Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. In an appropriate reference frame it can be defined as a change in the first Euler angle, whereas the third Euler angle defines the rotation itself. In other words, if the axis of rotation of a body is itself rotating about a second axis, that body is said to be precessing about the second axis. A motion in which the second Euler angle changes is called nutation. In physics, there are two types of precession: torque-induced. In astronomy, precession refers to any of several slow changes in an astronomical body's rotational or orbital parameters. An important example is the steady change in the orientation of the axis of rotation of the Earth, known as the precession of the equinoxes. Torque-free precession implies. In torque-free precession, the angular momentum is a constant, but the angular velocity vector changes orientation with time. What makes this possible is a time-varying moment of inertia, or more a time-varying inertia matrix.

The inertia matrix is composed of the moments of inertia of a body calculated with respect to separate coordinate axes. If an object is asymmetric about its principal axis of rotation, the moment of inertia with respect to each coordinate direction will change with time, while preserving angular momentum; the result is that the component of the angular velocities of the body about each axis will vary inversely with each axis' moment of inertia. The torque-free precession rate of an object with an axis of symmetry, such as a disk, spinning about an axis not aligned with that axis of symmetry can be calculated as follows: ω p = I s ω s I p cos ⁡ where ωp is the precession rate, ωs is the spin rate about the axis of symmetry, Is is the moment of inertia about the axis of symmetry, Ip is moment of inertia about either of the other two equal perpendicular principal axes, α is the angle between the moment of inertia direction and the symmetry axis; when an object is not solid, internal vortices will tend to damp torque-free precession, the rotation axis will align itself with one of the inertia axes of the body.

For a generic solid object without any axis of symmetry, the evolution of the object's orientation, represented by a rotation matrix R that transforms internal to external coordinates, may be numerically simulated. Given the object's fixed internal moment of inertia tensor I0 and fixed external angular momentum L, the instantaneous angular velocity is ω = R I 0 − 1 R T L Precession occurs by recalculating ω and applying a small rotation vector ω dt for the short time dt; the errors induced by finite time steps tend to increase the rotational kinetic energy: E = ω ⋅ L 2 this unphysical tendency can be counteracted by applying a small rotation vector v perpendicular to both ω and L, noting that E ≈ E + ⋅ v Torque-induced precession is the phenomenon in which the axis of a spinning object describes a cone in space when an external torque is applied to it. The phenomenon is seen in a spinning toy top, but all rotating objects can undergo precession. If the speed of the rotation and the magnitude of the external torque are constant, the spin axis will move at right angles to the direction that would intuitively result from the external torque.

In the case of a toy top, its weight is acting downwards from its center of mass and the normal force of the ground is pushing up on it at the point of contact with the support. These two opposite forces produce a torque which causes the top to p

Manolo Reyes

Manolo de Jesus Reyes Xiques JD was a Cuban-American Spanish-language television news broadcaster in Miami, Florida. Reyes became a television news pioneer in the 1960s when he began one of South Florida's first Spanish-language newscasters, his first 15-minute news show, News En Español, debuted on WTVJ on August 28, 1960 at 6:45 am, at a time when Spanish-language broadcasts were rare in the Miami metropolitan area. His original broadcasts were aimed at making news accessible to the growing Spanish-speaking, Miami-based Cuban exile community. Reyes was born in Cuba, where he worked as radio performer and singer, he obtained a law degree from the University of Havana before moving to the United States. Manolo Reyes, who resided in the Miami area in the 1950s and 1960s, realized that there were no television news shows aimed at the growing Cuban exile community after the Communist takeover of Cuba by Fidel Castro in the Cuban Revolution. Despite his limited English, Reyes pitched his idea to the founder of WTVJ, Mitchell Wolfson, Miami television pioneer Ralph Renick.

Renick and Woflson agreed to let. The station had to have the test show critiqued by a University of Miami linguistics professor because no one at WTVJ spoke Spanish at the time. Wolfson agreed to broadcast Reyes' Spanish-language news segments. Reyes' first 15-minute news show, News En Español, debuted on August 28, 1960. News En Español aired on weekdays at 6:45 am, just before the Skipper Chuck Show, at 1 am, just before the WTVJ's sign-off for the night. Spanish-speaking viewers the Cuban exile community, were delighted by Reyes's news show, despite the difficult viewing times. Conversely, non-Spanish speakers were outraged by the broadcast of an all-Spanish show. Reyes' newscast was so popular that it was expanded, his initial assignments for the station involved coverage of Miami's arriving Cuban refugees. Reyes was promoted to the station's Latin America news editor. Reyes became a regular contributor on the WTVJ's well-known English-language show The Ralph Renick Report, he began contributing nationally on Walter Cronkite's CBS Evening News.

He left television after 19 years. He obtained a second law degree from the University of Miami before becoming an executive director at Mercy Hospital in Miami, he remained at that position for nearly 20 years until his retirement in 2005. Reyes was honored for his pioneering work in television by the Miami Chapter of the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences in 1991. Reyes founded a number of Miami community organizations including the YMCA Jose Martí, the Cuban Sertoma Club, the Spanish Post of Veterans of Foreign Wars, he served on the board of directors several other organizations, including the Hialeah-Miami Springs Chamber of Commerce, Easter Seals, the United Way and Barry University. Reyes was the recipient of several awards for his work in the media and nonprofit arenas, as well as the greater Miami-Dade community including... An Emmy Award for broadcast journalism; the Key to the City of Hialeah The Key to the City of Key West The Archbishop Hurley Award Pentagon Award for Human Goals Manolo Reyes died of complications from Parkinson's disease on January 3, 2008 at the age of 83.

His funeral was held at Saints Paul Roman Catholic Church in Miami. Reyes was survived by three children, Manolo Jr.. Charlie and Grace, 10 grandchildren and four great-grandchildren. Reyes was buried in Woodlawn Park Cemetery in Miami, Florida, on January 4, 2008. Mercy Hospital Press Release:Manolo Reyes Retires After Years of Service to Mercy Hospital and Decades of Advocacy on Behalf of the Poor

The Burbank Studios

The Burbank Studios is a television production facility located in Burbank, California. The studio is home to Days of Our Lives, the IHeartRadio Theater, the Blizzard eSports Arena; the West Coast Radio City opened in 1938 and served as headquarters to the NBC Radio Networks' West Coast operations. It served as a replacement for NBC's radio broadcast center in San Francisco, in service since the network's formation in 1927. Since NBC never owned a radio station in Los Angeles, the network's West Coast programming originated from its San Francisco station; the architect for the distinctive Streamline Moderne building at Sunset and Vine was John C. Austin. In January 1949, NBC launched its newest television station for KNBH from Radio City. However, as television production was increasing for NBC, the network and its then-parent the Radio Corporation of America, decided to build a television studio, nicknamed NBC Color City, that would be equipped for color television broadcasting. For many of the same reasons why CBS built Television City in the early 1950s, the television facilities at Radio City became too small for NBC to produce its television broadcasts.

RCA's decision to expand television studio facilities required moving to the real estate market in the San Fernando Valley-Burbank area, with land purchased from Jack Warner. The newly christened NBC Color City Studios opened in March 1955, as the first television studio designed specially for the origination of color television broadcasting, although their rivals, ABC and CBS would add color broadcasting to their studio facilities in the years. KNBC moved to a new building in 1962. In 1964, the West Coast Radio City building was demolished, as NBC moved more of their West Coast television operations to the Burbank facility; the site is now occupied by a bank. This studio hosted production of many of the best-remembered game and variety shows from the 1950s through the 1990s, including Rowan and Martin's Laugh-in beginning in 1968 and The Tonight Show beginning in 1972, both shows would reference their home in "Beautiful Downtown Burbank." In that year, Johnny Carson moved "The Tonight Show" to California from New York where it remained until 2014, when Jimmy Fallon moved it back to Rockefeller Center.

During the late 1960s, Carson's Tonight Show would move for periods to Burbank, using studio 1. After the permanent move to Burbank in 1972, Bob Hope's show taped in studio 1, with The Tonight Show taking a hiatus while Hope produced his specials; the short-lived The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien taped a few miles away at Universal Studios in Studio One. Upon Jay Leno's return as host of The Tonight Show in 2010, the program returned to the Burbank facility utilizing the same studio and set as the previous primetime The Jay Leno Show, until his final departure from NBC in 2014. On October 2, 2017, Studio 1 became the official home of Blizzard Arena Los Angeles and the Overwatch League, marking Burbank Studios' first eSports broadcast; the inaugural season began on January 10, 2018, in which over 437,000 viewers tuned in live on opening night via Twitch and streaming platforms. In October 2007, NBC announced their plans to move most of its operations from Burbank to a new complex across the street from Universal Studios in Universal City.

It would retain offices at the Burbank site until May 2013, though the studio complex was sold to Catalina/Worthe Real Estate Group in 2008 with NBCUniversal leasing space until 2013. The former Technicolor building on the Universal lot serves as the new home to NBC's West Coast Operations. KNBC 4 and NBC News, along with KVEA Telemundo 52, began broadcasting from Universal Studios on February 2, 2014. In preparation for the move, The Ellen DeGeneres Show moved to the nearby Warner Bros. Studios in 2008, when Conan O'Brien assumed hosting duties, The Tonight Show moved to an all-digital studio on the Universal lot in 2009; the Jay Leno Show continued to broadcast from the NBC Burbank studios as Leno's Tonight Show had, though from Studio 11. From March 1, 2010 to February 6, 2014, Leno's second run as host of The Tonight Show taped at Studio 11; the Tonight Show moved back to New York City in 2014 when Jimmy Fallon replaced Leno as host, marking the end of the 42-year era in which the show had taped from Southern California.

The Burbank facility was one of the few television-specific studio facilities in Hollywood that offered tours to the general public until they ceased July 6, 2012. On March 13, 2014, Lawrence O'Donnell announced that his MSNBC broadcast that night would be the last nationally televised network show to be broadcast live from NBC's Burbank studio, with the move of the NBC News Los Angeles bureau to Universal City. Today, the studio houses Days of Our Lives, Overwatch League, the IHeartRadio Theater. Programs produced here over the years include: In 2019, Warner Bros. announced that it is buying the studio which should be completed by 2023 in time for the studio's 100th anniversary. 30 Rockefeller Plaza NBC Tower NBC Radio City Studios Official website