Independent school (United Kingdom)
In the United Kingdom, independent schools are fee-paying private schools, governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools. For example, pupils do not have to follow the National Curriculum. Many of the older and more exclusive schools catering for the 13–18 age-range in England and Wales are known as public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868, the term "public" being derived from the fact that they were open to pupils regardless of where they lived or their religion. Prep schools educate younger children up to the age of 13 to "prepare" them for entry to the public schools and other independent schools; some former grammar schools converted to an independent fee-paying model following the 1965 Circular 10/65 which marked the end of their state funding. There are around 2,500 independent schools in the UK, which educate around 615,000 children, some 7 per cent of all British children and 18 per cent of pupils over the age of 16.
In addition to charging tuition fees, many benefit from gifts, charitable endowments and charitable status. Many of these schools are members of the Independent Schools Council. In 2017, the average cost for private schooling was £14,102 for day school and £32,259 for boarding school; some independent schools are old, such as The King's School, The King's School, Rochester, St Peter's School, Sherborne School, Warwick School, The King's School, Ely and St Albans School. These schools were under their complete dominion. However, it was during the late 14th & early 15th centuries that the first schools, independent of the church, were founded. Winchester & Oswestry were the first of their kind and paved the way for the establishment of the modern "Public school"; these were established for male scholars from poor or disadvantaged backgrounds. For instance, the Queen's Scholarships founded at Westminster in 1560, are for "the sons of decay'd gentlemen"; the transformation of free charitable foundations into institutions which sometimes charge fees came about readily: the foundation would only afford minimal facilities, so that further fees might be charged to lodge and otherwise maintain the scholars, to the private profit of the trustees or headmaster.
Facilities provided by the charitable foundation for a few scholars could profitably be extended to further paying pupils. After a time, such fees would eclipse the original charitable income, the original endowment would become a minor part of the capital benefactions enjoyed by the school. In 2009 senior boarding schools were charging fees of nearly £ 30,000 per annum. However, a majority of the independent schools today are still registered as a charity, bursary is available to students on a means test basis. Christ's Hospital in Horsham is an example. A large proportion of its students are funded by its charitable foundation or by various benefactors; the educational reforms of the 19th century were important under first Thomas Arnold at Rugby, Butler and Kennedy at Shrewsbury, the former emphasising team spirit and muscular Christianity and the latter the importance of scholarship and competitive examinations. Edward Thring of Uppingham School introduced major reforms, focusing on the importance of the individual and competition, as well as the need for a "total curriculum" with academia, music and drama being central to education.
Most public schools developed during the 18th and 19th centuries, came to play an important role in the development of the Victorian social elite. Under a number of forward-looking headmasters leading public schools created a curriculum based on classics and physical activity for boys and young men of the upper and upper middle classes, they were schools for the gentlemanly elite of Victorian politics, armed forces and colonial government. Successful businessmen would send their sons to a public school as a mark of participation in the elite. Much of the discipline was in the hands of senior pupils, not just a means to reduce staffing costs, but was seen as vital preparation for those pupils' roles in public or military service. More heads of public schools have been emphasising that senior pupils now play a much reduced role in disciplining. To an extent, the public school system influenced the school systems of the British Empire, recognisably "public" schools can be found in many Commonwealth countries.
Until 1975 there had been a group of 179 academically selective schools drawing on both private and state funding, the direct grant grammar schools. The Direct Grant Grammar Schools Regulations 1975 required these schools to choose between full state funding as comprehensive schools and full independence; as a result, 119 of these schools became independent. Pupil numbers at independent schools fell during the mid-1970s recession. At the same time participation at all secondary schools grew so that the share of the independent sector fell from a little under 8 per cent in 1964 to reach a low of 5.7 per cent in 1978. Both these trends were reversed during the 1980s, the share of the indepe
Early childhood education
Early childhood education is a branch of education theory which relates to the teaching of children from birth up to the age of eight, traditionally about third grade. It emerged as a field of study during the Enlightenment in European countries with high literacy rates, it continued to grow through the nineteenth century as universal primary education became a norm in the Western world. In recent years, early childhood education has become a prevalent public policy issue, as municipal and federal lawmakers consider funding for preschool and pre-K, it is described as an important period in a child's development. It refers to the development of a child's personality. ECE is a professional designation earned through a post-secondary education program. For example, in Ontario, the designations ECE and RECE may only be used by registered members of the College of Early Childhood Educators, made up of accredited child care professionals who are held accountable to the College's standards of practice.
The history of early childhood care and education refers to the development of care and education of children from birth through eight years old throughout history. ECCE has a global scope, caring for and educating young children has always been an integral part of human societies. Arrangements for fulfilling these societal roles have evolved over time and remain varied across cultures reflecting family and community structures as well as the social and economic roles of women and men; such arrangements have been informal, involving family and community members. The formalization of these arrangements emerged in the nineteenth century with the establishment of kindergartens for educational purposes and day nurseries for care in much of Europe and North America, China, India and Mexico. While the first two years of a child's life are spent in the creation of a child's first "sense of self", most children are able to differentiate between themselves and others by their second year; this differentiation is crucial to the child's ability to determine how they should function in relation to other people.
Parents can be seen as a child's first teacher and therefore an integral part of the early learning process. Early childhood attachment processes that occur during early childhood years 0–2 years of age, can be influential to future education. With proper guidance and exploration children begin to become more comfortable with their environment, if they have that steady relationship to guide them. Parents who are consistent with response times, emotions will properly make this attachment early on. If this attachment is not made, there can be detrimental effects on the child in their future relationships and independence. There are proper techniques that parents and caregivers can use to establish these relationships, which will in turn allow children to be more comfortable exploring their environment. Academic Journal Reference This provides experimental research on the emphasis on caregiving effecting attachment. Education for young students can help. With exposure and organized lesson plans children can learn anything.
The tools they learn to use during these beginning years will provide lifelong benefits to their success. Developmentally, having structure and freedom, children are able to reach their full potential. Teachers seeking to be early childhood educators must obtain certification among other requirements. "An early childhood education certification denotes that a teacher has met a set of standards that shows they understand the best ways to educate young students aged 3 to 8." There are early childhood education programs across the United States that have a certification, pre-K to grade 4. There are programs now that have a duel certification in pre-K to grade 4 and special education from pre-K to grade 8. Other certifications are urban tracks in pre-k to grade 4 that have an emphasis on urban schools and preparing teachers to teach in those school environments; these tracks take 4 years to complete and in the end provide students with their certifications to teach in schools. These tracks give students in the field experience in multiple different types of classrooms as they learn how to become teachers.
An example of a school that has these tracks is Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Early childhood educators must have knowledge in the developmental changes during early childhood and the subjects being taught in an early childhood classroom; these subjects include language arts and reading and some social studies and science. Early childhood educators must be able to manage classroom behavior. Positive reinforcement is one popular method for managing behavior in young children. Teacher certification laws vary by state in the United States. In Connecticut, for example, these requirements include a bachelor's degree, 36 hours of special education courses, passing scores on the Praxis II Examination and Connecticut Foundations of Reading Test and a criminal history background check. For State of Early Childhood Education Bornfreund, 2011. States are requiring educators who work in open pre-kindergarten to have specific preparing in Early Childhood Education; as per the State of Pre-School Yearbook, 45 states require their educators to have a specialization in Early Childhood Education and 30 states require no less
Babysitting is temporarily caring for a child. Babysitting can be a paid job for all ages, it provides autonomy from parental control, spending money, as well as an introduction to the techniques of child care. It emerged as a social role for teenagers in the 1920s, became important in suburban America in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was an abundance of small children, it stimulated an outpouring of folk culture in the form of urban legends, pulp novels, horror films. The majority of the time, babysitters tend to be in middle/junior high school, high school or college. There are some adults; the type of work for babysitters varies from watching a sleeping child, changing diapers, playing games, preparing meals, to teaching the child to read or drive. Depending on the agreement between parents and babysitter. In some countries various organizations produce courses for babysitters, many focusing on child safety and first aid appropriate for infants and children; these educational programs can equip the babysitter with information to keep both the children being cared for, the sitter themselves, safe in various scenarios.
Different activities will be needed for toddlers. It will be beneficial for the babysitters to understand toddler developmental milestones in order to plan for the necessary activities; as paid employees, babysitters require a disclosure or assessment of one's criminal record in order to ward off possible hebephiles and other unsuitable applicants. The term "baby sitter" first appeared in 1937, while the verb form "baby-sit" was first recorded in 1947; the American Heritage College Dictionary notes "One would expect the agent noun babysitter with its -er suffix to come from the verb baby-sit, as diver comes from dive, but in fact babysitter is first recorded in 1937, ten years earlier than the first appearance of baby-sit. Thus the verb was derived from the agent noun rather than the other way around, represents a good example of back-formation; the use of the word "sit" to refer to a person tending to a child is recorded from 1800. The term may have originated from the action of the caretaker "sitting on" the baby in one room, while the parents were entertaining or busy in another.
It's theorized that the term may come from hens "sitting" on their eggs, thus "caring for" their chicks. In British English the term refers only to caring for a child for a few hours, on an informal basis and in the evening when the child is asleep for most of the time. In American English the term can include caring for a child for the whole or most of the day, on a regular or more formal basis, which would be described as childminding in British English. In India and Pakistan, a babysitter or nanny is known as an ayah or aya, a person hired on a longer term contract basis to look after a child regardless of the presence of the parents. Miriam Forman-Brunell. Babysitter: An American History. New York University Press, June, 2009.from English dictionary The dictionary definition of babysitting at Wiktionary Babysitting courses provided by the American Red Cross YourChild: Babysitter Safety University of Michigan Health System A guide to the business of babysitting in the United States Quality Child Care From University of Florida/IFAS Department of Family and Community Sciences, Factors in choosing quality child care
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
Homeschooling known as home education is the education of children at home or a variety of other places. Home education is conducted by a parent or tutor or online teacher. Many families use less formal ways of educating. "Homeschooling" is the term used in North America, whereas "home education" is used in the United Kingdom, in many Commonwealth countries. Before the introduction of compulsory school attendance laws, most childhood education was done by families and local communities. In many developed countries, homeschooling is a legal alternative to private schools. In other nations, homeschooling remains illegal or restricted to specific conditions, as recorded by homeschooling international status and statistics. According to the US National Center for Education Statistics, about three percent of all children in the US were homeschooled in 2011–2012 school year; the study found that 83 percent were White, 5 percent were Black, 7 percent were Hispanic, 2 percent were Asian or Pacific Islander.
As of 2016, there are about 1.7 million homeschooled students in the United States. On average, homeschoolers score above the national average on standardized tests. Homeschool students have been accepted into many Ivy League universities. For most of history and in different cultures, the education of children at home by family members was a common practice. Enlisting professional tutors was an option available only to the wealthy. Homeschooling declined in the 19th and 20th centuries with the enactment of compulsory attendance laws. But, it continued to be practiced in isolated communities. Homeschooling began a resurgence in the 1960s and 1970s with educational reformists dissatisfied with industrialized education; the earliest public schools in modern Western culture were established during the reformation with the encouragement of Martin Luther in the German states of Gotha and Thuringia in 1524 and 1527. From the 1500s to 1800s the literacy rate increased. Home education and apprenticeship continued to remain the main form of education until the 1830s.
However, in the 18th century, the majority of people in Europe lacked formal education. Since the early 19th century, formal classroom schooling became the most common means of schooling throughout the developed countries. In 1647, New England provided compulsory elementary education. Regional differences in schooling existed in colonial America. In the south and plantations were so dispersed that community schools such as those in the more compact settlements of the north were impossible. In the middle colonies, the educational situation varied. Most Native American tribal cultures traditionally used home education and apprenticeship to pass knowledge to children. Parents were supported by tribal leaders in the education of their children; the Native Americans vigorously resisted compulsory education in the United States. In the 1960s, Rousas John Rushdoony began to advocate homeschooling, which he saw as a way to combat the secular nature of the public school system in the United States, he vigorously attacked progressive school reformers such as Horace Mann and John Dewey, argued for the dismantling of the state's influence in education in three works: Intellectual Schizophrenia, The Messianic Character of American Education, The Philosophy of the Christian Curriculum.
Rushdoony was called as an expert witness by the Home School Legal Defense Association in court cases. He advocated the use of private schools. During this time, American educational professionals Raymond and Dorothy Moore began to research the academic validity of the growing Early Childhood Education movement; this research included independent studies by other researchers and a review of over 8,000 studies bearing on early childhood education and the physical and mental development of children. They asserted that formal schooling before ages 8–12 not only lacked the anticipated effectiveness, but harmed children; the Moores published their view that formal schooling was damaging young children academically mentally, physiologically. The Moores presented evidence that childhood problems such as juvenile delinquency, increased enrollment of students in special education classes and behavioral problems were the result of earlier enrollment of students; the Moores cited studies demonstrating that orphans who were given surrogate mothers were measurably more intelligent, with superior long-term effects – though the mothers were "mentally retarded teenagers" – and that illiterate tribal mothers in Africa produced children who were and more advanced than typical western children, "by western standards of measurement".
Their primary assertion was that the bonds and emotional development made at home with parents during these years produced critical long-term results that were cut short by enrollment in schools, could neither be replaced nor corrected in an institutional setting afterward. Recognizing a necessity for early out-of-home care for some children special needs and impoverished children and children from exceptionally inferior homes, they maintained that the vast majority of children were far better situated at home with mediocre parents, than with the most gifted and motivated teachers in a school setting, they described the difference as follows: "This is like saying, if you can help a child by taking him off the cold street and housing him in a warm tent warm tents should be provided for all children – when obviousl
Education in England
Education in England is overseen by the United Kingdom's Department for Education. Local government authorities are responsible for implementing policy for public education and state-funded schools at a local level. England has a tradition of independent schools and home education. State-funded schools are categorized as comprehensive schools. Comprehensive schools are further subdivided by funding into free schools, other academies, any remaining Local Authority schools and others. More freedom is given to free schools, including most religious schools, other academies in terms of curriculum. All are subject to assessment and inspection by the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills, or Ofsted; the state-funded education system is divided into stages based upon age: Early Years Foundation Stage. At age 16 the students take exams for the General Certificate of Secondary Education or other Level 1/2 qualifications. While education is compulsory until 18, schooling is compulsory to 16, thus post-16 education can take a number of forms, may be academic or vocational.
This can involve continued schooling, known as "sixth form" or "college", leading to A-level qualifications, or a number of alternative Level 3 qualifications such as Business and Technology Education Council, the International Baccalaureate, Cambridge Pre-U, WJEC or Eduqas. It can include work-based apprenticeships or traineeships, or volunteering. Higher education begins with a three-year bachelor's degree. Postgraduate degrees include master's degrees, either taught or by research, doctoral level research degrees that take at least three years. Tuition fees for first degrees in public universities are up to £9,250 per academic year for English and European Union students; the Regulated Qualifications Framework covers national school examinations and vocational education qualifications. It is referenced to the European Qualifications Framework, thus to other qualifications frameworks across the European Union; the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications, tied to the RQF, covers degrees and other qualifications from degree-awarding bodies.
This is referenced to the Qualifications Framework of the European Higher Education Area developed under the Bologna process. Until 1870 all schools were charitable or private institutions, but in that year the Elementary Education Act 1870 permitted local governments to complement the existing elementary schools in order to fill any gaps; the Education Act 1902 allowed local authorities to create secondary schools. The Education Act 1918 abolished fees for elementary schools. Women's colleges were established in the 19th century to give women access to university education, the first being Bedford College, Girton College and Newnham College, Cambridge; the University of London established special examinations for women in 1868 and opened its degrees to women in 1878. University College Bristol became the first mixed higher education institution on its foundation in 1876, followed in 1878 by University College London. Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged 5 to 18, either at school or otherwise, with a child beginning primary education during the school year they turn 5.
Children between the ages of 3 and 5 are entitled to 600 hours per year of optional, state-funded, pre-school education. This can be provided in "playgroups", community childcare centres or nursery classes in schools; the age at which a student may choose to stop education is known as the "leaving age" for compulsory education. This age was raised to 18 by the Education and Skills Act 2008. From this time, the school leaving age and the education leaving age have been separated. State-provided schooling and sixth-form education are paid for by taxes. All children in England must therefore receive an effective education from the first "prescribed day", which falls on or after their fifth birthday until their 18th birthday, must remain in school until the last Friday in June of the school year in which they turn 16; the education leaving age was raised in 2013 to the year in which they turn 17 and in 2015 to their 18th birthday for those born on or after 1 September 1997. The prescribed days are 31 March.
The school year begins on 1 September. The Compulsory stages of education are broken into a Foundation Stage, 4 Key Stages, post-16 education (sometimes unofficially termed Key Stage Five, which takes a variety of forms including 6th Form. Below is a table summarising the most common names of the various stages. Grammar schools are state-funded but selective schools, admitting children from 11 years old onward, but there are exceptions; the government has be
Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. Parenting refers to the intricacies of raising a child and not to the biological relationship; the most common caretaker in parenting is the biological parent of the child in question, although others may be an older sibling, a grandparent, a legal guardian, uncle or other family member, or a family friend. Governments and society may have a role in child-rearing. In many cases, orphaned or abandoned children receive parental care from non-parent blood relations. Others may be raised in foster care, or placed in an orphanage. Parenting skills vary, a parent with good parenting skills may be referred to as a good parent. Parenting styles vary by historical time period, race/ethnicity, social class, other social features. Additionally, research has supported that parental history both in terms of attachments of varying quality as well as parental psychopathology in the wake of adverse experiences, can influence parental sensitivity and child outcomes.
Social class, wealth and income have a strong impact on what methods of child rearing parents use. Cultural values play a major role in. However, parenting is always evolving. A family's social class plays a large role in the opportunities and resources that will be available to a child. Working-class children grow up at a disadvantage with the schooling and level of parental attention available compared to middle-class or upper-class. Lower working-class families do not get the kind of networking that the middle and upper classes do through helpful family members and community individuals or groups as well as various professionals or experts. A parenting style is indicative of the overall emotional climate in the home. Developmental psychologist Diana Baumrind identified three main parenting styles in early child development: authoritative and permissive; these parenting styles were expanded to four, to include an uninvolved style. On the one hand, these four styles involve combinations of acceptance and responsiveness, on the other hand, involve demand and control.
Research has found that parenting style is related to a child's subsequent mental health and well-being. In particular, authoritative parenting is positively related to mental health and satisfaction with life, authoritarian parenting is negatively related to these variables. Authoritative parenting Described by Baumrind as the "just right" style, it combines a medium level demands on the child and a medium level responsiveness from the parents. Authoritative parents rely on positive infrequent use of punishment. Parents are more aware of a child's feelings and capabilities and support the development of a child's autonomy within reasonable limits. There is a give-and-take atmosphere involved in parent-child communication and both control and support are balanced. Research shows that this style is more beneficial than the too-hard authoritarian style or the too-soft permissive style. Authoritarian parenting styles Authoritarian parents are rigid and strict. High demands are placed on the child.
Parents who practice authoritarian style parenting have a non-negotiable set of rules and expectations that are enforced and require rigid obedience. When the rules are not followed, punishment is used to promote future obedience. There is no explanation of punishment except that the child is in trouble for breaking a rule; this parenting style is associated with corporal punishment, such as spanking and "Because I said so" is a typical response to a child's question of authority. This type of parenting is seen more in working-class families than in the middle class. In 1983 Diana Baumrind found that children raised in an authoritarian-style home were less cheerful, more moody and more vulnerable to stress. In many cases these children demonstrated passive hostility. Permissive parenting Permissive, or indulgent, parenting is more popular in middle-class than in working-class families. In these settings, a child's freedom and autonomy are valued, parents tend to rely on reasoning and explanation.
Parents are undemanding, so there tends to be little if any punishment or explicit rules in this style of parenting. These parents say that their children are free from external constraints and tend to be responsive to whatever the child wants at the time. Children of permissive parents are happy but sometimes show low levels of self-control and self-reliance because they lack structure at home. Uninvolved parenting An uninvolved or neglectful parenting style is when parents are emotionally or physically absent, they have little to no expectation of the child and have no communication. They have little to no behavioral expectations. If present, they may provide. There is a large gap between parents and children with this parenting style. Children with little or no communication with their own parents tended to be victimized by other children and may themselves be exhibit deviant behavior. Children of uninvolved parents suffer in social competence, academic performance, psychosocial developme