Acta Apostolicae Sedis
Acta Apostolicae Sedis cited as AAS, is the official gazette of the Holy See, appearing about twelve times a year. It was established by Pope Pius X on 29 September 1908 with the decree Promulgandi Pontificias Constitutiones, publication began in January 1909, it contains all the principal decrees, encyclical letters, decisions of Roman congregations, notices of ecclesiastical appointments. The laws contained in it are to be considered promulgated when published, effective three months from date of issue, unless a shorter or longer time is specified in the law, it replaced a similar publication that had existed since 1865, under the title of Acta Sanctae Sedis. Though not designated as the official means of promulgating laws of the Holy See, this was on 23 May 1904 declared an organ of the Holy See to the extent that all documents printed in it were considered "authentic and official"; as indicated above, the Acta Sanctae Sedis ceased publication four years later. Acta Apostolicae Sedis is published in Latin.
Since 1929, Acta Apostolicae Sedis carries a supplement in Italian, called Supplemento per le leggi e disposizioni dello Stato della Città del Vaticano, containing laws and regulations of Vatican City, the city-state founded in that year. In accordance with paragraph 2 of the Legge sulle fonti del diritto of 7 June 1929, the laws of the state are promulgated by being included in this supplement. Index of Vatican City-related articles Beal, John P. James A. Coriden, Thomas J. Green. New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law: Commissioned by the Canon Law Society of America. Acta Apostolicae Sedis
Pastor bonus is an apostolic constitution promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988. It instituted a number of reforms in the process of running the central government of the Roman Catholic Church, as article 1 states "The Roman Curia is the complex of dicasteries and institutes which help the Roman Pontiff in the exercise of his supreme pastoral office for the good and service of the whole Church and of the particular Churches, it thus strengthens the unity of the faith and the communion of the people of God and promotes the mission proper to the Church in the world". Pastor bonus laid out in considerable detail the organization of the Roman Curia, specifying the names and composition of each dicastery, enumerating which competencies, or responsibilities, each dicastery was charged with overseeing, it replaced the previous governing document, Regimini Ecclesiæ universæ, released by Paul VI in 1967. It delineated the roles of the Secretariat of State, Tribunals, Pontifical Councils, Administrative Services and Pontifical Commissions of the Roman Curia.
It established the norms for the ad limina visits of bishops to Rome and the relationship between the Holy See and the particular Churches and episcopal conferences. Among the changes formulated in the constitution was the re-integration of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church into the Secretariat of State as the Section for Relations with States; the Council for Public Affairs of the Church had been a section of the Secretariat of State, but was made an independent dicastery by Pope Paul VI in 1967. The constitution opened membership in dicasteries to priests, deacons and lay persons. For centuries, only cardinals were eligible for membership in the organs of the Holy See, but Pope Paul VI allowed diocesan bishops to be members following calls for collegiality at the Second Vatican Council. Pastor bonus continued the opening of the central government of the church by allowing representatives of all the faithful to have a role in the Roman Curia; as of March 2016, Pastor bonus has been amended by Quaerit semper in 2011, Ministrorum institutio and Fides per doctrinam in 2013, Confermando una tradizione in 2014.
In the Apostolic Letter Ministrorum institutio of 16 January 2013, Pope Benedict XVI transferred the governance of seminaries from the Congregation for Catholic Education to the Congregation for the Clergy. On the same day the Apostolic Letter Fides per doctrinam transferred the competence of catechesis from the Congregation for Clergy to the Pontifical Council for Promoting New Evangelization. In October 2013, Pope Francis and his Council of Cardinals were reviewing Pastor bonus for possible further revisions. On 24 February 2014, Francis issued the Apostolic Letter Fidelis dispensator et prudens establishing the Council for the Economy to oversee the administrative and financial structures and activities of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia, the institutions linked to the Holy See, the Vatican City State, it established the Secretariat for the Economy as a dicastery of the Roman Curia. Original text Full text, translated to English by Francis C. C. F. Kelly, James H. Provost, Michel Thériault and revised by Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops and the Secretariat of State, authorized by the Secretariat of State.
Wooden, Cindy. "Changing needs, changing names: Reform of Curia is Vatican tradition", Catholic New Service, 13 July 2014 at the Library of Congress Web Archives
Congregation (Roman Curia)
There are nine congregations of the Roman Curia, the central administration of the Catholic Church. They are second highest-ranking departments, below the two Secretariats, above the pontifical councils, pontifical commissions and offices. Congregations were selected groups of cardinals drawn from the College of Cardinals, commissioned to take care of some field of activity that concerned the Holy See. Today, as a result of a decision of the Second Vatican Council, members include diocesan bishops from diverse parts of the world who are not cardinals; each congregation has a permanent staff. Each congregation is led by a Prefect, a cardinal; until a non-cardinal appointed to head a congregation was styled pro-prefect until made a cardinal. This practice has been abandoned. Certain curial departments have been organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the transaction of those affairs which canonical discipline and the individual interests of the faithful bring to Rome. Of these the most important are the Roman Congregations, as is evident from the mere consideration of the dignity of their membership, comprising cardinals who assist the pope in the administration of the affairs of the Church, though Cardinals have not always participated in the administration of ecclesiastical affairs in the same way.
Ecclesiastical business used to be handled by the pontifical chancery. However, the ever-growing number of business items and the ever-increasing complexity of the issues necessitated the creation of separate, specialised administrative-legislative bodies; the Roman Congregations originated in the necessity, felt from the beginning, of studying the questions submitted for pontifical decision, in order to sift the legal questions arising and to establish matters of fact duly. This work, at first entrusted to the papal chaplains, was afterwards divided between the penitentiarii and the auditores, according as questions of the internal or the external forum were to be considered. Thereafter, cardinals in greater or less number were associated with them. However, they were not entrusted with the preparation of the case, but were given authority to decide it. As, on the other hand, the increased numbers of cases to be passed upon occupied a great number of persons, while the proper administration of justice required that those persons should be of the most experienced, it appeared to be advisable, if not necessary, to divide this business into various and distinct groups.
This division would evidently facilitate the selection of wise and experienced men in all branches of ecclesiastical affairs. Hence a natural division into executive cases, assigned to the offices, judicial cases, reserved to the tribunals, administrative cases, committed to the Roman Congregations. Pope Sixtus V was the first to distribute this administrative business among different congregations of cardinals. By a judicious division of administrative matters, he established that permanent organization of these departments of the Curia, which since have rendered such great services to the Church; the congregations at first established by Sixtus V were designated as Congregation for the Holy Inquisition Congregation for the Signature of Grace Congregation for the Erection of Churches and Consistorial Provisions Congregation for the Abundance of Supplies and Prosperity of the Church's Temporal Dominions Congregation for Sacred Rites and Ceremonies Congregation for Equipping the Fleet and Maintaining It for the Defence of the Church's Dominions Congregation for an Index of Forbidden Books Congregation for the Execution and Interpretation of the Council of Trent Congregation for Relieving the Ills of the States of the Church for the University of the Roman study Congregation for Regulations of Religious Orders Congregation for Regulations of Bishops and Other Prelates Congregation for Taking Care of Roads and Waters Congregation for the Vatican Printing-Press Congregation for Regulations of the Affairs of the Church's Temporal DominionsWhile the chief end of the Congregations of Cardinals was to assist the sovereign pontiff in the administration of the affairs of the Church, some of these congregations were created to assist in the administration of the temporal States of the Holy See.
The number of these varied according to the requirements of the moment. Other congregations were added by different popes, until a complete organization was established by Pope Pius X in his Constitution Sapienti Consilio of 29 June 1908, according to which there were thirteen congregations, counting that of the Propaganda as only one. Sixtus V granted ordinary jurisdict
The Roman Rota, formally the Apostolic Tribunal of the Roman Rota, anciently the Apostolic Court of Audience, is the highest appellate tribunal of the Catholic Church, with respect to both Latin-rite members and the Eastern-rite members and is, with respect to judicial trials conducted in the Catholic Church, the highest ecclesiastical court constituted by the Holy See. An appeal may be had to the Pope himself, the supreme ecclesiastical judge; the Catholic Church has a complete legal system, the oldest in the West still in use. The court is named Rota because the judges, called auditors met in a round room to hear cases; the Rota was established in the 13th century. The Pope designates one of them the dean. On Saturday, September 22, 2012, Pope Benedict XVI accepted the resignation as Dean, for reasons of age, of Bishop Antoni Stankiewicz, appointed in his place Msgr. Pio Vito Pinto, until serving as a prelate Auditor of the Court of first instance; the Rota issues its sentences in Latin. The Rota adjudicates cases in a panel of three auditors, or more, depending on the complexity of the matter, assigned by the Dean of the Tribunal, though sometimes a larger number of auditors are assigned to a particular case.
The auditors of the Rota are selected from among recognized ecclesiastical judges serving various dioceses around the world. The Rota's official records begin in 1171; until the Risorgimento and the loss of the Papal States in 1870, the Rota was a civil tribunal and its judgements had the status of law in the Papal States. Until the 14th century the court was formally known as the Apostolic Court of Audience; the first recorded use of the term Rota, which referred to the wheel-shaped arrangement of the benches used by the court in the great hall at Avignon, is in Thomas Fastolf's Decisiones rotae, consisting of reports on thirty-six cases heard at the Court of Audience in Avignon between December 1336 and February 1337. Its first usage in a papal bull is in 1418, it is possible that the term Rota comes from the porphyry wheel, centered in the marble floor of Avignon, or from the wheel-like cases in which parchment roll records were kept. The Rota's main function is that of an appellate tribunal, ordinarily reviewing decisions of lower courts if the initial court and the first appellate court do not agree on the outcome of a case.
Dominating its caseload are petitions seeking the issuance of a decree of nullity of a marriage, although it has jurisdiction to hear any other type of judicial and non-administrative case in any area of canon law. The Rota serves as a tribunal of first instance in certain cases such as any contentious case in which a Bishop of the Latin Church is a defendant. If the case can still be appealed after a Rotal decision, the appeal goes to a different turnus, or panel, of the Rota; the Rota is the highest appeals court for all judicial trials in the Catholic Church. A judgment of the Rota can, however with the greatest difficulty, be vacated by the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, the highest administrative court in the Catholic Church. However, the legal procedure or process used by the judges of the Rota, not the merits of the case, are on trial before the Signatura: the Signatura is only able to grant the petitioner a new trial to be held before a new turnus of the Rota, if the Rota was found to have erred in procedure.
The Roman Rota proceedings are governed by a specific set of rules, the "Normae Romanae Rotae Tribunalis", promulgated in 1994 by Pope John Paul II. Only advocates who are registered in a specific list are allowed to represent the parties before the Tribunal. Since Pope Benedict XVI issued the motu proprio Quaerit semper the Rota has had exclusive competence to dispense from marriages ratum sed non consummatum. Roman Deity Fontus Fonzerelli Brown Primary Tribunal In recognition of the Tribunal's 800 years of history and signal reputation, the Prelate Auditors, by exception to numerous norms promulgated by both Popes Paul VI and John Paul II, are to be addressed as "Most Illustrious and Most Reverend"; the dean of the Rota if not consecrated a bishop, is to be addressed as "Your Excellency". All Prelate Auditor Judges of the Rota are styled, "Most Reverend Monsignor." The active auditors of the Rota, with their dates of appointment by the pope, are: Pierangelo Pietracatella, Robert Gołębiowski, Francesco Ibba, Tomasz Kubiczek, Alessandro Recchia, Domenico Teti, Tribunal of the Roman Rota Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts GCatholic.org Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"Sacra Romana Rota". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company
The Roman Curia comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the Pope’s name and with his authority for the good and for the service of the particular Churches and provides the central organization for the Church to advance its objectives; the structure and organization of responsibilities within the Curia are at present regulated by the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus, issued by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988, which Pope Francis has decided to revise. Other bodies that play an administrative or consulting role in Church affairs are sometimes mistakenly identified with the Curia, such as the Synod of Bishops and regional conferences of bishops. Cardinal Gerhard Müller, former prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, wrote in 2015 that "the Synod of Bishops is not a part of the Roman Curia in the strict sense: it is the expression of the collegiality of bishops in communion with the Pope and under his direction.
The Roman Curia instead aids the Pope in the exercise of his primacy over all the Churches." Curia in medieval and Latin usage means "court" in the sense of "royal court" rather than "court of law". The Roman Curia is sometimes anglicized as the Court of Rome, as in the 1534 Act of Parliament that forbade appeals to it from England, it assists the Pope in carrying out his functions. The Roman Curia can be loosely compared to cabinets in governments of countries with a Western form of governance, but only the Second Section of the Secretariat of State, known as the Section for Relations with States, the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and the Congregation for Catholic Education, can be directly compared with specific ministries of a civil government, it is normal for every Latin Catholic diocese to have its own curia for its administration. For the Diocese of Rome, these functions are not handled by the Roman Curia, but by the Vicariate General of His Holiness for the City of Rome, as provided by the apostolic constitution Ecclesia in Urbe.
The Vicar General of Rome, traditionally a cardinal, his deputy the vicegerent, who holds the personal title of archbishop, supervise the governance of the diocese by reference to the Pope himself, but with no more dependence on the Roman Curia, as such, than other Catholic dioceses throughout the world. A distinct office, the Vicar General for Vatican City, administers the portion of the Diocese of Rome in Vatican City; until there still existed hereditary officers of the Roman Curia, holding titles denominating functions that had ceased to be a reality when the Papal States were lost to the papacy. A reorganization, ordered by Pope Pius X, was incorporated into the 1917 Code of Canon Law. Further steps toward reorganization were begun by Pope Paul VI in the 1960s. Among the goals of this curial reform were the modernization of procedures and the internationalization of the curial staff; these reforms are reflected in the 1983 Code of Canon Law. The offices of the Vatican City State are not part of the Roman Curia, composed only of offices of the Holy See.
The following organs or charges, according to the official website of the Holy See, comprise the Curia. All members of the Curia except the Cardinal Camerlengo and the Major Penitentiary resign their office after a papal death or resignation. See sede vacante. Sr. Luzia Premoli, superior general of the Combonian Missionary Sisters, was appointed a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples in 2014, becoming the first woman to be appointed a member of a Vatican congregation; the principal departments of the Roman Curia are called dicasteries. The most recent comprehensive constitution of the church, Pastor bonus, provides this definition: "By the word "dicasteries" are understood the Secretariat of State, Tribunals and Offices"; those remain the five principal categories of departments, with the noteworthy change in that there is now more than a single Secretariat. Two new departments announced to begin functioning on 1 August 2016 and 1 January 2017 have been identified only as dicasteries–Dicastery for the Laity and Life and Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development.
Both are headed by a prefect. The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the government of the Roman Catholic Church, it is headed by the Secretary of State, since 15 October 2013 by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, responsible for all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See. The Secretariat is divided into two sections, the Section for General Affairs and the Section for Relations with States, known as the First Section and Second Section, respectively; the Secretariat of State was created in the 15th century and is now the department of the curia most involved in coordinating the Holy See's activities. Matters not within the competence of another dicastery are dealt with by the Secretariat of State; the Secretariat for the Economy was established by Pope Francis in 2014, with the Australian Cardinal George Pell the Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney, as its Cardinal Prefect. Pell's appointment was terminated on 12 December 2018. Two departments of the Roman Curia established by Pope Francis in 2016 have been identified as "dicasteries" rather than as one of the traditional department types.
A third dicastery was named on 23 June 2018. Pope Francis announced on 15 August 2016 the creation of the Dicastery for the Laity and Life, effective 1 September 2016, it took over the responsibilities of the Pontifical Council for the Laity and the Pontifical Council for the Family. As its first Prefect, Francis named Bishop Kevin Farrell
The Apostolic Penitentiary called the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Penitentiary, is one of the three tribunals of the Roman Curia. The Apostolic Penitentiary is chiefly a tribunal of mercy, responsible for issues relating to the forgiveness of sins in the Catholic Church; the Apostolic Penitentiary has jurisdiction only over matters in the internal forum. Its work falls into these categories: the absolution of excommunications latæ sententiæ reserved to the Holy See, the dispensation of sacramental impediments reserved to the Holy See, the issuance and governance of indulgences; the head of the Apostolic Penitentiary, the Major Penitentiary, is one of the few Vatican officials who retain their positions sede vacante. If the Major Penitentiary is a Cardinal Elector he is one of only three persons in the conclave allowed to communicate with those outside the conclave, so that he can continue to fulfill his duties; the Major Penitentiary is a Titular Archbishop and is a Cardinal. Since 21 September 2013, the Major Penitentiary is Cardinal Mauro Piacenza.
The second-highest-ranking official in the Apostolic Penitentiary, the Regent, is H. E. Msgr. Krzysztof Józef Nykiel. In the Papal Bull Misericordiae Vultus, Pope Francis decreed that the Church would observe a Special Jubilee Year of Mercy lasting from the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary on Tuesday, December 8, 2015, until the Solemnity of the Feast of Christ the King of the Universe on the last Sunday before Advent, in November 2016. For this, he allowed certain qualified priests serve as "Missionaries of Mercy" to each Diocese, with the faculties to absolve sins that are reserved to the Holy See through the Apostolic Penitentiary. A priest or a bishop would not be able to do this unless the person was in danger of imminent death; the Pope has the power, as the earthly absolute sovereign of the Catholic Church, to make this special change for the year. Up until the 18th century, the Apostolic Penitentiary considered cases of confessor-penitent disputes involving violations against what was termed the "external forum".
For heinous sins, or for serious sins committed by penitents of high political or cultural standing, it was the practice to impose rather harsh penances. This practice was true in the medieval Church, for sins referred to a bishop for absolution. If a penitent felt that the penance imposed was disproportionate to the sins committed, he could submit the dispute to the Apostolic Penitentiary; the alleged offense was said to be against the "external forum". If the tribunal decided in favor of the penitent, they would issue a formal statement confirming that appropriate recompense had been made, that the penitent's sins were forgiven, that the matter was closed; these statements were transcribed by legal clerks, who were paid by fees assessed by Apostolic Penitentiary for the transcription of their decisions. This practice prompted claims that the tribunal, by extension the Church, accepted money for the forgiveness of sins. Confessions of sins are handled at the local level by priests and their bishops and are not heard by the tribunal.
The work of the Apostolic Penitentiary involves sins, such as defiling the Eucharist, which are reserved to the Holy See. In late 2006 Major Penitentiary Cardinal Stafford said this offense is occurring with more and more frequency, by ordinary faithful who receive Communion and remove the host from their mouths and spit it out or otherwise desecrate it. Other sins that are handled by the Penitentiary include a priest breaking the seal of the confessional by revealing the nature of the sin and the person who sought penance, or a priest who has sex with someone and offered forgiveness for the act; these sins bring automatic excommunication from the Church. Once the excommunication is lifted absolution can be granted. A fourth type of case that comes to the tribunal involves a man who has contributed towards facilitating an abortion, such as by paying for it, or directly so by performing one, who seeks to become a priest or deacon. Persons who wish to receive an absolution or dispensation reserved to the Holy See write a petition to the Penitentiary.
This petition is written through their initial confessor. The petition must use pseudonyms when explaining the situation to avoid revealing the identity of the persons involved, the tribunal itself acts in complete secrecy; the Major Penitentiary considers the matter himself, unless it is important, in which case the whole of the tribunal considers the petition. The members of the tribunal only give advice regarding the petition—the Major Penitentiary has the ultimate decision on whether the dispensation or absolution should be granted. If the Major Penitentiary is uncertain as to whether he has authority in a given case, he submits the matter to the Pope; the impediment or act in question must not be public, as it would be a matter of the external forum and cannot be absolved or dispensed by the Penitentiary. The Apostolic Penitentiary specifies actions for which indulgences are granted, either permanently or on special occasions, such as the Year for Priests, during which a plenary indulgence is granted, on 19 June 2009, on first Thursdays, on 4 August 2009, on 19 June 201
Secretariat of State (Holy See)
The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the central papal governing bureaucracy of the Catholic Church. It is headed by the Cardinal Secretary of State and performs all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See; the Secretariat is divided into three sections, the Section for General Affairs, the Section for Relations with States, since 2017, the Section for Diplomatic Staff. The origins of the Secretariat of State go back to the fifteenth century; the apostolic constitution Non Debet Reprehensibile of 31 December 1487 established the Secretaria Apostolica comprising twenty-four Apostolic Secretaries, one of whom bore the title Secretarius Domesticus and held a position of pre-eminence. One can trace to this Secretaria Apostolica the Chancery of Briefs, the Secretariat of Briefs to Princes and the Secretariat of Latin Letters. Pope Leo X established another position, the Secretarius Intimus, to assist the Cardinal who had control of the affairs of State and to attend to correspondence in languages other than Latin, chiefly with the Apostolic Nuncios.
From these beginnings, the Secretariat of State developed at the time of the Council of Trent. For a long time, the Secretarius Intimus called Secretarius Papae or Secretarius Maior, was always a prelate endowed with episcopal rank, it was only at the beginning of the pontificate of Innocent X that someone a Cardinal and not a member of the Pope's family was called to this high office. Pope Innocent XII definitively abolished the office of Cardinal Nephew, the powers of that office were assigned to the Cardinal Secretary of State alone. On 19 July 1814, Pope Pius VII established the Sacred Congregation for the Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, expanding the Congregatio super negotiis ecclesiasticis Regni Galliarum established by Pius VI in 1793. With the apostolic constitution Sapienti Consilio of 29 June 1908, Saint Pius X divided the Sacred Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs in the form fixed by the Codex Iuris Canonici of 1917 and he specified the duties of each of the three sections: the first was concerned with extraordinary affairs, while the second attended to the ordinary affairs, the third, until an independent body, had the duty of preparing and dispatching pontifical Briefs.
With the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae universae of 15 August 1967, Pope Paul VI reformed the Roman Curia, implementing the desire expressed by the bishops in the Second Vatican Council. This gave a new face to the Secretariat of State, suppressing the Chancery of Apostolic Briefs the third section, transforming the former first section, the Sacred Congregation for the Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, into a body distinct from the Secretariat of State, though related to it, to be known as the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church. On 28 June 1988, John Paul II promulgated the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus, which introduced a reform of the Roman Curia and divided the Secretariat of State into two sections: the Section for General Affairs and the Section for Relations with States, which incorporated the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church. Pope Francis added a third unit, the Section for Diplomatic Staff, in November 2017; the head of the Secretariat of State is the Secretary of State, a cardinal.
The Cardinal Secretary of State is responsible for the diplomatic and political activity of the Holy See, in some circumstances representing the Pope himself. The Section for General Affairs handles the normal operations of the Church including organizing the activities of the Roman Curia, making appointments to curial offices, publishing official communications, papal documents, handling the concerns of embassies to the Holy See, keeping the papal seal and Fisherman's Ring. Abroad, the Section for General Affairs is responsible for organizing the activities of nuncios around the world in their activities concerning the local church; the Section for General Affairs is headed by an archbishop known as the Substitute for General Affairs, or more formally, Substitute for General Affairs to the Secretary of State. The current Substitute for General Affairs to the Secretary of State is Archbishop Edgar Peña Parra. There have been 10 substitutes since 1953: Nicola Canali Federico Tedeschini Giovanni Battista Montini Angelo Dell'Acqua Giovanni Benelli Giuseppe Caprio Eduardo Martínez Somalo Edward Idris Cassidy Giovanni Battista Re Leonardo Sandri Fernando Filoni Giovanni Angelo Becciu Edgar Peña Parra The deputy to the Substitute for General Affairs deputy chief of staff, is called the Assessor for General Affairs of the Secretariat of State.
The current Assessor for General Affairs of the Secretariat of State is Monsignor Paolo Borgia. Eduardo Martínez Somalo Giovanni Battista Re Crescenzio Sepe Leonardo Sandri James Michael Harvey Pedro Lopez Quintana Gabriele Giordano Caccia Peter Bryan Wells Paolo Borgia (4 March