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Precautionary principle

The precautionary principle is a strategy for approaching issues of potential harm when extensive scientific knowledge on the matter is lacking. It emphasizes caution and review before leaping into new innovations that may prove disastrous; the principle is used by policy makers in situations where there is the possibility of harm from making a certain decision and conclusive evidence is not yet available. For example, a government may decide to limit or restrict the widespread release of a medicine or new technology until it has been tested; the principle acknowledges that while the progress of science and technology has brought great benefit to humanity, it has contributed to the creation of new threats and risks. It implies that there is a social responsibility to protect the public from exposure to such harm, when scientific investigation has found a plausible risk; these protections should be relaxed only if further scientific findings emerge that provide sound evidence that no harm will result.

The principle has become an underlying rationale for a large and increasing number of international treaties and declarations in the fields of sustainable development, environmental protection, health and food safety, although at times it has attracted debate over how to define it and apply it to complex scenarios with multiple risks. In some legal systems, as in law of the European Union, the application of the precautionary principle has been made a statutory requirement in some areas of law. Regarding international conduct, the first endorsement of the principle was in 1982 when the World Charter for Nature was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, while its first international implementation was in 1987 through the Montreal Protocol. Soon after, the principle integrated with many other binding international treaties such as the Rio Declaration and Kyoto Protocol; the concept "precautionary principle" is considered to have arisen in English from a translation of the German term Vorsorgeprinzip in the 1980s.

In 1988, Konrad von Moltke described the German concept for a British audience, which he translated into English as the precautionary principle. The concepts underpinning the precautionary principle pre-date the term's inception. For example, the essence of the principle is captured in a number of cautionary aphorisms such as "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure", "better safe than sorry", "look before you leap"; the precautionary principle may be interpreted as the evolution of the "ancient-medical principle" of "first, do no harm" to apply to institutions and institutional decision-making processes rather than individuals. In economics, the Precautionary Principle has been analysed in terms of "the effect on rational decision-making", of "the interaction of irreversibility" and "uncertainty". Authors such as Epstein and Arrow and Fischer show that "irreversibility of possible future consequences" creates a "quasi-option effect" which should induce a "risk-neutral" society to favour current decisions that allow for more flexibility in the future.

Gollier et al. conclude that "more scientific uncertainty as to the distribution of a future risk – that is, a larger variability of beliefs – should induce society to take stronger prevention measures today." Many definitions of the precautionary principle exist: Precaution may be defined as "caution in advance", "caution practised in the context of uncertainty", or informed prudence. Two ideas lie at the core of the principle: an expression of a need by decision-makers to anticipate harm before it occurs. Within this element lies an implicit reversal of the onus of proof: under the precautionary principle it is the responsibility of an activity-proponent to establish that the proposed activity will not result in significant harm; the concept of proportionality of the risk and the cost and feasibility of a proposed action. One of the primary foundations of the precautionary principle, globally accepted definitions, results from the work of the Rio Conference, or "Earth Summit" in 1992; the principle 15 of the Rio Declaration notes: "In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be applied by States according to their capabilities.

Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation."The 1998 Wingspread Statement on the Precautionary Principle summarises the principle this way: "When an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken if some cause and effect relationships are not established scientifically." The Wingspread Conference on the Precautionary Principle was convened by the Science and Environmental Health Network. In February 2000, the Commission of the European Communities noted in a Communication from the Commission on the Precautionary Principle that, "The precautionary principle is not defined in the Treaties of the European Union, which prescribes it only once – to protect the environment, but in practice, its scope is much wider, where preliminary-objective-scientific-evaluation indicates that there are reasonable grounds for concern that dangerous effects on the environment, animal or plant health may be inconsistent with the high level of protection chosen for the Community."The January 2000 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety says, in regard to controversies over GMOs: "Lack of scientific certainty due to insufficient relevant scientific information... shall not prevent the Party of mpor

International rankings of Italy

The following are international rankings of Italy. Rome: ranked 9. Unemployment: 78th lowest at 6.20% Index of Economic Freedom: ranked 64 Total area: ranked 71 World Resources Institute length of coastline: ranked 28 out of 149 countries Infant mortality rate: ranked 16 Life expectancy: ranked 18 HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate: ranked 73 at 0.5% Total HIV/AIDS adult infections: ranked 42 at 140,000 International Union of Railways: Rail transport network size: ranked 17 CIA World Factbook: road network size 2004, ranked 14 CIA World Factbook: number of airports 2007, ranked 46 CIA World Factbook: waterways length ranked 40 Military expenditures: ranked 7 Economist Intelligence Unit 2012 Democracy Index: ranked 32 out of 167 countries Transparency International 2013 Corruption Perceptions Index: ranked 69 out of 177 countriesFreedom House 2013 Freedom of the Press: ranked 33 out of 197 countries and territories 5th most Christian country in the world by percent of population. 5th most Roman Catholic country in the world by percent of population Quality-of-Life Index: ranked 8 Average IQ: ranked 1 in Europe and 4 the world.

Alcohol consumption: ranked 48 University of Leicester Satisfaction with Life Index 2006, ranked 50 out of 178 countries United Nations Development Programme 2013 Human Development Index ranked 25 out of 187 Association football: Italian men's team are 2nd in the world in FIFA World Rankings, 4th in the world in World Football Elo Ratings Italian women's team are 13th in the world in FIFA Women's World Rankings Basketball: Italy national basketball team are 8th in the world in FIBA World Rankings Cricket: Italian cricket team are 27th in the world. 6th most successful nation on the All-time Olympic Games medal table 5th most successful nation on the All-time Olympic Games medal table. 11th most successful nation on the All-time Olympic Games medal table. Rugby league: Italy national rugby league team are 16th in the world on the RLIF World Rankings Rugby Union: Italy national rugby union team are 10th in the world on the IRB World Rankings Water Polo: Italy men's national water polo team are 6th in the world Italy women's national water polo team are 1st in the world Volleyball: Italy men's national volleyball team are 6th in the world on the FIVB World Rankings Italy women's national volleyball team are 2nd in the world in the FIVB World Rankings World Economic Forum 2013 Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index: ranked 26 out of 140 economies United Nations World Tourism Organization 2012 international tourism receipts: ranked 5 United Nations World Tourism Organization 2012 international tourism expenditures: ranked 10 Lists of countries Lists by country List of international rankings

Reza Badiyi

Reza Sayed Badiyi known as Reza Badiei was an Iranian-American film director. Badiyi directed episodes of many popular television series, his credits include developing the opening montages for Hawaii Five-O, Get Smart, The Mary Tyler Moore Show. Badiyi was born April 1930, in Arak, Iran, his parents were from Iran. He graduated from the Academy of Drama in Iran, he worked with the Audio Visual Department in Tehran, completed 24 documentary films, prior to leaving the country. Badiyi moved to the United States in 1955, in order to continue his film studies at Syracuse University, he was invited by the United States Department of State to continue his studies in America after winning an international film award for Flood in Khuzestan. He graduated from Syracuse University with a degree in filmmaking. Badiyi worked with Robert Altman. Badiyi was assistant director on the low-budget 1957 film The Delinquents, which marked Altman's feature film debut as a director and the cult classic horror film Carnival of Souls, made in 1962.

Early in his career, he directed episodes of Get Smart, Mission: Impossible, Hawaii Five-O, The Incredible Hulk, The Six Million Dollar Man and Hutch, The Rockford Files and Police Squad!. He directed the definitive "fashion show" sequence of the third season of the popular Doris Day Show. There were lowlights, as well, including directing the unsold pilot for Inside O. U. T. starring up-and-coming actress Farrah Fawcett and a chimp for Screen Gems in 1971. In the 1980s and 1990s, he directed episodes of Falcon Crest and Lacey, Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Le Femme Nikita and Baywatch; this is list showing a selection of entertainment directed by Reza Badiyi, in order by start date. He directed more than 430 television episodes from 1963 onward. 2006 – The Way Back Home 2003 – She Spies 1999 – Early Edition 1999–1998 – Sliders 1999–1998 – Mortal Kombat: Conquest 1997 – La Femme Nikita 1997 – Buffy the Vampire Slayer 1997 – The Cape 1996 – Baywatch 1994–1996 – Star Trek: Deep Space Nine 1992–1994 – In the Heat of the Night 1985–1986 – T. J. Hooker 1982–1988 – Cagney & Lacey 1982-1984 – Joe Dancer 1978–1980 – The Incredible Hulk 1977–1979 – The Rockford Files 1976–1978 – Baretta 1974 – The Six Million Dollar Man 1970–1971 – The Doris Day Show 1969–1979 – Hawaii Five-O 1969–1972 – Mission: Impossible 1969 – The Good Guys In the mid-1970s he received the Golden Ribbon of Art award from the reigning Shah of Iran.

He won various awards, including the Humanitas Prize for an episode of Cagney and Lacey. He was honored by the Directors Guild of America for directing over 400 hours of television. On May 2010, Badiyi was honored at UCLA for his 80th birthday and his 60th year in the entertainment industry. In 2009, he was honored with a Lifetime Achievement Award at the Noor Iranian Film Festival in Los Angeles, after his passing in 2011, the festival made the award his namesake. Badiyi's third and last marriage was to actress Tania Harley from 1987 until his death in 2011, with whom he had two daughters, Alexis Badiyi and Natasha Badiyi, his second marriage was to writer Barbara Turner. By this marriage he was her sister Carrie Morrow, his first marriage was to Gwendolyn Davis. He is the father of Steve Badiyi and Mimi Badiyi, the stepfather to Clifford Davis. Badiyi died in Los Angeles, California on August 20, 2011 at the age of 81, having struggled with various health issues. Reza Badiei on IMDb Reza Badiyi at Memory Alpha Reza Badiyi at The Interviews: An Oral History of Television OCPC Magazine Cover story: Reza Badiei - The last TV tycoon Veteran TV director Reza Badiei feted

I'm on a Boat

"I'm on a Boat" is a single from The Lonely Island's debut album Incredibad. It was featured as a Saturday Night Live Digital Short; the song features R&B singer T-Pain. The song, produced by Wyshmaster, is a parody of many rap video clichés the music video for the Jay-Z song "Big Pimpin'." The music video reached number one on YouTube in February 2009 and was number one on the US iTunes music video chart. The song was nominated for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration at the 52nd Grammy Awards; the Lonely Island has performed the song live on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon with Black Thought filling in for T-Pain. The song went platinum. Wyshmaster claimed in an interview that a record label contacted him asking for beats to use in a mixtape featuring a "St. Louis rapper". Wyshmaster sent a collection of "throwaway" tracks to the label, hearing back from them several months asking to use a track for The Lonely Island, a group he did not at the time recognize, he recalled that found out that his track was on Saturday Night Live and featured T-Pain only after a relative contacted him.

Wyshmaster claimed that T-Pain asked for and received 10% of the revenue from the track, that he received "around 35%", but only after prolonged negotiations. He stated that as of June 2019, the track is "still doing well". T-Pain said that The Lonely Island contacted him with the song and asked if he was interested in collaborating. Although he was confused about the premise, T-Pain said that after learning that it was a digital short he agreed; the song features an aggressive delivery of the lyrics which are peppered with strong profanity throughout while making simple proclamations, ranging from the mundane to the absurd. Schaffer at one time claims to be riding a wild dolphin, doing flips, at another time to be climbing buoys. Samberg sings that he's "king of the world, on a boat like Leo" referring to Leonardo DiCaprio in the movie Titanic, mentions Kevin Garnett's 2008 NBA championship finals victory quote "anything is possible". Directed by Akiva Schaffer, the video opens with Andy Samberg —, sitting at the kitchen table with bandmates Akiva Schaffer and Jorma Taccone — pouring cereal into a bowl.

To his delight, a coupon for a free boat ride for three falls out of the box. After pondering who will go with him, Samberg picks Schaffer but skips over Taccone in favor of the unseen R&B singer T-Pain, sitting at the table, off camera, the entire time; the three men are next seen atop the yacht Never Say Never in Biscayne Bay, dressed in tuxedos as Samberg announces that the boat is preparing to launch. The video shows flashes of the left-out Taccone at comparatively mundane places, for example, "at Kinko's straight flippin' copies", taking out the trash, or lifting a parking ticket from his car; the rap portion of the video places Samberg, Schaffer and T-Pain throughout the boat and in varying attire, including a flight suit, traditional sailor costumes, white naval uniforms, "a nautical-themed pashmina afghan" and typical casual and formal resort wear. T-Pain recounted that the helicopter used to take the aerial shots, combined with the cool breeze, was "spraying so much water on us" that it made for the "probably the worst video day I've been through".

Giving the song four stars, Rolling Stone said it is "one of the strongest Saturday Night Live hip-hop hits since Eddie Murphy was funny." Stereogum called the tune "a 2:42 masterclass in stunting." The A. V. Club said the song "holds up well on physical media." As of April 2011, the video has been viewed more than 110 million times on YouTube alone and was featured by Entertainment Weekly, G4's Attack of the Show. In December 2009, "I'm on a Boat" received a nomination for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration at the 52nd Grammy Awards, a category held for a rhymed/sung collaborative performance by artists who do not perform together, losing to Jay-Z, Kanye West, Rihanna's song "Run This Town". On April 8, 2016, Elon Musk tweeted out subsequently deleted, a link to the song when the SpaceX Falcon 9 made its first landing "on a boat"; the featured artist T-Pain made a call back to the song on The Masked Singer when he was The Monster, With his "revealing clue" being "I got the music, the lyrics, the cadence to take them down -- whether it's in my cave, at the bar, or on a boat."

The 2009 video game Borderlands contains the secret achievement "You're on a boat!" with the description "I bet you never thought you'd be here", a reference to the song's lyrics "Never thought I'd be on a boat". "I'm on a Boat" music video on YouTube "I'm on a Boat" music video on YouTube Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations

The European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations is a Brussels-based trade association founded in 1978 representing the research-based pharmaceutical industry operating in Europe. Through its membership of 33 national associations and 40 leading pharmaceutical companies, EFPIA represents 1,900 EU companies committed to researching and manufacturing new medical treatments. Figures published in 2008 by the European Commission show that the pharmaceutical industry is the industrial sector which invests most in research & development. In 2011, it invested an estimated €27,500 million in R&D in Europe, it directly generated three to four times more employment indirectly. The key contribution of the research-based pharmaceutical industry to medical progress is to turn fundamental research into innovative treatments that are available and accessible to patients, with the goal of helping people live longer and be healthier. High blood pressure and cardiovascular disease can be controlled with anti-hypertensive medicines and cholesterol-lowering medicines, knee or hip replacements prevent patients from immobility, some cancers can be controlled or cured thanks to newer targeted medicines.

Yet there remain huge challenges in many disease areas such as Alzheimer, multiple sclerosis, many cancers and orphan diseases. EFPIA includes two specialised groups focusing on vaccines and biotechnology respectively: Vaccines Europe produce 80% of vaccines used worldwide. European Biopharmaceutical Enterprises harness biotechnology to develop one-fifth of new medicines; the industry's efforts are focused around four key areas - the AIMS - Roadmap of priorities Access, Mobilization, Security programme. Access refers to the need to continue to work towards speeding up regulatory approval and reimbursement processes for new medicines. Innovation focuses on efforts towards creating a strong science base in Europe and making Europe an attractive location for the best researchers. Mobilization is about joining forces with key stakeholders to address the challenges of an ageing population and deliver modern and sustainable healthcare. Security refers to the need to strengthen the integrity and transparency of the pharmaceutical supply chain by addressing the safety concerns of parallel trade.

In 2010 the pharmaceutical industry invested about €27,800 million in R&D in Europe. After a decade of strong US market dominance, which led to a significant shift of economic and pharmaceutical research activity towards the US during the period 1995-2005, Europe is now facing increasing competition from emerging economies. Today there is rapid growth in the market and research environment in emerging economies such as Brazil and India, resulting in further migration of economic and research activities outside of Europe to these fast-growing markets; the geographical balance of the pharmaceutical market – and the R&D base – is to shift towards emerging economies. All new medicines introduced into the market are the result of lengthy and risky research and development conducted by pharmaceutical companies: By the time a medicinal product reaches the market, an average of 12–13 years will have elapsed since the first synthesis of the new active substance. There is rapid growth in the research environment in emerging economies such as India.

The current tendency to close R&D sites in Europe and to open new sites in Asia will show dramatic effects to maintain the pharmaceutical discovery expertise in the EU. The United States still dominates the biopharmaceutical field, accounting for the three quarters of the world’s biotechnology revenues and R&D spending. In 2007 North America accounted for 45.9% of world pharmaceutical sales against 31.1% for Europe. According to IMS Health data, 66% of sales of new medicines launched during the period 2004-2008 were generated on the US market, compared with 26% on the European market. Source: Eurostat EFPIA The Innovative Medicines Initiative is a public-private partnership designed by the European Commission and EFPIA, it is a pan-European collaboration that brings together large biopharmaceutical companies, small- and medium-sized enterprises, patient organisations, academia and public authorities. The initiative aims to accelerate the discovery and development of better medicines by removing bottlenecks in the drug development process.

It focuses on creating better methods and tools that improve and enhance the drug development process, rather than on developing specific, new medicines. The

Park Yong-ju

Park Yong-ju is a South Korean singer and songwriter signed to Mostworks Entertainment. He debuted with the song "In Your Eyes" under the stage name ‘YONGZOO’, on May 22, 2018. Park Yong-ju had trained for three years in SM Entertainment, the leading entertainment agency in South Korea, he became an associate member of the company's pre-debut training team SM Rookies with the stage name "Yongju", although he did not get introduced. His only documented activity with the pre-debut team was a performance in "SM Town Week" in 2013 alongside the now-NCT members. Park participated as a contestant in a boy group survival reality show named "Super Idol", co-hosted by China's Anhui Satellite TV and South Korea's MBC Music TV. Along in the two seasons, he maintained his high-quality performances. In the final of the season 1, his team "B Swan" won the show's champion, and in the final of the season 2, he became the first winner of the show and won a debut quota as a member of a new boy group. In 2017, Park started to use the stage name Jhomie to launch songs.

He collaborated with music composer FERDY in "FERDY's Project". They launched 2 songs on August 2017 and in January 2018; the first single in "FERDY's Project vol.1" is named 빛이보여, released on August 2017. In addition to participate the vocal part, Park took part in the lyrics creation. In January 2018, they released "FERDY's Project vol.2". The single is named 그 자리에서. In addition to participate in the vocal part, he took part in the creations of melody and lyrics. Park is signed to MostWorks Entertainment as a solo artist and debuted on May 22, 2018 with stage name YONGZOO. Since his debut, he participated in soundtracks for television dramas including Are You Human Too )and The Third Charm ). MostWorks Entertainment Official Website