Duplicate bridge is the most used variation of contract bridge in club and tournament play. It is called duplicate because the same bridge deal is played at each table and scoring is based on relative performance. In this way, every hand, whether strong or weak, is played in competition with others playing identical cards, the element of skill is heightened while that of chance is reduced. Duplicate bridge stands in contrast to rubber bridge where each hand is freshly dealt and where scores may be more affected by chance in the short run. Bridge boards, simple four-way card holders, are used to enable each player's hand to be passed intact to the next table that must play the deal, final scores are calculated by comparing each pair's result with others who played the same hand. Bidding boxes are used to facilitate the mechanics of bidding, prevent inadvertent passing of information, minimize the noise level. Screens are used in higher levels of competition and were introduced to reduce the chance of passing unauthorised information to one's partner.
In duplicate bridge, a player plays with the same partner throughout an event. The two are known as a "pair". There are two exceptions: in team events with up to six members swapping partners for portions of the event, in individual tournaments, in which players change partners for each round; the origins of duplicate bridge are based on the emergence of duplicate whist in the game of whist. In the introduction to his book Duplicate Whist, the author comments on the early emergence of duplicate whist: The writer has it on good authority that it was played in Berlin and Paris as far back as 1840, in Philadelphia and New York... Mitchell recounts the Cavendish experiment of 1857 to demonstrate the merits of duplicate whist in reducing the element of luck and to distinguish between the skill levels of better and poorer players. Cavendish concludes:...that this experiment does not altogether eliminate luck, as bad play sometimes succeeds. But by far the greater part of luck, that due to the superiority of winning cards, is by the plan described quite got rid of.
Owing to the early clumsy mechanics of card resorting to reconstruct the hands of a just played deal, the problems resulting from errors made in the transferring of cards between tables, the unaccustomed movement of players between tables and the resultant slower pace of play, duplicate whist did not gain instant popularity. The evolution of duplicate whist continued and the procedures and apparatus for more conveniently maintaining and transferring the cards of each deal for replay had been improved so that by the 1890s duplicate's popularity had become widespread. In turn, as the game of whist was superseded by contract bridge, so was duplicate whist by duplicate bridge. In a pairs tournament, each deal is played a number of times by different players, after which all the scores are compared; the tournament consists of a number of rounds. A session consists of between 24 and 28 boards in total, but this can vary. Around eight boards are played per hour, so a typical session will last 3 hours or more.
If there is an odd number of pairs, one pair will have to sit out in each round. Most events are single-session. After a board is played, the North player writes the result of that board on the travelling sheet, the East player checks it; the information recorded includes at least the numbers of the North-South and East-West pairs and the score achieved. The contract and the number of tricks won are recorded, sometimes the opening lead. Sometimes the cards in each hand are written on the traveller, useful in case the cards are inadvertently mixed up; the traveller travels with the board. This means; this might be regarded as an advantage or as a disadvantage: information about their relative standing in the field might induce a pair to change their strategy on the remaining hands. Alternatively, the scores for each round may be recorded on pickup slips collected during the event to enable the scorer to start to process the results before the end of the session, so that the results can be announced soon after the end of the session.
A modern development is an electronic data-entry device on each table that transmits the results wirelessly to the director's computer. This allows results to be posted at a club or on a website quickly after the end of play; the usual form of overall scoring for a pairs tournament is Matchpoint scoring. Every pair plays against a different opposing pair in each successive round, depending on the size of the field. After each round, some or all of the players reseat themselves according to a prescribed "movement", so that each pair opposes a different pair in each round; the movement must be set up so that each pair does not play more than one round against the same opponents. The tournament director will select the movement depending on the number of pairs playing, to allow them to play the desired number of boards each, without repetition. Tournaments with up to about a dozen tables are played either as a Mitchell movement or a Howell movement
Contract bridge, or bridge, is a trick-taking card game using a standard 52-card deck. In its basic format, it is played by four players in two competing partnerships, with partners sitting opposite each other around a table. Millions of people play bridge worldwide in clubs, tournaments and with friends at home, making it one of the world's most popular card games among seniors; the World Bridge Federation is the governing body for international competitive bridge, with numerous other bodies governing bridge at the regional level. The game consists of several deals; the cards are dealt to the players, the players auction or bid to take the contract, specifying how many tricks the partnership receiving the contract needs to take to receive points for the deal. During the auction, partners communicate information about their hand, including its overall strength and the length of its suits, although conventions for use during play exist; the cards are played, the declaring side trying to fulfill the contract, the defenders trying to stop the declaring side from achieving its goal.
The deal is scored based on the number of tricks taken, the contract, various other factors which depend to some extent on the variation of the game being played. Rubber bridge is the most popular variation for casual play, but most club and tournament play involves some variant of duplicate bridge, in which the cards are not re-dealt on each occasion, but the same deal is played by two or more sets of players to enable comparative scoring. For competition level, so called IMP score is of high significance. One theory is. Bridge departed from whist with the creation of Biritch in the 19th century, evolved through the late 19th and early 20th centuries to form the present game; the word biritch itself is a spelling of the Russian word Бирюч, an occupation of a diplomatic clerk or an announcer. However some experts think. Another theory is; the game "got its name from the Galata Bridge, a bridge spanning the Golden Horn and linking the old and new parts of European Istanbul, where they crossed every day to go to a coffeehouse to play cards."
Bridge is a four-player partnership trick-taking game with thirteen tricks per deal. The dominant variations of the game are rubber bridge; each player is dealt thirteen cards from a standard 52-card deck. A trick starts when a player leads, i.e. plays the first card. The leader to the first trick is determined by the auction; each player, in a clockwise order, plays one card on the trick. Players must play a card of the same suit as the original card led, unless they have none, in which case they may play any card; the player who played the highest-ranked card wins the trick. Within a suit, the ace is ranked highest followed by the king and jack and the ten through to the two. In a deal where the auction has determined that there is no trump suit, the trick must be won by a card of the suit led. However, in a deal where there is a trump suit, cards of that suit are superior in rank to any of the cards of any other suit. If one or more players plays a trump to a trick when void in the suit led, the highest trump wins.
For example, if the trump suit is spades and a player is void in the suit led and plays a spade card, he wins the trick if no other player plays a higher spade. If a trump suit is led, the usual rule for trick-taking applies. Unlike its predecessor Whist, the goal of bridge is not to take the most tricks in a deal. Instead, the goal is to estimate how many tricks one's partnership can take. To illustrate this, the simpler partnership trick-taking game of Spades has a similar mechanism: the usual trick-taking rules apply with the trump suit being spades, but in the beginning of the game, players bid or estimate how many tricks they can win, the number of tricks bid by both players in a partnership are added. If a partnership takes at least that many number of tricks, they receive points for the round. Bridge extends the concept of bidding into an auction, where partnerships compete to take a contract, specifying how many tricks they will need to take in order to receive points, specifying the trump suit.
Players take turns to call in a clockwise order: each player in turn either passes, doubles—which increases the penalties for not making the contract specified by the opposing partnership's last bid, but increases the reward for making it—or redoubles, or states a contract that their partnership will adopt, which must be higher than the previous highest bid. The player who bid the highest contract—which is determined by the contract's level as well as the trump suit or no trump—wins the contract for their partnership. In the example auction on the right, the East-West pair secures the contract of 6♠. Note that six tricks are added to contract values, so the six-level contract would be a contract of twelve tricks. In practice, establishing a contract without enough information on the other partner's hand is difficult, so there exist many bidding systems assigning meanings to bids, with common ones including Standard American, 2/1 game forcing. Con
Barry Rigal is a bridge player, author and journalist. Born in England in 1958, he is married to lives in New York. Rigal has represented England in the Camrose Trophy Home International series five times and won the Gold Cup. Rigal has been a Vugraph commentator for thirty years and chief commentator for the European Bridge League and World Bridge Federation since 2006, he has been an executive member of the International Bridge Press Association since the early 1990s and was appointed President in September 2016. Rigal edited Bridge for Dummies, was co-editor of the seventh edition and a contributing editor of the sixth edition of The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge and author of Card Games for Dummies. Rigal has written for the World Championship Book for two decades. Rigal's books include a series called Breaking the Rules and books on declarer and defender deception, he is a regular contributor to Bridge World in the US and Bridge Magazine in the UK. He is a columnist for the American Contract Bridge League and contributes to the Daily Bulletins at national championships.
Particulars follow: —. Breaking the Bridge Rules - First Hand Play. Toronto: Master Point Press. ISBN 978-1-897106-54-9. Francis, Henry G. Editor-in-Chief. Executive Editor; the Official Encyclopedia of Bridge. Memphis, TN: American Contract Bridge League. ISBN 0-943855-44-6. OCLC 49606900. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Manley, Editor; the Official Encyclopedia of Bridge. Horn Lake, MS: American Contract Bridge League. ISBN 978-0-939460-99-1. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Rigal, Barry. More Breaking the Rules: Second Hand Play. HNB Publishing. ISBN 978-0982887431. Gold Cup 1991 North American Bridge Championships Keohane North American Swiss Teams 2005 Chicago Mixed Board-a-Match 2000 Gold Cup 1987 North American Bridge Championships Keohane North American Swiss Teams 1994
John Terence Reese was a British bridge player and writer, regarded as one of the finest of all time in both fields. He was born in Epsom, England to middle-class parents, was educated at Bradfield College and New College, where he studied classics and attained a double first, graduating in 1935. Reese's father, the son of a Welsh clergyman, worked in a bank until he transferred to his wife's family catering business. Reese said "I played card games before I could read"; as a small boy, when his mother "issued the standard warning about not talking to strange men, my father remarked that it was the strange men who should be warned against trying to talk to me". Reese's mother Anne ran a hotel near Guildford, with it a bridge club, so Reese played in the earliest duplicate matches, circa 1930. Whilst at Oxford he met some serious bridge players, amongst. Walter Buller, Iain Macleod and Maurice Harrison-Gray, the strongest player in the country at that time. Within a year of graduating and after a brief stint at Harrod's, Reese started working for Hubert Phillips's magazine and co-wrote his first book with him in 1937.
Phillips acknowledges that although the book is published jointly under their names, "Terence is the real author of the book", receiving only assistance in planning contents and editing from Phillips. From that point on, Reese's profession was that of a champion contract bridge player and prolific writer on the game. Reese joined the ARP a few months before the war, was never inducted into the armed forces, he ended up working in the factory of Pedro Juan. When a Ministry of Labour inspector turned up to check on him, a hasty phone-call was needed to get Terence into an office surrounded by ledgers. Reese had some hobbies, he was always a chess enthusiast. After World War II, he made a book on greyhound racing, he played various other games for money canasta and backgammon, wrote books on them. From the late 1930s to the mid-1950s, Reese presented a number of BBC radio and television programmes about bridge, he edited the British Bridge World from 1956 to 1962. He married Alwyn Sherrington in 1970.
They resided in London and in Hove, where he died of aspirin poisoning at home on 29 January 1996 at the age of 83. An inquest ruled his death accidental; as a bridge player, Reese won every honour in the game, including the European Championship four times and the Bermuda Bowl in 1955—all as a member of the Great Britain open team. He was World Par champion in 1961 and placed second in both the inaugural World Team Olympiad, 1960, the inaugural World Open Pairs, 1962, he represented Britain in the 1965 Bermuda Bowl and in five other European Championships. He won the premier British domestic competition, on eight occasions. Reese last participated in international bridge at the 1976 World Team Olympiad in Monte Carlo, where Great Britain placed third, he was Britain's non-playing captain in the 1981 European Team Championships in Birmingham, placing second. Thus Great Britain qualified for the 1981 Bermuda Bowl, but the WBF credentials committee rejected Reese as captain, citing "writings and opinions expressed by Mr. Reese that were considered not in the best interests of the game", in the words of New York Times bridge editor Alan Truscott—primarily the "sordid picture of top-level bridge" presented by Reese and Jeremy Flint in their 1979 novel Trick Thirteen.
Britain appealed to the WBF executive council but Reese chose to remain home. Preferring backgammon as an alternative in his years, Reese played little competitive bridge, owing in part to increasing deafness. However, his career as a bridge writer continued unabated; the concept for "the Little Major was born" in late 1962, while Reese was en route to a tournament in the Canary Islands with Boris Schapiro. First with Schapiro and Jeremy Flint, Reese created the Little Major bidding system as a warning of what would happen if the development of artificial bidding systems was allowed to go unchecked. However, under this camouflage, the system was a genuine attempt with interesting features; the system was abandoned when its two-year EBU'A' license was withdrawn "on the grounds that not enough players were playing the system". Reese's long-time partner, Boris Schapiro, put his opinion in a 1951 bridge magazine article: "Terence Reese: brilliant and imaginative. Concentration first class, his dummy and defence are as immaculate as and the old gentleman has polished up his bidding.
Believe it or not, he has condescended to play'fourth suit forcing' and Stayman, I suspect that by 1973 he will be giving the Baron system a close look."Upon Reese's death in 1996, Schapiro wrote: "... Terence was the best player, one of only two geniuses I have known; the other was the chess player. Terence was not a slow player but he went into a trance. I could sit there and wait. I knew that when he played a card it would be the right one."Victor Mollo had this to say about Reese in 1967: Terence Reese is the best bridge player i
Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "
The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge
The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge presents comprehensive information on the card game contract bridge with limited information on related games and on playing cards. It is "official" in reference to the American Contract Bridge League which authorized its production and whose staff prepared and/or supervised its various editions; the first edition of the Encyclopedia was published in 1964 with Richard Frey as Editor-in-Chief. The seventh and latest edition was published in 2011 following intermediate editions in 1971, 1976, 1984, 1994 and 2001; the Executive Editor for the first six was bridge editor of The New York Times. For the fourth through sixth editions, Henry Francis succeeded Frey as Editor-in-Chief. Frey and Francis were successive editors of the ACBL monthly membership magazine. Numerous contributing editors to the Encyclopedia were listed in each edition as were members of Editorial Advisory Boards; the redesigned seventh edition, in preparation since 2006, was released in November 2011.
Editor was Brent Manley, with primary assistance from Barry Rigal and Tracey Yarbro. This is the first edition to depart from the traditional alphabetical listing of individual entries and present a compilation of entries grouped into chapters, such as Bidding and Card Play. Numerous photographs are included, together with 2 CDs; the first edition set the ground work for the goals and scope of the Encyclopedia. In its forward, Editor-in-Chief Richard L. Frey observed that: The only previous Encyclopedia of Bridge was edited by Ely Culbertson and published in 1935... The ambitious goal set for this Official Encyclopedia of Bridge was simple to state: "To provide an official and authoritative answer to any question a reader might ask about the game of contract bridge and its leading players." On its dust jacket, the first edition states: This encyclopedia is the most complete and authoritative book of information and instruction for bridge players published. It covers every aspect of bridge in all bridge-playing countries of the world.
The first edition is divided into two main parts: Main listings: The Introduction indicates that the entries in the main listings fall into five main categories and are presented alphabetically over 683 pages with entries ending with cross-references to other entries on related category topics. Over 50 bridge-playing countries are listed and brief biographies of over 1,500 American and over 400 other players are recorded. Bibliography: The main listings are followed by an eight-page bibliography; the Harvard University online catalog entry for the first edition includes a note that "A great majority of the unsigned technical entries are by Alan Truscott." Richard L. Frey, Editor-in-Chief Alan F. Truscott, Executive Editor In 1967 an edition revised for the needs of a British and European audience was published by Paul Hamlyn under the title The Bridge Players' Encyclopedia, it was described as an International Edition based on The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge of 1964. The edition modified American spellings,'translated' bidding structures to the more used Acol system, omitted biographical notes on some lesser known Americans and added biographical notes on British and European players resulting in coverage of over 50 countries and over 500 players.
The editors were Rhoda Barrow. Richard Frey writes that since the first edition of 1964... bridge has attracted new adherents throughout the world and conventions have been more and more influenced by "science" and "artificiality"... The second edition is divided into four main parts: Main listings: technical bidding and play, procedural and terminological; as in the first edition, entries end with cross-references to other entries on related topics. Biographies of leading personalities: The biographies include over 2,000 Americans and over 500 players from elsewhere. Tournament results: American Bridge Association National Championships, All-American Regional Championships, European, Far East and South American Championships. World Championships and USBA Grand Nationals are in the main listings Bibliography: listed according to subject matter. Richard L. Frey, Editor-in-Chief Alan F. Truscott, Executive Editor Thomas S. Smith, Managing Editor Richard Frey comments on several themes in the Foreword to the third edition: We have seen rapid and radical developments in bidding systems.
The third edition is organized into the same four parts as the second. There are again over 2,500 biographies but newer and stricter criteria were applied and many previous entries have been superseded by new ones. Richard L. Frey, Editor-in-Chief Alan F. Truscott, Executive Editor Amalya L. Kearse, Third Edition The fourth edition contains 922 pages — the most of any edition. Again, the pace of change in bridge is great as Richard Frey, now Editor Emeritus having been succ
The Bermuda Bowl is a biennial contract bridge world championship for national teams. It is contested every odd-numbered year under the auspices of the World Bridge Federation, alongside the Venice Cup and the d'Orsi Bowl. Entries formally represent WBF zones as well as nations, so it is known as the World Zonal Open Team Championship, it is the oldest event that confers the title of world champion in bridge, was first contested in 1950. The Bermuda Bowl trophy is awarded to the winning team, is named for the site of the inaugural tournament, the Atlantic archipelago of Bermuda; the term Bermuda Bowl is sometimes used for the entire two-week event, comprising the three zonal teams and one or more concurrent lesser tournaments. The 2017 Bermuda Bowl took place in France; the 2019 contest will be held in China. See a description of the identical "Senior Bowl" structure or a detailed account of the 2011 event. Organized principally by Norman Bach, an accountant and bridge player from Bermuda who played for Britain, the Bermuda Bowl was the first world championship event held after World War II, started as a competition between the US, Europe and Britain in 1950.
The first event was won by the US. After this, the Bermuda Bowl became a yearly challenge match between the US and the European champions; the format evolved progressively, with the addition of events for women and seniors. Key milestones were: 1950: The first open team event in Bermuda between the USA, Europe and Britain who played round-robin for raw scores or "total points". 1951: The next several contests were head-on matches between representatives of the American Contract Bridge League and the European Bridge League. 1958: The tournament permanently included the champions of South America. 1961: Eligibility was expanded to include the defending champions. 1966: The tournament expanded to five teams, with the addition of a representative from Asia. 1971: The field was expanded to include Australia. 1974: The World Bridge Federation inaugurated the Venice Cup for women's teams, contested four times on no fixed schedule before 1985. 1979: The defending champions were no longer eligible on that basis alone.
1981: Europe was awarded two places in the tournament. There would be nine teams. 1983: North America joined Europe with double representation, the host country was automatically included too, so the potential size of the field increased by two. European and North American champions would have two places in the four-team semifinal round. European and North American runners up would contend with champions of the other zones and the host country for two other semifinal slots. 1985: The Bermuda Bowl for open teams and Venice Cup for women would be contested side-by-side in tournaments with the same structure, in a venue outside Europe and North America. Austria won the 1937 International Bridge League championships for both open and women's national teams, they are considered the first world championships for national teams, the first world championship tournaments of any kind, because teams from the United States entered both flights, two open teams and one women's. The IBL was a predecessor of both the European Bridge League and the WBF, although there was a competing international organization in the 1930s.
The IBL organized annual championships for national teams beginning in 1932 and for women beginning in 1935. Prior to 1937, Austria won three of five in both in the women category. All of the sites were in Europe and the European Bridge League considers the 1930s series to be the first eight European Teams Championships. In the 1937 open tournament there were 19 teams from 18 countries: the USA had two teams, one led by Ely Culbertson which came second. In the knockout stage, Culbertson beat Hungary before losing to Austria. USA Minneapolis lost to Austria in the semifinal. World War II destroyed the IBL and its nascent world championship tournament series. With Austria the leading nation at the card table, the 1938 Anschluss of Germany and Austria was a great disruption; the leading bridge theorist and mentor Paul Stern was an outspoken opponent of Nazism. That same year, at least Rixi Scharfstein from the Ladies emigrated to Britain; the International Bridge League organized two more European championships but no more tournaments or official matches involving any team from outside Europe.
The first rendition, held at the Castle Harbor Hotel November 13 to 16, featured three teams who played round-robin for raw scores or "total points". The USA team won both of its matches, by 4,720 points over Europe and 3,660 points over Great Britain. Held November 11 to 17, the match was between representatives of the American Contract Bridge League and the European Bridge League consisting of 320 boards using the 15-point International Match Point scaling table for the first time; the USA team won by 116 IMPs. The United States team won its third consecutive championship by 8,260 points. Crawford, Rapée, Stayman were members of the previous two winning teams; the 256 boards were played against Sweden at the Sherry-Netherlands Hotel in New York, January 5 to 10, 1953. France won the 1953 European championship with a six-ma