A film, called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession, the process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. The word cinema, short for cinematography, is used to refer to the industry of films. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process, the adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates. Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the process of production, distribution. Films recorded in a form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. It runs along a portion of the film exclusively reserved for it and is not projected, Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them, Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens.
The visual basis of film gives it a power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into the language of the viewer, some have criticized the film industrys glorification of violence and its potentially negative treatment of women. The individual images that make up a film are called frames, the perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called phi phenomenon. The name film originates from the fact that film has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for a motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. Terms for the field, in general, include the big screen, the screen, the movies, and cinema. In early years, the sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film, sets, production, actors, storyboards, much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène.
Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images, the magic lantern, probably created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slides
To green-light is to give permission or a go ahead to move forward with a project. The term is a reference to the traffic signal, indicating go ahead. The power to green-light a project is generally reserved to those in a project or financial management role within an organization, the process of taking a project from pitch to green-light formed the basis of a successful reality TV show titled Project Greenlight. At the Big Six major film studios in the United States, the studio president, chairman, or chief executive is usually the person who makes the final judgment call
Filmmaking is the process of making a film. Filmmaking takes place in places around the world in a range of economic and political contexts. Typically, it involves a number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to complete. Film production consists of five stages, The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc. Financing for the project has to be sought and greenlit, pre-production, Preparations are made for the shoot, in which cast and film crew are hired, locations are selected and sets are built. Production, The raw elements for the film are recorded during the film shoot, post-production, The images and visual effects of the recorded film are edited. Distribution, The finished film is distributed and screened in cinemas and released to home video. In this stage, the project producer selects a story, which may come from a book, another film, true story, video game, comic book, graphic novel, or an original idea, etc. After identifying a theme or underlying message, the works with writers to prepare a synopsis.
Next they produce an outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure. Then, they prepare a treatment, a 25-to-30-page description of the story, its mood and this usually has little dialogue and stage direction, but often contains drawings that help visualize key points. Another way is to produce a scriptment once a synopsis is produced, next, a screenwriter writes a screenplay over a period of several months. The screenwriter may rewrite it several times to improve dramatization, structure, dialogue, producers often skip the previous steps and develop submitted screenplays which investors and other interested parties assess through a process called script coverage. A film distributor may be contacted at a stage to assess the likely market. All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience, not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, so film companies take DVD sales and worldwide distribution rights into account.
The producer and screenwriter prepare a film pitch, or treatment and they will pitch the film to actors and directors in order to attach them to the project. Many projects fail to move beyond this stage and enter so-called development hell, if a pitch succeeds, a film receives a green light, meaning someone offers financial backing, typically a major film studio, film council, or independent investor. The parties involved negotiate a deal and sign contracts, once all parties have met and the deal has been set, the film may proceed into the pre-production period
Typically, a lens is used to repeatedly focus the light reflected from objects into real images on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a questioned exposure, creating multiple images. With an electronic sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel. The result with photographic emulsion is a series of invisible latent images on the film stock, the images on the film stock are played back at a rapid speed and projected onto a screen, creating the illusion of motion. Cinematography finds uses in fields of science and business as well as for entertainment purposes. The word cinematography was created from the Greek words κίνημα, meaning movement, motion and γράφειν meaning to record, the word used to refer to the art, process, or job of filming movies, but its meaning was restricted to motion picture photography. In the 1830s, moving images were produced on revolving drums and disks, with independent invention by Simon von Stampfer in Austria, Joseph Plateau in Belgium, and William Horner in Britain.
In 1845, Francis Ronalds invented the first successful camera able to make recordings of the varying indications of meteorological. The cameras were supplied to numerous observatories around the world and some remained in use well into the 20th century. William Lincoln patented a device, in 1867, that showed animated pictures called the wheel of life or zoopraxiscope, in it, moving drawings or photographs were watched through a slit. On 19 June 1873, Eadweard Muybridge successfully photographed a horse named Sallie Gardner in fast motion using a series of 24 stereoscopic cameras. The cameras were arranged along a parallel to the horses. They were 21 inches apart to cover the 20 feet taken by the horse stride, although it was never played back at speed to create motion, this was the first step towards motion pictures. The late nineteenth to the twentieth century brought rise to the use of film not only for entertainment purposes. The experimental film Roundhay Garden Scene, filmed by Louis Le Prince on 14 October 1888, in Roundhay and this movie was shot on paper film. W. K. L.
Dickson, working under the direction of Thomas Alva Edison, was the first to design a successful apparatus and this camera took a series of instantaneous photographs on standard Eastman Kodak photographic emulsion coated onto a transparent celluloid strip 35 mm wide. The results of work were first shown in public in 1893, using the viewing apparatus designed by Dickson. Contained within a box, only one person at a time looking into it through a peephole could view the movie. The Lumière brothers were the first to present projected, photographic, in 1896, movie theaters were open in France, Italy and London
History of film
The history of film began in the 1890s, when motion picture cameras were invented and film production companies started to be established. Because of the limits of technology, films of the 1890s were under a minute long, the first decade of motion picture saw film moving from a novelty to an established large-scale entertainment industry. The films became several minutes long consisting of several shots, the first rotating camera for taking panning shots was built in 1898. The first film studios were built in 1897, special effects were introduced and film continuity, involving action moving from one sequence into another, began to be used. In the 1900s, continuity of action across successive shots was achieved, most films of this period were what came to be called chase films. The first use of animation in movies was in 1899, the first feature length multi-reel film was a 1906 Australian production. The first successful permanent theatre showing only films was The Nickelodeon in Pittsburgh in 1905, by 1910, actors began to receive screen credit for their roles, and the way to the creation of film stars was opened.
Regular newsreels were exhibited from 1910 and soon became a way for finding out the news. Overall, from about 1910, American films had the largest share of the market in Australia, New film techniques were introduced in this period including the use of artificial lighting, fire effects and low-key lighting for enhanced atmosphere during sinister scenes. Genres began to be used as categories, the division was into comedy and drama. During the First World War there was a transition for the film industry. The exhibition of films changed from short programs to feature films. Exhibition venues became larger and began charging higher prices, by 1914, continuity cinema was the established mode of commercial cinema. One of the advanced continuity techniques involved an accurate and smooth transition from one shot to another, D. W. Griffith had the highest standing among American directors in the industry, because of the dramatic excitement he conveyed to the audience through his films. By the 1920s, the United States reached what is still its era of greatest-ever output, producing an average of 800 feature films annually, during late 1927, Warners released The Jazz Singer, with the first synchronized dialogue in a feature film.
By the end of 1929, Hollywood was almost all-talkie, with several competing sound systems, Sound saved the Hollywood studio system in the face of the Great Depression. The desire for wartime propaganda created a renaissance in the industry in Britain. The onset of American involvement in World War II brought a proliferation of films as both patriotism and propaganda, the House Un-American Activities Committee investigated Hollywood in the early 1950s
In movie industry terminology usage, a sound track is an audio recording created or used in film production or post-production. Initially the dialogue, sound effects, and music in a film each has its own track, and these are mixed together to make what is called the composite track. A dubbing track is created when films are dubbed into another language. This is known as a M & E track containing all sound elements minus dialogue which is supplied by the foreign distributor in the native language of its territory. The contraction soundtrack came into public consciousness with the advent of so-called soundtrack albums in the late 1940s and these phrases were soon shortened to just original motion picture soundtrack. More accurately, such recordings are made from a music track, because they usually consist of the isolated music from a film, not the composite track with dialogue. The soundtrack to the 1937 Walt Disney film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was the first commercially issued film soundtrack.
It was released by RCA Victor Records on multiple 78 RPM discs in January 1938 as Songs from Walt Disneys Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and has since seen numerous expansions and reissues. The first live-action musical film to have a commercially issued soundtrack album was MGM’s 1946 film biography of Show Boat composer Jerome Kern, the album was originally issued as a set of four 10-inch 78-rpm records. Only eight selections from the film were included in this first edition of the album, in order to fit the songs onto the record sides the musical material needed editing and manipulation. Needless to say, it was several generations removed from the original, the playback recordings were purposely recorded very dry, otherwise it would come across as too hollow sounding in large movie theatres. This made these albums sound flat and boxy, the phrase is sometimes incorrectly used for Broadway cast recordings. While it is correct in some instances to call a soundtrack a cast recording it is never correct to call a cast recording a soundtrack, contributing to the vagueness of the term are projects such as The Sound of Music Live.
Which was filmed live on the set for an NBC holiday season special first broadcast in 2013, film score albums did not really become popular until the LP era, although a few were issued in 78-rpm albums. Like the 1967 re-release of the film, this version of the score was artificially enhanced for stereo, in recent years, Rhino Records has released a 2-CD set of the complete Gone With the Wind score, restored to its original mono sound. One of the film scores of all time was John Williams music from the movie Star Wars. Many film score albums go out-of-print after the films finish their theatrical runs, in a few rare instances an entire film dialogue track was issued on records. The 1968 Franco Zeffirelli film of Romeo and Juliet was issued as a 4-LP set, as a single LP with musical and dialogue excerpts, and as an album containing only the films musical score
Videography refers to the process of capturing moving images on electronic media and even streaming media. The term includes methods of production and post-production. It was initially equivalent of cinematography, the advent of digital video recording in the late 20th century blurred the distinction between videography and cinematography, as in both methods the intermittent mechanism became the same. Nowadays, any work outside commercial motion picture production could be called videography. The word combines video from Latin, meaning I see or I apprehend, with the Greek terminal ending graphy and its contemporary sense is video writing or video recording. As the field progresses, videographers may produce their assets entirely on a computer without ever involving an imaging device, a videographer may be the actual camera operator or they may be the person in charge of the visual design of a production. One of the best known application is in workplace studies, the Sage Handbook of Visual Methods
Film editing is a creative and technical part of the post-production process of filmmaking. The term is derived from the process of working with film. The film editor works with the raw footage, selecting shots, Film editing is often referred to as the invisible art because when it is well-practiced, the viewer can become so engaged that he or she is not aware of the editors work. On its most fundamental level, film editing is the art, the job of an editor is not simply to mechanically put pieces of a film together, cut off film slates, or edit dialogue scenes. Editors usually play a role in the making of a film. Sometimes, auteurist film directors edit their own films, for example, Akira Kurosawa, Bahram Beyzai, with the advent of digital editing, film editors and their assistants have become responsible for many areas of filmmaking that used to be the responsibility of others. For instance, in past years, picture editors dealt only with just that—picture, sound and visual effects editors dealt with the practicalities of other aspects of the editing process, usually under the direction of the picture editor and director.
However, digital systems have increasingly put these responsibilities on the picture editor and it is common, especially on lower budget films, for the editor to cut in music, mock up visual effects, and add sound effects or other sound replacements. These temporary elements are replaced with more refined final elements by the sound, music. Early films were films that were one long, static. Motion in the shot was all that was necessary to amuse an audience, there was no story and no editing. Each film ran as long as there was film in the camera, in the first shot, an elderly couple is outside an art exhibition having lunch and follow other people inside through the door. The second shot shows what they do inside, one of the first films to use this technique, Georges Mélièss The Four Troublesome Heads from 1898, was produced with Pauls camera. There is a cut to close shot of the hands on the girls foot shown inside a circular mask. Even more remarkable was James Williamsons Attack on a China Mission Station, an armed party of British sailors arrived and defeat the Boxers and rescue the missionarys family.
The film used the first reverse angle cut in film history, James Williamson concentrated on making films taking action from one place shown in one shot to the next shown in another shot in films like Stop Thief. and Fire. Made in 1901, and many others and he experimented with the close-up, and made perhaps the most extreme one of all in The Big Swallow, when his character approaches the camera and appears to swallow it. These two filmmakers of the Brighton School pioneered the editing of the film, they tinted their work with color, by 1900, their films were extended scenes of up to 5 minutes long
A film crew is a group of people hired by a production company for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. The crew is distinguished from the cast as the cast are understood to be the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. The crew is separate from the producers as the producers are the ones who own a portion of either the company or the films intellectual property rights. A film crew is divided into different departments, each of which specializes in an aspect of the production. Motion picture projects have three stages, development and distribution. Television crew positions are derived from those of film crew, the director is considered to be a separate entity, not within the film crews departmental structure. Though directors wield a great deal of power, they are subordinate to the films producer or producers. Some directors, especially more established ones, take on many of the roles of a producer, second unit director The second unit director is responsible for overseeing the photography assigned to the second unit, which can range from minor insert shots to large stunt sequences.
The second unit director position is filled by a member of the production. Music director In India-based movie productions, many of which are musicals, the role involves supervising the arrangement and mastering of film music along with conducting and orchestration. Writer Person or persons who write a film script, either an original script or adapted from another written work, in which case the original work and author may be credited. Production is generally not considered a department as such, but rather as a series of functional groups, producer A film producer creates the conditions for film-making. The producer initiates, coordinates and controls matters such as raising, hiring key personnel. The producer is involved throughout all phases of the making process from development to completion of a project. There may be producers on a film who may take a role in a number of areas, such as development. Today, the title has become ambiguous, particularly in feature films, since the 1980s, it has become increasingly common for the line producer to be given the title of executive producer, while the initiating producer takes the produced by credit.
On other projects, the reverse happens, with the producer taking the produced by credit. So the two credits have become effectively interchangeable, with no precise definition, line producer The line producer is the liaison between the studio or producer and the production manager, responsible for managing the production budget
Special effects are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, theatre, video game, and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world. Special effects are divided into the categories of optical effects. Mechanical effects are usually accomplished during the live-action shooting and this includes the use of mechanized props, scale models, animatronics and atmospheric effects, creating physical wind, fog, clouds, etc. Making a car appear to drive by itself and blowing up a building are examples of mechanical effects, mechanical effects are often incorporated into set design and makeup. For example, a set may be built with doors or walls to enhance a fight scene. An optical effect might be used to place actors or sets against a different background, since the 1990s, computer generated imagery has come to the forefront of special effects technologies. It gives filmmakers greater control, and allows many effects to be accomplished safely and convincingly and—as technology improves—at lower costs.
As a result, many optical and mechanical effects techniques have been superseded by CGI, in 1857, Oscar Rejlander created the worlds first special effects movie by combining different sections of 30 negatives into a single image. In 1895, Alfred Clark created what is accepted as the first-ever motion picture special effect. While filming a reenactment of the beheading of Mary, Queen of Scots, as the executioner brought the axe above his head, Clark stopped the camera, had all of the actors freeze, and had the person playing Mary step off the set. He placed a Mary dummy in the place, restarted filming. Techniques like these would dominate the production of special effects for a century and it wasnt only the first use of trickery in cinema, it was the first type of photographic trickery only possible in a motion picture, i. e. the stop trick. Georges Méliès accidentally discovered the same stop trick, according to Méliès, his camera jammed while filming a street scene in Paris. When he screened the film, he found that the trick had caused a truck to turn into a hearse, pedestrians to change direction.
Because of his ability to manipulate and transform reality with the cinematograph. From 1910 to 1920, the innovations in special effects were the improvements on the matte shot by Norman Dawn. With the original matte shot, pieces of cardboard were placed to block the exposure of the film, Dawn combined this technique with the glass shot. Rather than using cardboard to block certain areas of the film exposure, from the partially exposed film, a single frame is projected onto an easel, where the matte is drawn
Post-production, or postproduction, is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, and photography. It occurs in the making of pictures, television programs, radio programs, audio recordings, photography. It is a term for all stages of production occurring after shooting or recording individual program segments, traditional post-production has been eroded away by video editing software that operates on a non-linear editing system. Post-production is many different processes grouped under one name and these typically include, Video editing the picture of a television program using an edit decision list Writing and editing the soundtrack. Adding visual special effects - mainly computer-generated imagery and digital copy from which release prints will be made, sound design, sound effects, ADR, and music, culminating in a process known as sound re-recording or mixing with professional audio equipment. Transfer of colour motion picture film to video or DPX with a telecine, the process of editing a movie is seen as the second directing because through post-production it is possible to change the intention of the movie.
Furthermore, through the use of color grading tools and the addition of music and sound, for instance, a blue-tinted movie is associated with a cold atmosphere and the choice of music and sound increases the effect of the shown scenes to the audience. Post-production was named a dying industry by Phil Izzo, the once exclusive service offered by high-end post-production facilities have been eroded away by video editing software that operates on a non-linear editing system. As such, traditional services are being surpassed by digital. In television, the phases of post-production include, video editing, sound editing and visual effects insertions, viewing and it is imperative that post-production executes and oversees the preparation until the final product is completely ready. Professional post-producers usually apply a certain range of image editing operations to the raw image format provided by a photographer or an image-bank, there is a range of proprietary and free and open-source software, running on a range of operating systems available to do this work.
The first stage of post-production usually requires loading the RAW images into the post-production software, if there is more than one image, and they belong to a set, ideally post-producers try to equalize the images before loading them. After that, if necessary, the step would be to cut the objects in the images with the Pen Tool for a perfect. The next stage would be cleaning the image using tools such as the tool, clone tool. The next stages depend on what the client ordered, if its a photo-montage, the post-producers would usually start assembling the different images into the final document, and start to integrate the images with the background. In advertising, it usually requires assembling several images together in a photo-composition, types of work usually done, Advertising that requires one background and one or more models. Fashion photography that usually requires a really heavy post-production for editorial and/or advertising, techniques used in music post-production include comping and pitch correction, and adding effects.
This process is referred to as mixing and can involve equalization
An art release is the premiere of an artistic production and its presentation and marketing to the public. A film release is the authorization by the owner of a film to a public exhibition of the film. The exhibition may be in theatres or for home viewing, a films release date and the method of release is part of the marketing of the film. It may be a wide or limited release, the process may involve finding a film distributor. A films marketing may involve the film being shown at a festival or trade show to attract distributor attention and, if successful. A delayed release or late release in the industry refers to the relatively late release of a film to the public. A release can be postponed due to the difficult transition of the production or post-production to the sales. Due to several factors a film release can be delayed, Problems during post-production of an artistic nature, economic problems relating to limitations in the film budget. These problems can be resolved by overcoming artistic problems, making politically correct or commercially successful changes to the film/or relieving budgetary problems, the word can refer to the event at which an album or single is first offered for sale in record stores.
Also an album launch, or single launch, musical performers often self-release their recordings without the involvement of an established record label. With the growth of the Internet as a medium for publicizing and distributing music, unlike self-publishing a novel, which is usually done only when no other options exist, even well-established musicians will choose to self-release recordings. Music managers are increasingly getting involved in such releases and with the advent of artist management labels which have stepped in to save the situation, in Kenya, for example, most record labels only handle production, thus leading to a situation where records are marketed less. This has prompted music companies like Grosspool Music to sign independent artists and manage their branding, development hell Roadshow theatrical release Legal release, music release may refer to a legal release of music Music recording sales certification Reissue, or rerelease