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Preening (bird)

Preening is a maintenance behaviour found in birds that involves the use of the bill to position feathers, interlock feather barbules that have become separated, clean plumage, keep ectoparasites in check. Though an individual function, preening can be a social activity involving two or more birds, known as allopreening; the use of the word preen to mean the tidying of a bird's feathers dates from Late Middle English. It appears to be a variant of the word prune; this usage was combined with the Scottish and northern English dialect preen meaning "pierce" or "pin", due to the "pricking" action of the bird's beak during preening. Displaced feathers can cause birds considerable trouble. Preening allows a bird to reposition such displaced feathers. There is evidence that filoplumes, specialized feathers buried under a bird's outer covering of contour feathers, help to signal when contour feathers have been displaced. Preening enables birds to remove dirt and parasites from their plumage, assists in the waterproofing of feathers.

During moult, birds remove the sheaths from around their emerging pin feathers. Because feathers are critical to a bird's survival—contributing as they do to insulation and aerodynamic flight — birds spend a great deal of time maintaining them. Studies on multiple species have shown that birds spend an average of more than 9% of each day on maintenance behaviours, with more than 92% of that time spent preening. However, this number can be higher. One study found that some gull species spend 15% of their daylight hours preening during the breeding season, for example, another showed common loons spend upwards of 25% of their day preening. In most of the studied species where the bird's sex could be determined in the field, males spent more time preening than females, though this was reversed in ducks. A bird's plumage is made up of two feather types: firm vaned or pennaceous feathers on the surface, with softer down feathers underneath. Both feather types have a central shaft with narrower barbs branching from that shaft.

Pennaceous feathers have much smaller barbules branching from the entire length of each barb. Preening may involve two kinds of bill actions: nibbling while working the feather from base to tip, or stroking with the bill either open or closed. In grebes, this is done more vigorously with an open bill and is termed "stropping". In penguins, the head is used in a motion referred to as "wiping"; some birds will use their feet in an action termed as scratch-preening, applied to the head. Some species have comb like serrations on the claw of the middle toe which may aid in scratch preening. While some species use the leg over the lowered wing to reach the head, others extend the leg more directly between the wing and the body. In general, these activities take place while the bird is either perched, on the ground, or swimming, but some of the more aerial species preen on the wing. Many birds have a slight overhang at the tip of their upper mandible. Experiments suggest that this allows birds to apply shearing forces that kill the flattened feather lice.

Preening is done in association with other maintenance behaviours, including bathing, sunning, oiling or anting, can either precede or follow these other behaviours. Because fully-grown feathers are dead structures, it is vital that birds have some way to protect and lubricate them. To facilitate this, many species have a preen or uropygial gland, which opens above the base of the tail feathers and secretes a substance containing fatty acids and waxes; the bird gathers this substance on its bill, applies it to its feathers. The gland is larger in waterbirds, including terns and petrels, but studies have found no clear correlation between the size of a bird's gland and the exposure to water that its lifestyle dictates. Preen oil plays a role in reducing the presence of parasitic organisms, such as feather-degrading bacteria and fungi, on a bird's feathers. For example, one study showed that the presence of the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis in the preen oil of hoopoes inhibited the growth of the bacteria Bacillus licheniformis, a species which breaks down keratin, the main component of feathers.

Enterococcus faecalis did this by releasing bacteriocin. Other studies have shown that removing or restricting access to the uropygial gland results in a higher bacterial parasite load on the plumage, though not of feather-degrading bacterial species. Preen oil may play a part in protecting at least some species from some internal parasites. Preen oil helps to maintain the waterproofing of a bird's plumage. Though the oil does not provide any direct waterproofing agent, it helps to extend the life of the feather — including the microscopic structures which interlock to create the waterproof barrier. While most species have a preen gland, the structure is missing in the ratit

Louis de Vries

Levie "Louis" de Vries was a Dutch jazz trumpeter. Louis de Vries was the eldest son of amateur trumpeter Arend de Vries. Just like his brothers Jacob and Izaac and his sister Clara Johanna Suzanna, Louis was taught to play the trumpet by his father, he played as a teenager with the Tuschinski Theatre Orchestra. This was an orchestra which played music during silent films shown in the famous Tuschinski movie theater in Amsterdam until the Nazi occupation 1940-1945. Owner and managing director was Abraham Tuschinksi. In the second half of the 1920s Louis de Vries worked with the Excellos Five, Marek Weber and The Ramblers together with his brother Jacob. In 1930 he played in 1931-1932 with Juan Llossas. From 1933 onwards he worked with his brother once more up until his death. In 1935 he played with Valaida Snow in England. On his way to a concert in Groningen on 31 August 1935, he got involved in a car accident as a result of which he died on 5 September 1935, his sister Clara Johanna Suzanna de Vries was a well-known Dutch jazz trumpeter and from 1938 onwards until her death in 1942 the bandleader of an all-women jazz band, The Rosian Ladies.

After a visit to the Netherlands, Louis Armstrong remarked: "That Louis de Vries, he had a sister Clara with a ladies-band. Oh boy, she could play that horn". Wim van Eyle, "Louis de Vries"; the New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. 2nd edition, ed. Barry Kernfeld

The Years of Extermination

The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939–1945 is the second volume of Saul Friedländer's history of Nazi Germany and the Jews. It describes the German extermination policies that resulted in the murder of six million European Jews; the book presents a detailed history of the Holocaust and is based on a vast array of documents and memoirs. It won the 2007 Leipzig Book Fair Prize for Non-fiction and won the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction in 2008. Historian Richard J. Evans, writing in The New York Times said that, though written with academic rigor, "what raises The Years of Extermination to the level of literature, however, is the skilled interweaving of individual testimony with the broader depiction of events."Friedländer is an Intentionalist on the origins of the Holocaust question. However, Friedländer rejects the extreme Intentionalist view that Adolf Hitler had a master plan going back to the time when he wrote Mein Kampf for the genocide of the Jewish people.

Friedländer, through his research on the Third Reich, has reached the conclusion that there was no intention to exterminate the Jews of Europe before 1941. Friedländer's position might best be deemed moderate Intentionalist. Blood and Soil The Years of Extermination at Open Library

Here One

Here One is a pair of wireless smart earbuds developed and manufactured by Doppler Labs. It allows users to filter sound, stream music, amplify speech, it can be used to take phone calls and filter certain sounds, such as background noise. Here One has been called the world’s first in-ear computer and in June 2018 Here One was inducted into the Smithsonian Institution's Copper Hewitt Museum of Design for innovation in audio technology. Here One was built on the hardware and software foundation of its predecessor Here Active Listening, launched on Kickstarter, but Here One added streaming capability and allowed users to stream music and take phone calls in addition to the real-world sound control found in Here Active Listening. Doppler Labs showcased Here One to fans and performing artists through a collaborative integration at the 2016 Coachella music festival; the products were offered to ticket holders so they could bring the earbuds to the festival in order to filter sound at Coachella. Doppler Labs introduced custom filters for the Coachella stages, including Tiesto mode, designed by the DJ and producer, so that wearers could enhance the music at each stage.

Demos were provided backstage to performing artists. On November 1, 2017 Doppler Labs announced. Here One consists of two wireless earbuds, a charging case, a connected smartphone app; each earbud contains four integrated circuits, including a Digital Signal Processor, three analogue mems microphones, a high-fidelity balanced armature speaker. Here One is powered by a free smartphone application; the Here One app is used to control the settings of Here One. It includes six preset audio filters which allow the users to filter the sounds of specific environments; the Here One app includes a Live Mix section which includes effects and a live equalizer that lets users adjust specific audio frequencies and add effects like reverb and bass boost to the real-world sound entering their ears. Here One utilizes advanced machine learning algorithms for its Smart Suggest engine; this backend system uses POI data and environmental cues to tune the Here One buds to their surroundings and provide the best listening experience for the user.

This “machine hearing” model was trained by over a million unique binaural samples that Doppler Labs audio engineers collected over the course of two years and is used to continuously improve the Here One software over time. Here One offers a Personal Listening Profile, a self-calibrated hearing test that helps the product adjust to the parameters of each individual’s hearing needs and preferences. Here One has been called the world’s first in-ear computer by publications including Fast Company for its ability to intelligently control audio and relay information back to the phone and to the cloud. USA Today called Here One “wireless computers designed for the ear” and compared the earbuds to the innovations found in Oculus Rift; the Next Web called Here One “the real future of AR”, sharing how in-ear computing provides users the tools to manipulate and personalize audio environments in real-time. Here One was set to be released in November 2016. Doppler Labs delayed their release to February 2017.

Here One allows users to hear better. These amplification features allow users with sound sensitivity to reduce overwhelming sound from the real-world, focus on human voice in conversations, making it similar to a hearing aid. Here One won the South by Southwest Best of Show Innovation Award and the Award for Innovation in Music at the 2016 SXSW festival. David Pierce of WIRED called the features "magic", praising the ability to control sound in real-time, named the hands-on control a "superpower" and "one of the most thrilling gadgets". Gizmodo questioned the battery life. TIME Magazine claimed Here One provides "supersonic hearing" and praised the nature of Here One's ability to selectively reduce frequency ranges. Inc Magazine discussed. Reviewing Here One as an augmented reality device, The Verge named the audio "the best you’ll find on wireless Bluetooth earbuds" and was impressed by the hardware design, calling the sound manipulation technology "robust"

Destiny of an Emperor

Destiny of an Emperor is a strategy role-playing game by Capcom for the Nintendo Entertainment System. It was released in Japan in 1989, with an English language localization released for the North American market in 1990. Destiny of an Emperor is based on Hiroshi Motomiya's manga, Tenchi wo Kurau, which follows the story of Chinese historical figure Liu Bei and his sworn brothers, Zhang Fei and Guan Yu; this story is loosely based upon the events in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, which itself was based on historical events and battles which occurred before and during the Three Kingdoms period of ancient China. A sequel to Destiny of an Emperor, Tenchi wo Kurau II, was released for the Japanese Family Computer. Liu Bei, Zhang Fei, Guan Yu form a small militia to defend their village from Yellow Turban rebels, followers of the sorcerer Zhang Jiao. Liu Bei gathers peasants and farmers from nearby villages and camps defeating Zhang Jiao and his people. Tao Qian, the governor of Xu Province, falls requests that Liu Bei assume his position.

Liu Bei hesitantly agrees, thus beginning the events depicted in the novel, albeit with significant alterations. Upon completing the game, the player unites China under the Shu Han banner. Although the game loosely follows the events portrayed in Romance of the Three Kingdoms, in many cases, the outcome is altered in Liu Bei's favour against the various other warlords of the period. Most of the deviations occur in the game involving the invasions of the other ruling powers, the Kingdom of Sun Wu and the Kingdom of Cao Wei; the branching storyline allows the player the option of choosing alternate paths, which do not affect the plot in any significant manner. Unlike every other RPG released at the time or since, the non-boss battles of Destiny of an Emperor do not consist of encounters with generic units. While generic enemy units do appear in the game, most random battles are fought against one or more generals randomly selected from those roaming the lands the player's party is traveling through at the time.

Additionally, most of these unique units can be recruited. After being defeated in battle, there is a random chance that the general will offer to join the party under the condition that the player character pays him a bribe of either money or horses. Once recruited, the general will no longer be encountered in random battles; because of this system, the game has an exceptionally large number of playable characters, 150 in all. However, many of these characters do not increase in power when they accumulate experience points, making them useful only for a limited time; the player may only have up to 70 characters in his party. After reaching this limit, the player can only recruit new characters if he ejects characters from his party to free up the slots. After being removed from the party, generals are again the player's enemies and can once more be encountered in random battles; the player's active party consists of up to seven members, five of which can participate in combat at any single time, one who serves as a replacement for characters killed in combat, one to serve as both a reinforcement member and party tactician.

The tactician provides magic-like effects. In addition to standard attack and tactics options available in most games of the type, there is an option called "All-Out"; when chosen, the computer AI takes control of the battle, which proceeds at an fast rate. This is a way of speeding up the easier battles and has no tactical advantage, as the player is unable to coordinate attacks or employ tactics, while the AI-controlled enemy can. Destiny of an Emperor at GameFAQs

Forward Operating Base Shank

Forward Operating Base Shank was a forward operating base of the U. S. military, located in the Logar province of eastern Afghanistan, about 12 km south-east of the city of Baraki Barak. During Operation Enduring freedom, FOB Shank was one of the most rocketed forward operating bases by the Taliban in Afghanistan. In 2014, the base was turned over to Afghan National Army, who established Camp Maiwand at the northern end of the FOB. American forces returned and built a new installation, Camp Dahlke, near the southern portion of the FOB. In 2008, International Security Assistance Force used the base to train the Afghan National Police; the Police Academy, led by a U. S. Police Mentoring Training team, cooperated daily with the Czech Provincial Reconstruction Team Logar, composed of 200 Czech Soldiers and about 10 civilians; these efforts were focused on training the Afghanistan National Auxiliary Police to become members of the ANP. As of 8 July 2008, Czech and Afghan instructors were teaching the fourth group of cadets at the Academy.

Each group attended a three-week cycle which included first-aid treatment, patrolling, weapons training, vehicle-check-point procedures and many other police-related subjects. The practical part of the training included scenarios where cadets were ambushed by simulated oppositional forces. During 2014 the base was downsized by 252 Engineer Company, 223rd Engineer Battalion and was turned over to the ANA; the ANA utilized the northern portion of the base only. The last few convoys containing equipment from FOB Shank back to Bagram Airbase were completed during October 2014 by the 730th Transportation Company, 419th Combat Sustainment Support Battalion, 4th Resolute Support Sustainment Brigade. Following the shutdown of FOB Shank, a new American base was established nearby, called FOB Dahlke or Camp Dahlke West. Camp Dahlke was expanded in 2018 to support the deployment of the 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade. Camp Dahlke has facilities to house 800 soldiers. Aviation October 2009 - October 2010 3rd Infantry Division 4-3 AVN Battalion "BRAWLER" under Lt. Col Ault2010-2010 10th Mountain April 2011 10th Combat Aviation Brigade Company F, 2nd Battalion August 2011 – August 2012 82nd Combat Aviation Brigade Unknown Company, 3rd Battalion All Companies, 2nd Battalion, 82nd Aviation Regiment Company B, 3rd Battalion, 82nd Aviation Regiment Company B, 2nd Battalion, 135th Aviation Regiment Company F, 2nd Battalion, 27th Infantry Regiment, – first unit to operate Grey Eagle at Shank.

Elements of 122nd Aviation Support Battalion June – December 2013 10th Combat Aviation Brigade Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Assault Battalion, 10th Aviation Regiment Company C, 2nd Assault Battalion, 10th Aviation Regiment Company E, 2nd Assault Battalion, 10th Aviation Regiment Company A, 2nd Assault Battalion, 10th Aviation Regiment Company B, 3rd General Support Aviation Battalion, 10th Aviation Regiment Company C, 3rd General Support Aviation Battalion, 10th Aviation Regiment 2014 82nd Combat Aviation Brigade Company E, 1st Attack Reconnaissance Battalion, 82nd Aviation Regiment Company F, 2nd Attack Helicopter Battalion, 82nd Aviation Regiment Company B, 3rd General Support Helicopter Battalion, 82nd Aviation Regiment using the Boeing CH-47F Chinook Company B, 122nd Aviation Support Battalion October 2014 Company B, 1st General Support Aviation Battalion, 169th Aviation Regiment May 2016 – Unknown 40th Combat Aviation BrigadeCompany C, 1st Battalion, 104th Aviation Regiment Company F, 2nd Battalion, 238th Aviation Regiment Company B, 1st Battalion, 140th Aviation Regiment 1st Battalion, 10th Aviation Regiment 2018 101st Combat Aviation Brigade 5th Battalion, 101st Aviation Regiment Company B, 3rd General Suppourt Battalion, 25th Avaition Regiment 2019 1st Armored Division, Combat Aviation Brigade 3rd Battalion 16th Combat Aviation Brigade, B Company "Sugarbears"Ground forces Company A, 710th Brigade Support Battalion, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division between July 2009 and October 2009.

Alpha Battery, 4th Battalion, 319th Airborne Field Artillery Regiment, 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team during July 2012. M777 howitzer M119 howitzer A Co, 1st Battalion – 41st Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division during 2011–2012. Elements of 427th BSB attached to 401st AFSB during 2011-2012 1st Squadron 91st Cavalry, 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team June 2012 – March 2013. 6th Squadron, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division March 2013 – November 2013. 710th Brigade Support Battalion and 2nd Battalion, 87th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division between October 2013 and July 2014 B CO, 1st Battalion – 502nd Infantry Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division during January 2014 – October 2014. 1982nd Forward Surgical Team during 2015. Alpha Battery 1st Battalion 265th ADA Regiment. 2-174 ADA C-RAM 2017-2018 2nd Squadron 1st Cavalry Regiment, Fort Carson 2019-2019 Elements of 495th Combat Sustainment Support Battalion 2018-2019.

List of ISAF installations in Afghanistan