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Prefectures in France

A prefecture in France may refer to: the Chef-lieu de département, the town in which the administration of a department is located. There are 101 prefectures in one for each department; the official in charge is the prefect. The prefecture is an administration that belongs to the Ministry of the Interior, is therefore in charge of the delivery of identity cards, driving licenses, passports and work permits for foreigners, vehicle registration, registration of associations, of the management of the police and firefighters. Prefectures are located near the geographic centre of their departments, were chosen for being within a day's travel on horseback from anywhere in the department. Therefore, the largest settlement in a department may not always be its prefecture: the department of Marne, for example, has its prefecture at Châlons-en-Champagne despite the city of Reims, near the Aisne border, being four times its size; the prefect represents the national government at the local level and as such exercises the powers that are constitutionally attributed to the national government.

The prefect issues ordinances written for the application of local law: to close a building that does not conform to safety codes, or modify vehicular traffic regulations. The governing body of the department is the departmental council, in charge of the building and maintenance of schools and roads, financial assistance to dependent people, promotion of local economic development, etc. In the past, the prefect was head of the department, but since 1982, the president of the departmental council has assumed the role of chief executive of the department. There is an exception in its three surrounding departments; these departments are administered by a single prefecture for law enforcement and security purposes, called the Prefecture of Police, a situation inherited from the Paris Commune of 1871. The power of law enforcement is invested in the mayor in other French communes; the other powers are held by the prefect of Paris. The departments are divided into arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons.

The chef-lieu d'arrondissement is the subprefecture. The official in charge is the subprefect (French: sous-préfet. Cantons have few competences, the most important one being the local organisation of elections. Administrative divisions of France French National Police

SM UC-91

SM UC-91 was a German Type UC III minelaying submarine or U-boat in the German Imperial Navy during World War I. A German Type UC III submarine, UC-91 had a displacement of 491 tonnes when at the surface and 571 tonnes while submerged, she had a length overall of 56.51 m, a beam of 5.54 m, a draught of 3.77 m. The submarine was powered by two six-cylinder four-stroke diesel engines each producing 300 metric horsepower, two electric motors producing 770 metric horsepower, two propeller shafts, she had a dive time of 15 seconds and was capable of operating at a depth of 75 metres. The submarine was designed for a maximum surface speed of 11.5 knots and a submerged speed of 6.6 knots. When submerged, she could operate for 40 nautical miles at 4.5 knots. UC-91 was fitted with six 100 centimetres mine tubes, fourteen UC 200 mines, three 50 centimetres torpedo tubes, seven torpedoes, one 10.5 cm SK L/45 or 8.8 cm Uk L/30 deck gun. Her complement was twenty-six crew members; the U-boat was ordered on 12 January 1916 and was launched on 19 January 1918.

She was commissioned into the German Imperial Navy on 31 July 1918 as SM UC-91. As with the rest of the completed UC III boats, UC-91 sank no ships, she sank after a collision with the steamer Alexandra Woermann on 5 September 1918 in the Baltic Sea. The salvage vessel Vulkan was repaired, she was en route to surrender on 10 February 1919 when she foundered in the North Sea

Allan Bérubé

Allan Bérubé was an American historian, independent scholar, self-described "community-based" researcher and college drop-out, award-winning author, best known for his research and writing about homosexual members of the American Armed Forces during World War II. He wrote essays about the intersection of class and race in gay culture, about growing up in a poor, working-class family, his French-Canadian roots, about his experience of anti-AIDS activism. Among Bérubé's published works was the 1990 book Coming Out Under Fire, which examined the stories of gay men and women in the U. S. military between 1941 and 1945. The book used interviews with gay veterans, government documents, other sources to discuss the social and political issues that faced over 9,000 servicemen and women during World War II; the book earned Bérubé the Lambda Literary Award for outstanding Gay Men's Nonfiction book of 1990 and was adapted as a film in 1994, narrated by Salome Jens and Max Cole, with a screenplay by Bérubé and the film's director, Arthur Dong.

The film received a Peabody Award for excellence in documentary media in 1995. Bérubé received a MacArthur Fellowship from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation in 1996, he received a Rockefeller grant from the Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies in 1994 to research a book on the Marine Cooks and Stewards Union, he was working on this book at the time of his death. Bérubé was born in Springfield and lived with his family in Monson, in a trailer park near the waterfront in Bayonne, New Jersey, he lived for many years in San Francisco. He moved to New York City, settled in Liberty, New York, where he died in 2007. Starting in 1979, Bérubé was interviewed about his work in publications including Time, The New York Times, the Washington Post, The Advocate, Christopher Street, Gay Community News, the San Francisco Examiner, his many radio and television appearances included interviews by Studs Terkel, Sonia Freedman on CNN, two by Terry Gross on National Public Radio's Fresh Air. Bérubé was twice elected Trustee, Village of Liberty, Liberty, NY, 2003 and 2005.

He played a major role in saving the historic Munson Diner, moved to Liberty from Manhattan in 2005. The records of Bérubé's life and work are preserved by the GLBT Historical Society in San Francisco, of which he was a founding member. Bérubé donated the research and administrative files of his World War II Project to the society in 1995, with an accretion in 2000; that collection is open to researchers. Bérubé donated the records of the Forget-Me-Nots, an affinity group of which he was a member. Following Bérubé's death, the executors of his estate donated his complete personal and professional papers to the Historical Society; the society opened them to researchers and posted an online finding aid. A number of other collections of personal papers and organizational records at the GLBT Historical Society include correspondence from Bérubé and other material documenting his work. Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two, a social history based on oral history interviews, declassified government documents and diaries.

NY: Free Press, April 1990. My Desire for History: Essays in Gay and Labor History, Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 2011. "Behind the Spectre of San Francisco," The Body Politic, April 1981. "Caught in the Storm: AIDS and the Meaning of Natural Disaster." Outlook, 1, no. 3, pp. 8–19. "Coming Out Under Fire," Mother Jones, February/March 1983. "Don't Save Us From Our Sexuality." Coming Up!. April 1984. "The First Stonewall," San Francisco Lesbian & Gay Freedom Day Program, June 1983. "The History of Gay Bathhouses." First published in Coming Up!. Revised and reprinted in Policing Public Sex: Queer Politics And the Future of AIDS Activism. Edited by Dangerous Bedfellows. Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1996. Revised and reprinted based on first version in: Gay Bathhouses and Public Health Policy, ed. by William J. Woods and Diane Binson. NY: Harrington Park Press, An Imprint of The Haworth Press, 2003. Co-published as the Journal of Homosexuality, Vol. 44 No. 3/4, 2003. "How Gay Stays White and What Kind of White It Stays."In The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness, ed. by Birgit Rasmussen, Eric Klineberg, Irene Nexica, Matt Wray.

Duke University Press, 2001. Reprinted in Privilege: A Reader, ed. by Michael S. Kimmel and Abby L. Ferber. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, A Member of the Perseus Book group,2003. "Intellectual Desire," GLQ 3, no. 1: 139-157. Reprinted in: Susan Raffo, ed. Queerly Classed: Gay Men and Lesbians Write About Class, Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1997. Introduction to German silent film, "Anders Als Die Anderen," pr