Routledge is a British multinational publisher. It was founded in 1836 by George Routledge, specialises in providing academic books, journals, & online resources in the fields of humanities, behavioural science, education and social science; the company publishes 1,800 journals and 5,000 new books each year and their backlist encompasses over 70,000 titles. Routledge is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences. In 1998, Routledge became a subdivision and imprint of its former rival, Taylor & Francis Group, as a result of a £90 million acquisition deal from Cinven, a venture capital group which had purchased it two years for £25 million. Following the merger of Informa and T&F in 2004, Routledge become a publishing unit and major imprint within the Informa'academic publishing' division. Routledge is headquartered in the main T&F office in Milton Park, Abingdon and operates from T&F offices globally including in Philadelphia, New Delhi and Beijing.
The firm originated in 1836, when the London bookseller George Routledge published an unsuccessful guidebook, The Beauties of Gilsland with his brother-in-law W H Warne as assistant. In 1848 the pair entered the booming market for selling inexpensive imprints of works of fiction to rail travellers, in the style of the German Tauchnitz family, which became known as the "Railway Library"; the venture was a success as railway usage grew, it led to Routledge, along with W H Warne's Brother Frederick Warne, to found the company, George Routledge & Co. in 1851. The following year in 1852, the company gained lucrative business through selling reprints of Uncle Tom's Cabin, which in turn enabled it to pay author Edward Bulwer-Lytton £20,000 for a 10-year lease allowing sole rights to print all 35 of his works including 19 of his novels to be sold cheaply as part of their "Railway Library" series; the company was restyled in 1858 as Routledge, Warne & Routledge when George Routledge's son, Robert Warne Routledge, entered the partnership.
Frederick Warne left the company after the death of his brother W. H. Warne in May 1859. Gaining rights to some titles, he founded Frederick Warne & Co in 1865, which became known for its Beatrix Potter books. In July 1865, George Routledge's son Edmund Routledge became a partner, the firm became George Routledge & Sons. By 1899 the company was running close to bankruptcy. Following a successful restructuring in 1902 by scientist Sir William Crookes, banker Arthur Ellis Franklin, William Swan Sonnenschein as managing director, others, however, it was able to recover and began to acquire and merge with other publishing companies including J. C. Nimmo Ltd. in 1903. In 1912 the company took over the management of Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. the descendant of companies founded by Charles Kegan Paul, Alexander Chenevix Trench, Nicholas Trübner, George Redway. These early 20th-century acquisitions brought with them lists of notable scholarly titles, from 1912 onward, the company became concentrated in the academic and scholarly publishing business under the imprint "Kegan Paul Trench Trubner", as well as reference and mysticism.
In 1947, George Routledge and Sons merged with Kegan Paul Trench Trubner under the name of Routledge & Kegan Paul. Using C. K Ogden and Karl Mannheim as advisers the company was soon known for its titles in philosophy and the social sciences. In 1985, Routledge & Kegan Paul joined with Associated Book Publishers, acquired by International Thomson in 1987. Under Thomson's ownership, Routledge's name and operations were retained, and, in 1996, a management buyout financed by the European private equity firm Cinven saw Routledge operating as an independent company once again. Just two year Cinven and Routledge's directors accepted a deal for Routledge's acquisition by Taylor & Francis Group, with the Routledge name being retained as an imprint and subdivision. In 2004, T&F became a division within Informa plc after a merger. Routledge continues as a primary publishing unit and imprint within Informa's'academic publishing' division, publishing academic humanities and social science books, reference works and digital products.
Routledge has grown as a result of organic growth and acquisitions of other publishing companies and other publishers' titles by its parent company. Humanities and social sciences titles acquired by T&F from other publishers are rebranded under the Routledge imprint; the famous English publisher Fredric Warburg was a commissioning editor at Routledge during the early 20th century. Novelist Nina Stibbe, author of Love, worked at the company as a commissioning editor in the 1990s. Routledge has published many of the greatest thinkers and scholars of the last hundred years, including Adorno, Butler, Einstein, Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss, McLuhan, Popper, Russell and Wittgenstein; the republished works of these authors have appeared as part of the Routledge Classics and Routledge Great Minds series. Competitors to the series are Verso Books' Radical Thinkers, Penguin Classics and Oxford World's Classics. Taylor and Francis closed down the Routledge print encyclopaedia division in 2006; some of its publications were: Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Edward Craig, in 10 volumes, but now online.
Encyclopedia of Ethics, by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker, in three volumes. Reference Works by Europa Publications, published by Routledge: Europa World Year Book. International Who's Who. Europ
Early childhood education
Early childhood education is a branch of education theory which relates to the teaching of children from birth up to the age of eight, traditionally about third grade. It emerged as a field of study during the Enlightenment in European countries with high literacy rates, it continued to grow through the nineteenth century as universal primary education became a norm in the Western world. In recent years, early childhood education has become a prevalent public policy issue, as municipal and federal lawmakers consider funding for preschool and pre-K, it is described as an important period in a child's development. It refers to the development of a child's personality. ECE is a professional designation earned through a post-secondary education program. For example, in Ontario, the designations ECE and RECE may only be used by registered members of the College of Early Childhood Educators, made up of accredited child care professionals who are held accountable to the College's standards of practice.
The history of early childhood care and education refers to the development of care and education of children from birth through eight years old throughout history. ECCE has a global scope, caring for and educating young children has always been an integral part of human societies. Arrangements for fulfilling these societal roles have evolved over time and remain varied across cultures reflecting family and community structures as well as the social and economic roles of women and men; such arrangements have been informal, involving family and community members. The formalization of these arrangements emerged in the nineteenth century with the establishment of kindergartens for educational purposes and day nurseries for care in much of Europe and North America, China, India and Mexico. While the first two years of a child's life are spent in the creation of a child's first "sense of self", most children are able to differentiate between themselves and others by their second year; this differentiation is crucial to the child's ability to determine how they should function in relation to other people.
Parents can be seen as a child's first teacher and therefore an integral part of the early learning process. Early childhood attachment processes that occur during early childhood years 0–2 years of age, can be influential to future education. With proper guidance and exploration children begin to become more comfortable with their environment, if they have that steady relationship to guide them. Parents who are consistent with response times, emotions will properly make this attachment early on. If this attachment is not made, there can be detrimental effects on the child in their future relationships and independence. There are proper techniques that parents and caregivers can use to establish these relationships, which will in turn allow children to be more comfortable exploring their environment. Academic Journal Reference This provides experimental research on the emphasis on caregiving effecting attachment. Education for young students can help. With exposure and organized lesson plans children can learn anything.
The tools they learn to use during these beginning years will provide lifelong benefits to their success. Developmentally, having structure and freedom, children are able to reach their full potential. Teachers seeking to be early childhood educators must obtain certification among other requirements. "An early childhood education certification denotes that a teacher has met a set of standards that shows they understand the best ways to educate young students aged 3 to 8." There are early childhood education programs across the United States that have a certification, pre-K to grade 4. There are programs now that have a duel certification in pre-K to grade 4 and special education from pre-K to grade 8. Other certifications are urban tracks in pre-k to grade 4 that have an emphasis on urban schools and preparing teachers to teach in those school environments; these tracks take 4 years to complete and in the end provide students with their certifications to teach in schools. These tracks give students in the field experience in multiple different types of classrooms as they learn how to become teachers.
An example of a school that has these tracks is Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Early childhood educators must have knowledge in the developmental changes during early childhood and the subjects being taught in an early childhood classroom; these subjects include language arts and reading and some social studies and science. Early childhood educators must be able to manage classroom behavior. Positive reinforcement is one popular method for managing behavior in young children. Teacher certification laws vary by state in the United States. In Connecticut, for example, these requirements include a bachelor's degree, 36 hours of special education courses, passing scores on the Praxis II Examination and Connecticut Foundations of Reading Test and a criminal history background check. For State of Early Childhood Education Bornfreund, 2011. States are requiring educators who work in open pre-kindergarten to have specific preparing in Early Childhood Education; as per the State of Pre-School Yearbook, 45 states require their educators to have a specialization in Early Childhood Education and 30 states require no less
Child care, otherwise known as day care, is the care and supervision of a child or multiple children at a time, whose ages range from six weeks to thirteen years. Child care is the action or skill of looking after children by a day-care center, babysitter, teachers or other providers. Child care is a broad topic that covers a wide spectrum of professionals, contexts and social and cultural conventions. Early child care is an important and overlooked component of child development. Child care providers can be children's first teachers, therefore play an integral role in systems of early childhood education. Quality care from a young age can have a substantial impact on the future successes of children; the main focus of childcare is on the development of the child, whether that be mental, social, or psychological. In most cases children are taken care of by legal guardians, or siblings. In some cases, it is seen that children care for other children; this informal care includes verbal direction and other explicit training regarding the child's behavior, is as simple as "keeping an eye out" for younger siblings.
Care facilitated by similar-aged children covers a variety of developmental and psychological effects in both caregivers and charge. This is due to their mental development being in a particular case of not being able to progress as it should be at their age; this care giving role may be taken on by the child's extended family. Another form of childcare, on the rise in contrast to familial caregiving is that of center-based child care. In lieu of familial care giving, these responsibilities may be given to paid caretakers, orphanages or foster homes to provide care and schooling. Professional caregivers work within the context of a home-based care; the majority of child care institutions that are available require that child care providers to have extensive training in first aid and be CPR certified. In addition, background checks, drug testing at all centers, reference verification are a requirement. Child care can consist of advanced learning environments that include early childhood education or elementary education.
“The objective of the program of daily activities should be to foster incremental developmental progress in a healthy and safe environment and should be flexible to capture the interests of the children and the individual abilities of the children.” In many cases the appropriate child care provider is a teacher or personal with educational background in child development, which requires a more focused training aside from the common core skills typical of a child caregiver. As well as these licensed options, parents may choose to find their own caregiver or arrange childcare exchanges/swaps with another family. At home, care is provided by nannies, au pairs, or friends and family; the child is watched inside their own home which could expose them to outside children and illnesses. Depending on the number of children in the home, the children utilizing in-home care could enjoy the greatest amount of interaction with their caregiver, in turn forming a close bond. There are no required licensing or background checks for in-home care, making parental vigilance essential in choosing an appropriate caregiver.
Nanny and au pair services provide certified caregivers and the cost of in-home care is the highest of childcare options per child, though a household with many children may find this the most convenient and affordable option. Many nannies study towards childcare qualifications; this means they are trained to create a safe and stimulating environment for your child to enjoy and thrive in. Au pairs or nannies provide more than routine child care providing assistance with daily household activities which include running errands, doing laundry, fixing meals, cleaning the house; the most now common way to find a nanny is via a nanny agency. Nanny agencies will check an applicant's references and run a criminal background check on the successful candidate. Having a nanny could be cheaper than putting multiple children in a daycare setting full-time. Nannies could provide stability for the child. Nannies work overtime and babysit, providing less stress for parents running late without being charged excessive late fees.
They care for sick children whereas nurseries do not. This enables the parents to continue working without being interrupted. All nannies have first aid and background checks which are either checked by the agency or the family themselves, they can be subject to visits from their local childcare regulatory bodies. Children with nannies could be well socialized as nannies could be able to take them out and attend more playdates. Family child care providers care for children in the provider's own home; the children could be in a mixed age group with a low adult-to-child ratio. Care can potentially be personalized and individual; the hours may be more flexible and the provider may offer evening and weekend care for parents who work shifts. The cost in a family child care could be lower on average than that of a center. Child care facilities in the US have the option of becoming accredited; this standard is regulated by an outside agency. In centers, National Association for the Education of Young Children institutes it.
For family child care providers, the National Association of Family Child Care Providers award the credentials. Licensed or unlicensed home daycare is referred to as family child care, or in home care, it refers to the care pro
Department for Education and Skills (United Kingdom)
The Department for Education and Skills was a United Kingdom government department between 2001 and 2007, responsible for the education system as well as children's services in England. The department was led by Secretary of State for Skills; the DfES had offices at four main locations: London, Sheffield and Runcorn. The DfES was represented in regional Government Offices; the DfES had jurisdiction only in England as education was the responsibility of the Scottish Government, Welsh Assembly Government and the Northern Ireland Assembly. On 28 June 2007, the DfES was split up into the Department for Children and Families and the Department for Innovation and Skills; the DCSF was reorganised as the Department for Education in 2010. The Department of Education and Science was created in 1964 with the merger of the offices of Minister of Education and the Minister of Science, with Quintin Hogg as minister. In 1992 the responsibility for science was transferred to the Cabinet Office's Office of Public Service and the Department of Trade and Industry's Office of Science and Technology, the department was renamed Department for Education.
In 1995, in the reshuffle after the Conservative leadership election of that year, the department merged with the Department of Employment to become the Department for Education and Employment. After the 2001 general election, the employment functions were transferred to the new Department for Work and Pensions, with the DfEE becoming the Department for Education and Skills. In 2007, the responsibilities for adult education, further education, higher education were transferred to the new Department for Innovation and Skills; the remainder of the education system moved to the DCSF. Colour key: Labour The permanent secretary of a UK Department is the senior civil servant. While working under the direction of the political ministers, the PS has many traditional and statutory responsibilities that are aimed at ensuring that government departments are, as far as possible, run in the public interest. Permanent Secretaries: David Bell: Jan 2006 - Jun 2007 Sir David Normington: May 2001 - Dec 2005 Sir Michael Bichard: Jul 1995 - May 2001 Sir Timothy Patrick Lankester: Feb 1994 - Jul 1995 Sir Geoffrey Holland: Jan 1993 - Jan 1994 Sir John Caines: Jul 1989 - Jan 1993 Sir David Hancock: May 1983 - June 1989 Sir James Arnot Hamilton: May 1976 - May 1983 Sir William Pile: Aug 1970 - May 1976 British Educational Communications and Technology Agency Learning and Skills Council United Kingdom budget Official Archived Website Science Learning Centres website The national network of Science Learning Centres provides Continuing Professional Development for everyone involved in science education.
The network is a joint initiative by the Department for Education and Skills and the Wellcome Trust
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.