A middle school is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school. The concept and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between, sometimes within, countries. In Afghanistan, middle school consists of the primary school grades 5,6, 7 and the secondary school grade 8. In Albania, middle school is included in the primary education which lasts 9 years and attendance is mandatory. In Algeria, a middle school includes 4 grades; the ciclo básico of secondary education is equivalent to middle school. Most regions of Australia do not have middle schools, as students go directly from primary school to secondary school; as an alternative to the middle school model, some secondary schools divided their grades into "junior high school" and "senior high school". Some have three levels, "junior", "intermediate", "senior". In 1996 and 1997, a national conference met to develop what became known as the National Middle Schooling Project, which aimed to develop a common Australian view of early adolescent needs guiding principles for educators appropriate strategies to foster positive adolescent learning.
The first middle school established in Australia was The Armidale School, in Armidale. Other schools have since followed this trend; the Northern Territory has introduced a three tier system featuring Middle Schools for years 7–9 and high school year 10–12. Many schools across Queensland have introduced a Middle School tier within their schools; the middle schools cover years 5 to 8. In Bangladesh, middle school is not separated like other countries. Schools are from class 1 to class 10, it means upper primary. From class 6–8 is thought as middle school. Grades 1,2,3,4 and 5 are said to be primary school while all the classes from 6 to 9 are considered high school while 10–12 is called college. There aren't middle schools in Bolivia since 1994. Students aged 11–15 attend the last years of elementary education or the first years of secondary education. In Bosnia and Herzegovina "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school.
Gymnasiums are the most prestigious type of "middle" school. In Brazil, middle school is a mandatory stage that precedes High School called "Ensino Fundamental II" consisting of grades 6 to 9, ages 11 to 14. In Canada, the terms "Middle School" and "Junior High School" are both used, depending on which grades the school caters to. Junior high schools tend to include only grades 7, 8, sometimes 9, whereas middle schools are grades 6–8 or only grades 7–8 or 6–7, varying from area to area and according to population vs. building capacity. Another common model is grades 5–8. Alberta, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island junior high schools include only grades 7–9, with the first year of high school traditionally being grade 10. In some places students go from elementary school to secondary school, meaning the elementary school covers to the end of Grade 8. In Ontario, the term "Middle School" and "Senior Public School" are used, with the latter being used in the Old Toronto and Scarborough sections of Toronto plus in Mississauga and Kitchener-Waterloo.
In many smaller Ontario cities and in some parts of larger cities, most elementary schools serve junior kindergarten to grade 8 meaning there are no separate Middle Schools buildings, while in some cities specific schools do serve the intermediate grades but are still called "Elementary" or "Public" schools with no recognition of the grades they serve in their name. Quebec uses a grade system, different from those of the other provinces. In Quebec there is no Middle school section; the Secondary level has five grades starting after Elementary Grade 6. These are called Secondary I to Secondary V. There aren't middle schools in Chile. Students aged 11 to 16 attend the last years of educación básica or the first years of educación media. In the People's Republic of China, middle school has junior stage and senior stage; the junior stage education is the last 3 years of 9-year-compulsory education for all young citizens. Some middle schools have both stages; the admissions for most students to enroll in senior middle schools from junior stage are on the basis of the scores that they get in "Senior Middle School Entrance Exam", which are held by local governments.
Other students may bypass the exam, based on their distinctive talents, like athletics, or excellent daily performance in junior stage. Secondary education is divided into basic secondary and
Hobbits are a diminutive, humanoid race inhabiting lands of Middle-earth in the work of J. R. R. Tolkien, they are referred to as Halflings. Hobbits first appeared in the novel The Hobbit, whose titular hobbit is the protagonist Bilbo Baggins; the novel The Lord of the Rings includes as major characters the hobbits Frodo Baggins, Samwise Gamgee, Peregrin Took, Meriadoc Brandybuck, as well as several other minor hobbit characters. Hobbits are briefly mentioned in The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales. According to the author in the prologue to The Lord of the Rings, hobbits are "relatives" of the race of Men. Elsewhere, Tolkien describes Hobbits as a "variety" or separate "branch" of humans. Within the story and other races seem aware of the similarities. However, within the story, hobbits considered themselves a separate people. At the time of the events in The Lord of the Rings, hobbits lived in the Shire and in Bree in the north west of Middle-earth, though by the end, some had moved out to the Tower Hills and to Gondor and Rohan.
Tolkien believed he had invented the word hobbit as a speculative derivation from Old English when he began writing The Hobbit. Tolkien's concept of hobbits, in turn, seems to have been inspired by Edward Wyke Smith's 1927 children's book The Marvellous Land of Snergs, by Sinclair Lewis's 1922 novel Babbitt; the Snergs were, in Tolkien's words, "a race of people only taller than the average table but broad in the shoulders and have the strength of ten men." Tolkien wrote to W. H. Auden that The Marvellous Land of Snergs "was an unconscious source-book for the Hobbits" and he told an interviewer that the word hobbit "might have been associated with Sinclair Lewis's Babbitt". However, Tolkien claims that he started The Hobbit without premeditation, in the midst of grading a set of student essay exams, writing on a blank piece of paper: "In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit". While The Hobbit introduced this comfortable race to the world, it is only in writing The Lord of the Rings that Tolkien developed details of their history and wider society.
He set out a fictional etymology for the name in an appendix to The Lord of the Rings, to the effect that it was derived from holbytla, meaning "hole-builder". In the language of the Rohirrim the hobbits were called kûd-dûkan, which had rendered the autonym kuduk. In the prologue to The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien writes that hobbits are between two and four feet tall, the average height being three feet six inches, they dress in bright colours, favouring green. Nowadays, they are shy, but are capable of great courage and amazing feats under the proper circumstances, they are adept at throwing stones. For the most part, they can not grow beards, their feet are covered with curly hair with leathery soles, so hobbits hardly wear shoes. The race's average life expectancy is 100 years. Two Hobbits, Bilbo Baggins and the Old Took, are described as living to the age of 130 or beyond, though Bilbo's long lifespan owes much to his possession of the One Ring. Hobbits are considered to "come of age" on their 33rd birthday, so a 50-year-old hobbit would be regarded as entering middle-age.
Hobbits are not quite as stocky as the similarly-sized dwarves, but still tend to be stout, with pointed ears. Tolkien does not describe hobbits' ears in The Hobbit or The Lord of the Rings, but in a 1938 letter to his American publisher, he described them as having "ears only pointed and'elvish'". Tolkien describes hobbits thus: I picture a human figure, not a kind of'fairy' rabbit as some of my British reviewers seem to fancy: fattish in the stomach, shortish in the leg. A round, jovial face; the feet from the ankles down, covered with brown hairy fur. Clothing: green velvet breeches. Hobbits and derivative Halflings are depicted with unusually large feet for their size to visually emphasize their unusualness; this is prominent in the influential illustrations by the Brothers Hildebrandt and the large prosthetic feet used in The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. Tolkien does not mention foot size as a generic hobbit trait, but does make it the distinctive trait of the Proudfoot hobbit family. There were three types of hobbits, with different physical characteristics and temperaments: Harfoots and Fallohides.
Harfoots: The Harfoots were the most numerous group of hobbits and were the first to enter Eriador. They were the smallest in stature, the most typical of the race as described in The Hobbit, they lived in holes, or smials, had closer relations with Dwarves than did other Hobbits. Tolkien coined the term as analogous to "hairfoot". Stoors: The Stoors were the second most numerous group of hobbits and the last to enter Eriador, they were stockier than other hobbits. They had an affinity for water, dwelt beside rivers, were the only hobbits to use boats and swim. Males were able to grow beards. Tolkien says they were "less shy of Men". Many hobbits of Buckland and the Marish in the Shire were Stoors. Déagol and Sméagol/Gollum were akin to this type. Tolkien used an archaic English word sto
Child development entails the biological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the conclusion of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. It is a continuous process with a predictable sequence, it does not progress at the same rate and each stage is affected by the preceding developmental experiences. Because these developmental changes may be influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life and prenatal development are included as part of the study of child development. Related terms include developmental psychology, referring to development throughout the lifespan, pediatrics, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation, or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most involves an interaction between the two, it may occur as a result of human nature and our ability to learn from our environment.
There are various definitions of periods in a child's development, since each period is a continuum with individual differences regarding start and ending. Some age-related development periods and examples of defined intervals are: newborn. Promoting child development through parental training, among other factors, promotes excellent rates of child development. Parents play a large role in a child's life and development. Having multiple parents can add stability to the child's life and therefore encourage healthy development. Another influential factor in a child's development is the quality of their care. Child care programs present a critical opportunity for the promotion of child development; the optimal development of children is considered vital to society and so it is important to understand the social, cognitive and educational development of children. Increased research and interest in this field has resulted in new theories and strategies, with specific regard to practice that promotes development within the school system.
There are some theories that seek to describe a sequence of states that compose child development. Called "development in context" or "human ecology" theory, ecological systems theory formulated by Urie Bronfenbrenner specifies four types of nested environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems; the four systems are microsystem, mesosystem and macrosystem. Each system contains roles and rules that can powerfully shape development. Since its publication in 1979, Bronfenbrenner's major statement of this theory, The Ecology of Human Development has had widespread influence on the way psychologists and others approach the study of human beings and their environments; as a result of this influential conceptualization of development, these environments — from the family to economic and political structures — have come to be viewed as part of the life course from childhood through adulthood. Jean Piaget was a Swiss scholar. Piaget's first interests were those that dealt with the ways in which animals adapt to their environments and his first scientific article about this subject was published when he was 10 years old.
This led him to pursue a Ph. D. in Zoology, which led him to his second interest in epistemology. Epistemology branches off from philosophy and deals with the origin of knowledge. Piaget believed the origin of knowledge came from Psychology, so he traveled to Paris and began working on the first “standardized intelligence test” at Alfred Binet laboratories; as he carried out this intelligence testing he began developing a profound interest in the way children's intellectualism works. As a result, he developed his own laboratory and spent years recording children's intellectual growth and attempted to find out how children develop through various stages of thinking; this led to Piaget develop four important stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete-operational stage, formal-operational stage. Piaget concluded that adaption to an environment is managed through schemes and adaption occurs through assimilation and accommodation. Sensorimotor: This is the first stage in Piaget's theory, where infants have the following basic senses: vision and motor skills.
In this stage, knowledge of the world is limited but is developing due to the child's experiences and interactions. According to Piaget, when an infant reaches about 7–9 months of age they begin to develop what he called object permanence, this means the child now has the ability to understand that objects keep existing when they cannot be seen. An example of this would be hiding the child's favorite toy under a blanket, although the child cannot physically see it they still know to look under the blanket. Preoperational: During this stage of development, young children begin analyzing their environment using mental symbols; these symbols include words and images and the child will begin to apply these various symbols in their everyday lives as they come across different objects and situations. However, Piaget's main focus on this stage and the reason why he named it “preoperational” is because children at this point are not able to apply specific cognitive operatio
In sociology, socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society. Socialization encompasses both learning and teaching and is thus "the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained". Socialization is connected to developmental psychology. Humans need social experiences to survive. Socialization represents the whole process of learning throughout the life course and is a central influence on the behavior and actions of adults as well as of children. Socialization may lead to desirable outcomes—sometimes labeled "moral"—as regards the society where it occurs. Individual views are influenced by the society's consensus and tend toward what that society finds acceptable or "normal". Socialization provides only a partial explanation for human beliefs and behaviors, maintaining that agents are not blank slates predetermined by their environment. Genetic studies have shown that a person's environment interacts with his or her genotype to influence behavioral outcomes.
Notions of society and the state of nature have existed for centuries. In its earliest usages, socialization was the act of socializing or another word for socialism. Socialization as a concept originated concurrently with sociology, as sociology was defined as the treatment of "the social, the process and forms of socialization, as such, in contrast to the interests and contents which find expression in socialization". In particular, socialization consisted of the formation and development of social groups, the development of a social state of mind in the individuals who associate. Socialization is thus an effect of association; the term was uncommon before 1940, but became popular after World War II, appearing in dictionaries and scholarly works such as the theory of Talcott Parsons. Lawrence Kohlberg studied moral reasoning and developed a theory of how individuals reason situations as right from wrong; the first stage is the pre-conventional stage, where a person experience the world in terms of pain and pleasure, with their moral decisions reflecting this experience.
Second, the conventional stage is characterized by an acceptance of society's conventions concerning right and wrong when there are no consequences for obedience or disobedience. The post-conventional stage occurs if a person moves beyond society's norms to consider abstract ethical principles when making moral decisions. Erik H. Erikson explained the challenges throughout the life course; the first stage in the life course is infancy, where babies learn mistrust. The second stage is toddlerhood where children around the age of two struggle with the challenge of autonomy versus doubt. In stage three, children struggle to understand the difference between initiative and guilt. Stage four, pre-adolescence, children learn about industriousness and inferiority. In the fifth stage called adolescence, teenagers experience the challenge of gaining identity versus confusion; the sixth stage, young adulthood, is when young people gain insight to life when dealing with the challenge of intimacy and isolation.
In stage seven, or middle adulthood, people experience the challenge of trying to make a difference. In the final stage, stage eight or old age, people are still learning about the challenge of integrity and despair; this concept has been further developed by Klaus Hurrelmann and Gudrun Quenzel using the dynamic model of "developmental tasks". George Herbert Mead developed a theory of social behaviorism to explain how social experience develops an individual's self-concept. Mead's central concept is the self: It is composed of self-awareness and self-image. Mead claimed that the self is not there at birth, rather, it is developed with social experience. Since social experience is the exchange of symbols, people tend to find meaning in every action. Seeking meaning leads us to imagine the intention of others. Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the others' point of view. In effect, others are a mirror. Charles Horton Cooley coined the term looking glass self, which means self-image based on how we think others see us.
According to Mead the key to developing the self is learning to take the role of the other. With limited social experience, infants can only develop a sense of identity through imitation. Children learn to take the roles of several others; the final stage is the generalized other, which refers to widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference for evaluating others. Behaviorism makes claims that when infants are born they lack social self; the social pre-wiring hypothesis, on the other hand, shows proof through a scientific study that social behavior is inherited and can influence infants and even influence foetuses. Wired to be social means that infants are not taught that they are social beings, but they are born as prepared social beings; the social pre-wiring hypothesis refers to the ontogeny of social interaction. Informally referred to as, "wired to be social"; the theory questions whether there is a propensity to oriented action present before birth. Research in the theory concludes that newborns are born into the world with a unique genetic wiring to be social.
Circumstantial evidence supporting the social pre-wiring hypothesis can be revealed when examining newborns' behavior. Newborns, not hours after birth, have been found to display a preparedness for social interaction; this p
In Freudian psychology, psychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido that develops in five stages. Each stage – the oral, the anal, the phallic, the latent, the genital – is characterized by the erogenous zone, the source of the libidinal drive. Sigmund Freud proposed that if the child experienced sexual frustration in relation to any psychosexual developmental stage, he or she would experience anxiety that would persist into adulthood as a neurosis, a functional mental disorder. Sigmund Freud observed that during the predictable stages of early childhood development, the child's behavior is oriented towards certain parts of his or her body, e.g. the mouth during breast-feeding, the anus during toilet-training. He argued that adult neurosis is rooted in childhood sexuality, suggested that neurotic adult behaviors are manifestations of childhood sexual fantasy and desire; that is because human beings are born "polymorphous perverse", infants can derive sexual pleasure from any part of their bodies, that socialization directs the instinctual libidinal drives into adult heterosexuality.
Given the predictable timeline of childhood behavior, he proposed "libido development" as a model of normal childhood sexual development, wherein the child progresses through five psychosexual stages – the oral. Sexual infantilism: in pursuing and satisfying his or her libido, the child might experience failure and thus might associate anxiety with the given erogenous zone. To avoid anxiety, the child becomes fixated, preoccupied with the psychologic themes related to the erogenous zone in question, which persist into adulthood, underlie the personality and psychopathology of the man or woman, as neurosis, personality disorders, et cetera; the first stage of psychosexual development is the oral stage, spanning from birth until the age of one year, wherein the infant's mouth is the focus of libidinal gratification derived from the pleasure of feeding at the mother's breast, from the oral exploration of his or her environment, i.e. the tendency to place objects in the mouth. The id dominates, because neither the ego nor the super ego is yet developed, since the infant has no personality, every action is based upon the pleasure principle.
Nonetheless, the infantile ego is forming during the oral stage. Weaning is the key experience in the infant's oral stage of psychosexual development, his or her first feeling of loss consequent to losing the physical intimacy of feeding at mother's breast. Yet, weaning increases the infant's self-awareness that he or she does not control the environment, thus learns of delayed gratification, which leads to the formation of the capacities for independence and trust. Yet, thwarting of the oral-stage — too much or too little gratification of desire — might lead to an oral-stage fixation, characterised by passivity, immaturity, unrealistic optimism, manifested in a manipulative personality consequent to ego malformation. In the case of too much gratification, the child does not learn that he or she does not control the environment, that gratification is not always immediate, thereby forming an immature personality. In the case of too little gratification, the infant might become passive upon learning that gratification is not forthcoming, despite having produced the gratifying behavior.
The second stage of psychosexual development is the anal stage, spanning from the age of eighteen months to three years, wherein the infant's erogenous zone changes from the mouth to the anus, while the ego formation continues. Toilet training is the child's key anal-stage experience, occurring at about the age of two years, results in conflict between the id and the ego in eliminating bodily wastes, handling related activities; the style of parenting influences the resolution of the id–ego conflict, which can be either gradual and psychologically uneventful, or which can be sudden and psychologically traumatic. The ideal resolution of the id–ego conflict is in the child's adjusting to moderate parental demands that teach the value and importance of physical cleanliness and environmental order, thus producing a self-controlled adult. Yet, if the parents make immoderate demands of the child, by over-emphasizing toilet training, it might lead to the development of a compulsive personality, a person too concerned with neatness and order.
If the child obeys the id, the parents yield, he or she might develop a self-indulgent personality characterized by personal slovenliness and environmental disorder. If the parents respond to that, the child must comply, but might develop a weak sense of self, because it was the parents' will, not the child's ego, which controlled the toilet training; the third stage of psychosexual development is the phallic stage, spanning the ages of three to six years, wherein the
Cultural-historical psychology is a branch of psychological theory and practice associated with Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria and their Circle, who initiated it in the mid-1920s-1930s. The phrase "cultural-historical psychology" never occurs in the writings of Vygotsky, was subsequently ascribed to him by his critics and followers alike, yet it is under this title that this intellectual movement is now known; the main goal of Vygotsky-Luria project was the establishment of a "new psychology" that would account for the inseparable unity of mind and culture in their development in concrete socio-historical settings and throughout the history of humankind as socio-biological species. Lev Vygotsky, born in Orsha, Russia in 1896, was a psychologist who contributed to developmental psychology. Vygotsky posed that in a social environment, children develop higher cognitive functions in practical activities, his theories were controversial in the Soviet Union and they remained unknown, although introduced into the Western world in the 1930s, until the 1970s.
This is when they became a pivotal point in models built in developmental and educational psychology. Although many current scholars do not agree with his theories or agree about what he meant, the 21st century has brought about scholarly reevaluations of many of the important aspects of these theories. Alexander Luria was developmental psychologist. Together with Vygotsky, he helped create cultural-historical psychology and was a leader of the Vygotsky Circle. Separate to his work with Vygotsky, Luria is known for his case studies "The Mind of a Mnemonist", about a man with a advanced memory, "The Man with a Shattered World", about a man with traumatic brain injury. Cultural-historical psychology never existed as such during Vygotsky's lifetime, he never accomplished a developmental theory of his own and, by his own admission, died at the threshold of a new psychological theory of consciousness. Vygotsky believed in the "new man" that he referred to as a "superman" of the future Communist society and advocated for a psychological theory that would account for the development from the actual level of human development to the potential one of a "superman".
To that end, he claimed that the development of "higher psychological functions" are a result of the impact of parents, caregivers and the culture at large. In one of his unfinished and abandoned manuscripts, never published during his lifetime Vygotsky speculated that Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, on the individual level; this applies to voluntary attention, to logical memory, to the formation of concepts. All the high functions originate as actual relationships between individuals; this idea was well known at least fifty years before Vygotsky, was advocated for by a number of other psychologists, is known under the label of "sociogenesis". The post-Vygotskian tradition focuses, not only on individual learning and the influences adults and peers have on learning, but on how cultural beliefs and attitudes affect instruction and learning. In contradistinction to Freud's and Freudian "depth psychology" and the behaviorists "surface psychologies" of the average people in their everyday environment, Vygotsky postulated "peak psychology" of his own, which would focus on the highest, "peak" performance of people in their actual life and potential, future "superman" capacity.
This "peak psychology" was never accomplished and remained an interesting and promising, yet utopian scientific project of considerable interest in the contemporary context of 21st century psychological research. The larger project of the new psychology of Vygotsky and Luria failed, no universal integrative theory of human mind and development was built by the time of Vygotsky's death in 1934 or, for that matter after. However, the earlier intellectual effort and the legacy of the Soviet scholars of the 1920s-1930s was not wasted and developed in a range of special—typically, loosely related—fields of psychological theory and practice such as cultural and child psychology and education, neuropsychology, or psycholinguistics. Other notable areas of theory and practice that are in the dialogue with the cultural-historical tradition of Vygotsky and Luria are psychotherapy, theory of art, "dialogical science", cognitive science, semiotics and, in the words of Oliver Sacks, somewhat vague perspective and philosophy of "romantic science".
The major influences on cultural-historical psychology were the mechanist neurophysiology of Ivan Pavlov and Vladimir Bekhterev, philosophy of language and culture of Wilhelm von Humboldt and his followers, socio-economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, holistic German-American Gestalt psychology—specifically, the works of Max Wertheimer and Kurt Lewin. The holism of the German-American Gestaltists became the dominant theoretical framework of cultural-historical psychology of Vygotsky and Luria in the 1930s and totally eradicated Vygotsky's physiological mechanism and reductionism of the 1920s. A few of these earlier influences were subsequently downplayed, misunderstood or totally ignored and forgotten. Thus, cultural-historical psychology understood as the Vygotsky-Luria project intended by its creators as an integ