Precision Air Services Plc is a Tanzanian airline based at Julius Nyerere International Airport in Dar es Salaam, with a minihub at Mwanza Airport. The airline operates scheduled passenger services to Nairobi and airports in Tanzania. Precision Air was incorporated in Tanzania in January 1991 as a private airline and started operations in 1993. At first, it operated as a private charter air transport company but in November 1993 changed to offering scheduled services to serve the growing tourist market. In 2006, Precision Air became the first Tanzanian airline to pass the IATA Operational Safety Audit, its most recent certificate will expire 22 September 2018. In April 2011, the airline became a public company. Precision Air was owned until 2003, when Kenya Airways acquired a 49 percent stake, paying US$2 million, weeks after its rival South African Airways acquired a 49 percent stake in Air Tanzania for US$20 million; the remaining 51 percent was retained by the founder of the airline. In October 2011, Precision Air floated shares in its stock in an initial public offering on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange, after which Shirima's and Kenya Airways's stakes declined and the new share subscribers owned 15.86 percent.
As of 31 March 2016, the major shareholders were: The trends for the Precision Air group over recent years are shown below. Because it was a private company until 2011, published figures were not available before the initial public offering prospectus of 12 September 2011; the figures for the group are: Precision Air reported in August 2013 that for the year ending 31 March 2013, its maintenance costs increased to TSH:23.6 billion from 11.9 billion for the previous year. The increase was caused by the high cost of maintaining its Boeing 737 fleet. Published reports in June 2013 indicated that Precision Air had encountered substantial financial difficulties, stemming in part from losses incurred while operating flights to and from Johannesburg, South Africa; those flights ended in September 2012. The Citizen, a Tanzanian newspaper, reported in August 2013 that the airline "desperately" needed a US$32 million bailout package from the Tanzanian government or other non-shareholder sources; the airline's problems increased in 2011 when it received only US$7.4 million of the US$17.5 million in cash that the airline hoped to receive when first listed on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange.
Increasing fuel prices and levies plus currency fluctuations and the refusal of minority owner Kenya Airways to contribute capital had hurt the airline. As of December 2017, the airline served the following 20 locations: Precision Air has codeshare agreements with the following four airlines: Etihad Airways Kenya Airways LAM Mozambique Airlines RwandAir In 2011, Precision Air entered into an interline agreement with Qatar Airways, allowing the latter's passengers to connect to other east African destinations such as Arusha and Zanzibar via Dar es Salaam and Kilimanjaro International Airport; this agreement includes e-ticketing. As of 23 December 2014, Precision Air had 21 interline agreements for baggage and paper ticketing purposes with the following airlines: Air Seychelles, British Airways, Emirates Ethiopian Airlines, Etihad Airways, Gulf Air, Hahn Air, Heli Air Monaco, Kenya Airways, KLM LAM Mozambique Airlines Oman Air RwandAir Saudia SN Brussels Airlines South African Airways Swiss International Air Lines TAAG Angola Airlines Virgin Atlantic Airlines.
As of September 2016, the Precision Air fleet included the following aircraft: The airline has operated the following aircraft: According to the Aviation Safety Network Precision Air has had five accidents or incidents. 26 July 1999: A Let L-410UVP-E9, tail number 5H-PAB, made a belly landing at Arusha Airport on a training flight while doing touch and go. The two crew and three passengers were not injured. 16 November 2004: A Let L-410UVP-E20, tail number 5H-PAC, crash landed while on a training flight at Kilimanjaro Airport. The two pilots, who had not put on their shoulder straps, sustained facial injuries. 8 July 2007: An ATR 72-212, tail number 5H-PAR, had a runway excursion on landing at Nairobi's Jomo Kenyatta International Airport runway 06. It veered off to the right, went over a ditch, came to a stop on Taxiway F; the nose wheel collapsed. The four crew and 62 passengers were not injured; the aircraft was damaged. The probable cause of this accident was power asymmetry during application of reverse thrust on landing.
The control levers were jammed in one position. On 13 December 2013, an ATR 42-600 made a safe landing at Arusha Airport after its four tires deflated upon landing. All 37 passengers and 4 crew were safe; the airline subsequently explained that higher braking forces, necessitated by the aircraft landing with a tail wind, caused the deflations. 10 July 2014: An ATR 72-500, tail number 5H-PWA, was halfway en route to Dar es Salaam from Mwanza during normal cruise when the number 2 engine seized. This necessitated a diversion to Kilimanjaro International Airport; the aircraft touched down normally.
The Precision 15 is a self-bailing dinghy designed by Jim Taylor in 1988. It is built at Precision Boatworks in Florida. Precision Boatworks website
Dell Precision Workstations are computers intended as workstations for CAD / Architecture / CG professionals, or as small-scale business servers. Dell announced a new series of Latitude laptops in August 2013: the 3000 series, the 5000 series and the 7000 series. In October 2015, Dell announced the first generation of Precision mobile workstations of this series with model numbers 3510, 5510, 7510 and 7710. In January 2017, Dell announced the second generation laptops in this series with model numbers 3520, 5520, 7520 and 7720. In April 2018, Dell announced the third generation of laptops in this series with model numbers 3530, 5530, 7530 and 7730; the first generation of Precision laptops is compatible with the E-Series Advanced Port Replicators except the 5510. The Precision 3520 & 5520 do not support the E-Series docking station but the 7520 & 7720 do. With the xx30 Precisions, the E-Series dock port has been dropped. Dell launched the E Series of laptops on August 12, 2008 with a collection of Latitude and Precision computers.
Both the Latitude and Precision computers are compatible with the new E Series docking stations. Notably, the 17" models do not share a chassis with the Inspiron series anymore; some of QHD and RGB LED-backlit FHD models have a disabled iGPU. This has several downsides: the power consumption during low load is high and thus the battery runtimes suffer despite the high-capacity battery, Intel's QuickSync Video cannot be used; these Precision models were released at the same time as their D-series Latitude counterparts. They are compatible with the D-series docking stations, there are various accessories that are interchangeable with other Dell models, such as the battery or CD drive, depending on the Precision model; some of these models with NVIDIA G8x and G9x-based GPUs can suffer from GPU failure. These Precisions were based on the Latitude C810 and C840, which in turn were based on the Inspiron 8100 and 8200. Dell Precision Workstations Dell Precision Mobile Workstations Precision T7600 user manual Precision T3500 technical guide inforocked.com
Ubuntu version history
Ubuntu releases are made semiannually by Canonical Ltd, the developers of the Ubuntu operating system, using the year and month of the release as a version number. The first Ubuntu release, for example, was Ubuntu 4.10 and was released on 20 October 2004. Version numbers for future versions are provisional. Canonical schedules Ubuntu releases to occur one month after GNOME releases, which in turn come about one month after releases of X. Org, resulting in each Ubuntu release including a newer version of GNOME and X; every fourth release—occurring in the second quarter of even-numbered years—has been designated as a long-term support release. The desktop version of LTS releases for 10.04 and earlier were supported for three years, with server version support for five years. LTS releases 12.04, 14.04 and 16.04 are supported for five years, while Ubuntu 18.04 LTS is supported for ten years. The support period for non-LTS releases is 9 months. Prior to 13.04, it was 18 months. Ubuntu releases are given code names, using an adjective and an animal with the same first letter - an alliteration.
With the exception of the first two releases, code names are in alphabetical order, allowing a quick determination of which release is newer. As of Ubuntu 17.10, the initial letter'rolled over' and returned to'A'. Names are chosen so that animal appearance or habits reflects some new feature. Ubuntu releases are referred to using only the adjective portion of the code name. Ubuntu 4.10, released on 20 October 2004, was Canonical's first release of Ubuntu, building upon Debian, with plans for a new release every six months and eighteen months of support thereafter. Ubuntu 4.10's support ended on 30 April 2006. Ubuntu 4.10 was offered as a free download and, through Canonical's ShipIt service, was mailed to users free of charge in CD format. Ubuntu 5.04, released on 8 April 2005, was Canonical's second release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu 5.04's support ended on 31 October 2006. Ubuntu 5.04 added many new features including an Update Manager, upgrade notifier and grepmap, suspend and standby support, dynamic frequency scaling for processors, Ubuntu hardware database, Kickstart installation, APT authentication.
Ubuntu 5.04 was the first version. Beginning with Ubuntu 5.04, UTF-8 became the default character encoding. Ubuntu 5.10, released on 12 October 2005, was Canonical's third release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu 5.10's support ended on 13 April 2007. Ubuntu 5.10 added several new features including a graphical bootloader, an Add/Remove Applications tool, a menu editor, an easy language selector, logical volume management support, full Hewlett-Packard printer support, OEM installer support, a new Ubuntu logo in the top-left, Launchpad integration for bug reporting and software development. Ubuntu 6.06, released on 1 June 2006, was Canonical's fourth release, the first long-term support release. Ubuntu 6.06 was released behind schedule, having been intended as 6.04. It is sometimes jokingly described as their first'Late To Ship' release. Development was not complete in April 2006 and Mark Shuttleworth approved slipping the release date to June, making it 6.06 instead. Ubuntu 6.06's support ended in June 2011 for servers.
Ubuntu 6.06 included several new features, including having the Live CD and Install CD merged onto one disc, a graphical installer on Live CD, Usplash on shutdown as well as startup, a network manager for easy switching of multiple wired and wireless connections, Humanlooks theme implemented using Tango guidelines, based on Clearlooks and featuring orange colors instead of brown, GDebi graphical installer for package files. Ubuntu 6.06 did not include a means to install from a USB device, but did for the first time allow installation directly onto removable USB devices. Ubuntu 6.10, released on 26 October 2006, was Canonical's fifth release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu 6.10's support ended on 25 April 2008. Ubuntu 6.10 added several new features including a modified Human theme, Upstart init daemon, automated crash reports, Tomboy note taking application, F-Spot photo manager. EasyUbuntu, a third party program designed to make Ubuntu easier to use, was included in Ubuntu 6.10 as a meta-package. Ubuntu 7.04, released on 19 April 2007, was Canonical's sixth release of Ubuntu.
Ubuntu 7.04's support ended on 19 October 2008. Ubuntu 7.04 included several new features, among them a migration assistant to help former Microsoft Windows users transition to Ubuntu, support for Kernel-based Virtual Machine, assisted codec and restricted drivers installation including Adobe Flash, Java, MP3 support, easier installation of Nvidia and ATI drivers, Compiz desktop effects, support for Wi-Fi Protected Access, the addition of Sudoku and chess, a disk usage analyzer, GNOME Control Center, Zeroconf support for many devices. Ubuntu 7.10, released on 18 October 2007, was Canonical's seventh release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu 7.10's support ended on 18 April 2009. Ubuntu 7.10 included several new features, among them AppArmor security framework, fast desktop search, a Firefox plug-in manager, a graphical configuration tool for X. Org, full NTFS support via NTFS-3G, a revamped printing system with PDF printing by default. Compiz Fusion was enabled as default in Ubuntu 7.10 and Fast user switching was added.
Ubuntu 8.04, released on 24
PA-RISC is an instruction set architecture developed by Hewlett-Packard. As the name implies, it is a reduced instruction set computer architecture, where the PA stands for Precision Architecture; the design is referred to as HP/PA for Hewlett Packard Precision Architecture. The architecture was introduced on 26 February 1986, when the HP 3000 Series 930 and HP 9000 Model 840 computers were launched featuring the first implementation, the TS1. PA-RISC has been succeeded by the Itanium ISA, jointly developed by Intel. HP stopped selling PA-RISC-based HP 9000 systems at the end of 2008 but supported servers running PA-RISC chips until 2013. In the late 1980s, HP was building four series of all based on CISC CPUs. One line was the IBM PC compatible Intel i286-based Vectra Series, started in 1986. All others were non-Intel systems. One of them was the HP Series 300 of Motorola 68000-based workstations, another Series 200 line of technical workstations based on a custom silicon on sapphire chip design, the SOS based 16-bit HP 3000 classic series, the HP 9000 Series 500 minicomputers, based on their own FOCUS microprocessor.
HP planned to use PA-RISC to move all of their non-PC compatible machines to a single RISC CPU family. Precision Architecture is the result of what was known inside Hewlett-Packard as the Spectrum program; the first processors were introduced in 1986. It had sixteen 64-bit floating-point registers; the number of floating-point registers was doubled in the 1.1 version to 32 once it became apparent that 16 were inadequate and restricted performance. The architects included Allen Baum, Hans Jeans, Michael J. Mahon, Ruby Bei-Loh Lee, Russel Kao, Steve Muchnick, Terrence C. Miller, David Fotland, William S. Worley; the first implementation was the TS1, a central processing unit built from discrete transistor-transistor logic devices. Implementations were multi-chip VLSI designs fabricated in NMOS processes and CMOS, they were first used in a new series of HP 3000 machines in the late 1980s – the 930 and 950 known at the time as Spectrum systems, the name given to them in the development labs. These machines ran MPE-XL.
The HP 9000 machines were soon upgraded with the PA-RISC processor as well, running the HP-UX version of UNIX. Other operating systems ported to the PA-RISC architecture include Linux, OpenBSD, NetBSD and NeXTSTEP. An interesting aspect of the PA-RISC line is. Instead large Level 1 caches are used as separate chips connected by a bus, now integrated on-chip. Only the PA-7100LC and PA-7300LC had L2 caches. Another innovation of the PA-RISC was the addition of vectorized instructions in the form of MAX, which were first introduced on the PA-7100LC. Precision RISC Organization, an industry group led by HP, was founded in 1992, to promote the PA-RISC architecture. Members included Convex, Hughes Aircraft, Mitsubishi, NEC, OKI, Prime and Yokogawa; the ISA was extended in 1996 to 64 bits, with this revision named PA-RISC 2.0. PA-RISC 2.0 added fused multiply–add instructions, which help certain floating-point intensive algorithms, the MAX-2 SIMD extension, which provides instructions for accelerating multimedia applications.
The first PA-RISC 2.0 implementation was the PA-8000, introduced in January 1996. Hombre chipset – A PA-7150-based chipset with a complete multimedia system for Commodore-Amiga LostCircuits Hewlett Packard PA8800 RISC Processor overview HP's documentation – page down for PA-RISC, architecture PDFs available OpenPA.net Comprehensive PA-RISC chip and computer information chipdb.org Images of different PA-RISC processors
Fender Precision Bass
The Precision Bass is a bass guitar manufactured by Fender Musical Instruments Corporation. In its standard, post-1957 configuration, the Precision Bass is a solid body, four-stringed instrument equipped with a single split-coil humbucking pickup and a one-piece, 20 fret maple neck with rosewood, pau ferro, or maple fingerboard, its prototype, designed by Leo Fender in 1950, was brought to market in 1951. It was the first electric bass to earn widespread attention and use, remaining among the best-selling and most-imitated electric basses with considerable effect on the sound of popular music; the double bass, as a large instrument, is regarded as physically cumbersome and difficult to transport compared with smaller instruments. It was becoming hard to hear in large bands or those that used amplified instruments, it requires specialised skills to play that are distinct from those required to play the guitar; the Precision Bass was designed to overcome these problems. The name "Precision" came from the use of frets to play in tune more than upon the fretless fingerboard of the double bass.
The electric bass however lacks the distinctive acoustic qualities of the double bass, offering a more solid, harder-edged sound with more sustain. The bass guitar became more dominant and transformed the beat and rhythm of pop music from jump blues and swing to rhythm and blues, rock and funk. Acceptance of the electric bass was helped by the endorsement of Elvis Presley's bass-player Bill Black. Black was beginning to use a Precision Bass during the filming of Jailhouse Rock. Fender delivered an early Precision to LA session bassist and arranger Shifty Henry. Monk Montgomery became the first jazz player to popularize the "Fender Bass" while playing with his brother, guitarist Wes Montgomery; the original Precision Bass of 1951 shared several of its design features with the six-string Telecaster guitar, the main difference being its double cutaway body. In 1954 the Precision Bass received contoured edges for comfort while otherwise retaining the existing Telecaster-like styling. In 1957 the headstock and pickguard were redesigned to resemble Fender's introduced Stratocaster guitar, a rounder neck heel replacing the original square shape.
A redesigned pickguard was made of a single layer of gold-anodized aluminum with 10 screwholes. At the same time the original single-coil pickup was replaced by the Precision split-coil design with staggered polepieces, connected in a humbucking mode. In 1959 a glued-on rosewood fingerboard featuring "clay"-style dot position markers replaced the 1-piece maple neck and remained standard until 1966/67, when the CBS-owned Fender companies began to offer a separate, laminated maple fingerboard capped on a maple neck. Rosewood fingerboards were made of a veneered, round-laminated piece of wood and pearloid dot markers replaced the "clay"-style inlays introduced in 1959. In 1960 the aluminum pickguard was replaced with a 13-screw celluloid design having 3 or 4 layers of black, white pearloid or brown "tortoise-shell"). In that same year the newly designed Fender Jazz Bass was released; the original Telecaster-derived design, with a few updates, was reintroduced in 1968 as the Telecaster Bass. Within a few years, however, it had evolved into a model distinctly different from the contemporary Precision Bass, alongside which it was marketed through 1979.
Two artist-designed models use the Telecaster Bass body style. Since 1969 the 1-piece maple neck option has been fitted to many Fender basses and the rosewood fretboard offered as alternative; some Precision Basses made in the 1970s were available with an unlined fretless rosewood, ebony or maple fingerboard, popularized by endorsees Sting and Tony Franklin. Fender offered a fretless P Bass in the mid-1990s as a part of the first-generation American Standard line but dropped this variant at the end of the 20th century. From 1980 to 1984 the Precision Bass was given a high-mass brass bridge; the Special featured a split-coil pickup with white covers, gold hardware, a 2-band EQ and an active/passive toggle switch. The Elite had one or two split-coil humbucking pickups, TBX tone circuit and a Schaller fine-tune bridge used on the Plus Series models of the early 1990s; some models stained ebony fretboard. Japanese models appeared in late 1984, with a smaller body shape and a modern C-shape maple neck with 22 medium-jumbo frets.
The 1980s and 1990s saw the introduction of the Precision Plus and Deluxe Plus basses in 1989 and 1991, featuring Lace Sensor pickups, fine-tuner bridges, 22-fret necks and passive or active electronics on certain models. The Custom Shop 40th Anniversary model of 1991 was a luxurious version of the Precision Plus Deluxe bass with gold hardware, a quilted maple top and an ebony fretboard with side dot position markers; the American Series Precision Bass was introduced in 2000 and discontinued in 2008. From 2003 the S-1 switching system allowed the pickup coils to be switched from series to parallel,offering a wider tonal range, but this was discontinued in 2008 with the second generation of American Standard Series instruments; the American Standard, American Deluxe, Highway One (featuring'70s styling, BadAss II brid
Precisionism was the first indigenous modern art movement in the United States and an early American contribution to the rise of Modernism. The Precisionist style, which first emerged after World War I and was at the height of its popularity during the 1920s and early 1930s, celebrated the new American landscape of skyscrapers and factories in a form, called "Cubist-Realism." The term "Precisionism" was first coined in the mid-1920s by Museum of Modern Art director Alfred H. Barr. Painters working in this style were known as the "Immaculates,", the more used term at the time; the stiffness of both art-historical labels suggests the difficulties contemporary critics had in attempting to characterize these artists. Influenced by Cubism and Futurism, Precisionism took for its main themes industrialisation and the modernization of the American landscape, the structures of which were depicted in precise defined geometrical forms. Precisionist artists considered themselves American and some were reluctant to acknowledge their European artistic influences.
Yet it was apparent at the time that the fracturing of planes in many Precisionist paintings originates in the Cubism of Picasso and Léger. In the end, Precisionism was less about pure originality of expression and more about an energetic American use and amalgamation of certain European modernist techniques. Part of precisionism's originality is found in its subject outlook. There is a degree of reverence for the industrial age in the movement, but social commentary was not fundamental to the style. Like Pop Art, Precisionism has on occasion been interpreted as a criticism of the de-natured society it portrays, though its artists did not feel comfortable with this reading of their work. Elsie Driggs' Pittsburgh illustrates this gap in perception. A painting of black and gray steel-mill smokestacks, thick piping, crisscrossing wires, with only clouds of smoke to relieve the severity of the image, viewers have been tempted to see this dark painting as a statement of environmental concern. To the contrary, Driggs always claimed that she intended an ironic beauty in the image and referred to it as "my El Greco."
Upon seeing the painting, Charles Daniel dubbed her "one of the new classicists." More than not, Precisionism implicitly celebrated man-made dynamism and new technologies. Possible exceptions to this statement are some of the darker, more claustrophobic city paintings of Louis Lozowick and the comic anti-capitalist satires of Preston Dickinson; as might be expected, varying degrees of abstraction are found in Precisionist works. The Figure 5 in Gold by Charles Demuth, a clamorous hommage to William Carlos Williams' imagist poem about a fire truck is abstract and stylized, while the paintings of Charles Sheeler sometimes verge on a form of photorealism; the majority of Precisionist paintings and drawings, present no obstacles in identifying their imagery. Some Precisionist work tended toward a "highly controlled approach to technique and form" as well as an application of "hard-edged style to long-familiar American scenes". Precisionist artists aimed to convey the geometric and psychological essence of a scene or a structure but intended that essence to be immediately accessible.
Most Precisionist imagery is urban: office towers, apartment houses, tunnels, subway platforms, the skyline and grid of the modern city. Other artists, such as Charles Demuth, Niles Spencer, Ralston Crawford, Sanford Ross, Charles Sheeler, applied the same approach to more pastoral settings and painted starkly geometric renderings of barns, country roads, farm houses. Artists such as Stuart Davis and Gerald Murphy painted. Many American artists worked in a Precisionist style over a twenty-year period. George Ault, Ralston Crawford, Francis Criss, Stuart Davis, Charles Demuth, Preston Dickinson, Elsie Driggs, Louis Lozowick, Gerald Murphy, Charles Sheeler, Niles Spencer, Morton Schamberg and Joseph Stella, were among the most prominent Precisionists. Examples of their work can be found in most major American museum collections. Dale Nichols, Millard Sheets, Virginia Berresford, Henry Billings, Peter Blume, Stefan Hirsch, Edmund Lewandowski, John Storrs, Miklos Suba, Sandor Bernath, Herman Trunk, Arnold Wiltz, Clarence Holbrook Carter, Edgar Corbridge and the photographers Paul Strand and Lewis Hine were other artists associated with Precisionism.
The movement had no major presence outside the United States, although it did influence Australian art where Jeffrey Smart adopted its principles. Although no manifesto was created, some of the artists were friends and exhibited at the same galleries. Georgia O'Keeffe with paintings like New York City with Moon and The Shelton With Sun Spots, created her own more sensuous version of Precisionism, although her best-known works are not related to Precisionism, it would be inaccurate to state that O'Keeffe was aligned with the Precisionist movement, her husband and art dealer Alfred Stieglitz, was a regarded mentor for the group and was supportive of Paul Strand. Precisionist art would have an indirect influence on the styles known as magic realism, pop art, photorealism, but it was considered a dated "period style" by the