greek fell into disuse in western Europe in the Middle Ages, but remained in use in the Byzantine world and was reintroduced to the rest of Europe with the Fall of Constantinople and Greek migration to western Europe. Koine Greek: The fusion of Ionian with Attic, the dialect of Athens, began the process that resulted in the creation of the first common Greek dialect, which became a lingua franca across the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East. Koine Greek can be traced within the armies and conquered territories of Alexander the Great and after the Hellenistic colonization of the known world, it was spoken from Egypt to the fringes of India.
After the Roman conquest of Greece, an unofficial bilingualism of Greek and Latin was established in the city of Rome and Koine Greek became a first or second language in the Roman Empire. The origin of Christianity can be traced through Koine Greek, because the Apostles used this form of the language to spread Christianity, it is known as Hellenistic Greek, New Testament Greek, sometimes Biblical Greek because it was the original language of the New Testament and the Old Testament was translated into the same language via the Septuagint. Medieval Greek known as Byzantine Greek: the continuation of Koine Greek, up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century. Medieval Greek is a cover phrase for a whole continuum of different speech and writing styles, ranging from vernacular continuations of spoken Koine that were approaching Modern Greek in many respects, to learned forms imitating classical Attic. Much of the written Greek, used as the official language of the Byzantine Empire was an eclectic middle-ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine.
Modern Greek: Stemming from Medieval Greek, Modern Greek usages can be traced in the Byzantine period, as early as the 11th century. It is the language used by the modern Greeks, apart from Standard Modern Greek, there are several dialects of it. In the modern era, the Greek language entered a state of diglossia: the coexistence of vernacular and archaizing written forms of the language. What came to be known as the Greek language question was a polarization between two competing varieties of Modern Greek: Dimotiki, the vernacular form of Modern Greek proper, Katharevousa, meaning'purified', a compromise between Dimotiki and Ancient Greek, developed in the early 19th century and was used for literary and official purposes in the newly formed Greek state. In 1976, Dimotiki was declared the official language of Greece, having incorporated features of Katharevousa and giving birth to Standard Modern Greek, used today for all official purposes and in education; the historical unity and continuing identity between the various stages of the Greek language is emphasised.
Although Greek h
The Illyrian languages were a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Pannonii, Taulantii. Some sound changes from Proto-Indo-European to Illyrian and other language features are deduced from what remains of the Illyrian languages, but because there are no examples of ancient Illyrian literature surviving, it is difficult to clarify its place within the Indo-European language family; because of the uncertainty, most sources provisionally place the Illyrian language family on its own branch of Indo-European, though its relation to other languages and modern, continues to be studied. The Illyrian languages are part of the Indo-European language family; the relation of the Illyrian languages to other Indo-European languages—ancient and modern—is poorly understood due to the paucity of data and is still being examined. Today, the main source of authoritative information about the Illyrian language consists of a handful of Illyrian words cited in classical sources, numerous examples of Illyrian anthroponyms, ethnonyms and hydronyms.
Given the scarcity of the data it is difficult to identify the sound changes that have taken place in the Illyrian languages. A grouping of Illyrian with the Messapian language has been proposed for about a century, but remains an unproven hypothesis; the theory is based on classical sources and onomastics. Messapian material culture bears a number of similarities to Illyrian material culture; some Messapian anthroponyms have close Illyrian equivalents. A grouping of Illyrian with the Venetic language and Liburnian language, once spoken in northeastern Italy and Liburnia has been proposed; the consensus now is that Illyrian was quite distinct from Liburnian. In the absence of sufficient lexical data and texts written in the Illyrian languages, the theories supporting the Centum character of the Illyrian language have been based on the Centum character of the Venetic language, thought to be related to Illyrian, in particular regarding Illyrian toponyms and names such as Vescleves, Gentius, Clausal etc.
The relation between Venetic and Illyrian was discredited and they are no longer considered related. Scholars supporting the Satem character of the Illyrian languages highlight particular toponyms and personal names such as Asamum, Birzinimum Zanatis etc. in which these scholars claim that there is clear evidence of the Satem character of the Illyrian language. They point to other toponyms including Osseriates derived from /*eghero/ or Birziminium from PIE /*bherǵh/ or Asamum from PIE /*aḱ-mo/. If the above-mentioned Venetic toponyms and personal names are accepted as Illyrian in origin, it is not clear that they originated in a Centum language. Vescleves, Acrabanus and Clausal are explained by proponents of the hypothesis that the Illyrian languages had a Centum character, through comparison with IE languages such as Sanskrit or Ancient Greek, or reconstructed PIE. For example, Vescleves has been explained as PIE *wesu-ḱlewes; the name Acrabanus as a compound name has been compared with Ancient Greek /akros/ with no signs of palatalization, or Clausal has been related to /*klew/.
In all these cases the supporters of the Centum character of the Illyrian language consider PIE *ḱ > /*k/ or PIE *ǵ > /*g/ followed by an /l/ or /r/ to be evidence of a Centum character of the Illyrian language. However, it has been shown that in Albanian and Balto-Slavic, which are Satem languages, in this phonetical position the palatovelars have been depalatized; the name Gentius or Genthius does not help to solve the problem since we have two Illyrian forms Genthius and Zanatis. If Gentius or Genthius derives from *ǵen- this is proof of a Centum language, but if the name Zanatis is generated we have a Satem language. Another problem related to the name Gentius is that nowadays it cannot be stated if the initial /g/ of the sources was a palatovelar or a labiovelar. Taking into account the absence of sufficient data and sometimes the dual nature of their interpretation, the Centum/Satem character of the Illyrian language is still uncertain and requires more evidence. Personal Illyrian names, Andes, Antis, based on a root and- or ant-, found in both the southern and the Dalmatian-Pannonian onomastic provinces.
Ardiaioi/Ardiaei, name of an Illyrian people, cf. Alb. ardhja "arrival" or "descent", connected to hardhi "vine-branch, grape-vine", with a sense development similar to Germanic *stamniz, meaning both tree stalk and tribe, lineage. Bindo/Bindus, an Illyrian deity from Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bilia "daughter". Bilë Barba- "swamp", a toponym from Metubarbis. Dard "Dardania", Dardanians.