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Pregnancy known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins. Pregnancy assisted reproductive technology. A pregnancy may end in a live birth, abortion, or miscarriage, though access to safe abortion care varies globally. Childbirth occurs around 40 weeks from the start of the last menstrual period; this is just over nine months. When measured from fertilization it is about 38 weeks. An embryo is the developing offspring during the first eight weeks following fertilization, after which, the term fetus is used until birth. Symptoms of early pregnancy may include missed periods, tender breasts and vomiting, frequent urination. Pregnancy may be confirmed with a pregnancy test. Pregnancy is divided into three trimesters, each lasting for 3 months; the first trimester includes conception, when the sperm fertilizes the egg. The fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and attaches to the inside of the uterus, where it begins to form the embryo and placenta.

During the first trimester, the possibility of miscarriage is at its highest. Around the middle of the second trimester, movement of the fetus may be felt. At 28 weeks, more than 90% of babies can survive outside of the uterus if provided with high-quality medical care. Prenatal care improves pregnancy outcomes. Prenatal care may include taking extra folic acid, avoiding drugs and alcohol, regular exercise, blood tests, regular physical examinations. Complications of pregnancy may include disorders of high blood pressure, gestational diabetes, iron-deficiency anemia, severe nausea and vomiting among others. In the ideal childbirth labor begins on its own when a woman is "at term". Babies born before 37 weeks are "preterm" and at higher risk of health problems such as cerebral palsy. Babies born between weeks 37 and 39 are considered "early term" while those born between weeks 39 and 41 are considered "full term". Babies born between weeks 41 and 42 weeks are considered "late term" while after 42 week they are considered "post term".

Delivery before 39 weeks by labor induction or caesarean section is not recommended unless required for other medical reasons. About 213 million pregnancies occurred in 2012, of which, 190 million were in the developing world and 23 million were in the developed world; the number of pregnancies in women ages 15 to 44 is 133 per 1,000 women. About 10% to 15% of recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage. In 2016, complications of pregnancy resulted in 230,600 maternal deaths, down from 377,000 deaths in 1990. Common causes include bleeding, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, obstructed labor, complications associated with miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, or elective abortion. Globally, 44% of pregnancies are unplanned. Over half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted. Among unintended pregnancies in the United States, 60% of the women used birth control to some extent during the month pregnancy occurred. Associated terms for pregnancy are parous. Gravidus and gravid come from the Latin word meaning "heavy" and a pregnant female is sometimes referred to as a gravida.

Gravidity refers to the number of times. The term parity is used for the number of times that a female carries a pregnancy to a viable stage. Twins and other multiple births are counted as birth. A woman who has never been pregnant is referred to as a nulligravida. A woman, pregnant for the first time is referred to as a primigravida, a woman in subsequent pregnancies as a multigravida or as multiparous. Therefore, during a second pregnancy a woman would be described as gravida 2, para 1 and upon live delivery as gravida 2, para 2. In-progress pregnancies, miscarriages and/or stillbirths account for parity values being less than the gravida number. In the case of a multiple birth the gravida number and parity value are increased by one only. Women who have never carried a pregnancy achieving more than 20 weeks of gestation age are referred to as nulliparous. A pregnancy is considered term at 37 weeks of gestation, it is postterm at or beyond 42 weeks of gestation. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have recommended further division with early term 37 weeks up to 39 weeks, full term 39 weeks up to 41 weeks, late term 41 weeks up to 42 weeks.

The terms preterm and postterm have replaced earlier terms of premature and postmature. Preterm and postterm are defined above, whereas premature and postmature have historical meaning and relate more to the infant's size and state of development rather than to the stage of pregnancy; the usual symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy do not interfere with activities of daily living or pose a health-threat to the mother or baby. However, pregnancy complications can cause other more severe symptoms, such as those associated with anemia. Common symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy include: Tiredness Morning sickness Constipation Pelvic girdle pain Back pain Braxton Hicks contractions. Occasional and painless contractions that occur several times per day. Peripheral edema swelling of the lower limbs. Common complaint in advancing pregnancy. Can be caused by inferior vena cava syndrome resulting from compression of the inferior vena cava and pelvic veins by the uterus leading to increased hydrostatic pressure in lower extremities.

Low blood pressure caused by compression of both the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta. Increased urinary freque

Julie Roy

Julie Roy is a Canadian producer of animated films, who since 2014 is the executive producer of the French animation studio at the National Film Board. Born in Montreal, Roy won a Canadian Screen Award for Best Animated Short at the 1st Canadian Screen Awards in 2013 as producer of the film Paula. In the same year, she was nominated as a producer of Bydlo and Edmond Was a Donkey. At the 4th Canadian Screen Awards, she was nominated twice in the same category as producer of Carface and In Deep Waters. In 2016, she was NFB co-producer on Franck Dion's The Head Vanishes. In 2017, she produced Matthew Rankin's The Tesla World Light, which premiered at the 2017 Cannes Film Festival. René Jodoin, NFB French Animation Studio founder Julie Roy on IMDb

James Marshall (rugby union)

James Ryan Marshall is a New Zealand rugby union player. He plays in the first five-eighth and second five-eighth positions for Top Challenge League side Coca-Cola Red Sparks, he has played for the Wellington-based Super Rugby team the Hurricanes, captained the Taranaki ITM Cup side. Marshall was born in Auckland but moved to Nelson as a child, playing his junior rugby for Stoke and Nelson, he was educated at Nelson College from 2002 to 2006 and played in the school's 1st XV in his final two years there. Marshall came to the attention of national selectors. However, he failed to make the New Zealand Under 17's and Under 19s, it was the same with the New Zealand Under 20s, losing out to Hawke's Bay five-eighth Daniel Kirkpatrick and Waikato's Trent Renata. He is the older brother of Crusader Tom Marshall. Marshall started his career with Tasman after he made his debut for the Makos in the 2008 Air New Zealand Cup competition, coming on as a replacement against Bay of Plenty. In 2009 he suffered an injury in the first match which kept him out for most of the season, but went on and made his first full game against Taranaki.

During the 2010 ITM Cup he made an immediate impact with his decisive running and ability to spot a gap. His strong performances saw him take over Fly-half starting in the number 10 position throughout the season. Marshall left for Italy to begin a six-month contract with Aironi Rugby after his name was missing from Super 15 squad selections, he spent five months playing for the side, making several Heineken Cup appearances and featuring in the Celtic League. However he continued his career with Tasman during the 2011 season before he headed north on a two-year contract with Taranaki, having played 36 games and scored 46 points for the side, he made his debut for Taranaki, playing the season's first two Ranfurly Shield matches against King Country and Wanganui. His performances didn't go unnoticed by the national media or the Super Rugby coaches as he went on to play all 12 matches and score 5 tries. Marshall's versatility and high standard of performance in several positions, including wing, first five-eighth and second five-eighth helped him win Taranaki back of the year for 2012 ahead of finalists Frazier Climo and Jamison Gibson-Park.

His form for Taranaki in the No 10 jersey in Beauden Barrett's absence saw him pick up a Hurricanes contract in late 2012. He played his first Super Rugby match in the Hurricanes 29–28 victory over the Crusaders in Week 4 of the 2013 competition, he had an eye-catching debut season, starting the season as the Hurricanes’ back-up first five-eighth behind Taranaki teammate Beauden Barrett and ending it by making three straight starting appearances at fullback. In all, he started or came off the bench in eight matches out of 16 in 2013. Marshall made two starts for the Hurricanes at fullback in 2014, before captaining Taranaki to win their maiden ITM Cup premiership title. On 6 January 2016 it was announced that Marshall would join the Greene King IPA Championship side London Irish ahead of the 2016-17 season. In 2011, Marshall played for New Zealand at the Sevens World Series in Dubai. However, he missed the competition's third leg, in Port Elizabeth, because he returned New Zealand to join the Hurricanes Wider Training Group

Value-added tax in the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, the value-added tax was introduced in 1973, replacing Purchase Tax, is the third-largest source of government revenue, after income tax and National Insurance. It is administered and collected by HM Revenue and Customs through the Value Added Tax Act 1994. VAT is levied on most goods and services provided by registered businesses in the UK and some goods and services imported from outside the European Union. There are complex regulations for goods and services imported from within the EU; the default VAT rate is the standard rate, 20% since 4 January 2011. Some goods and services are subject to VAT at a reduced rate of 5% or 0%. Others are exempt outside the system altogether. Under EU law, the standard rate of VAT in any EU state cannot be lower than 15%; each state may have up to two reduced rates of at least 5% for a restricted list of goods and services. The European Council must approve any temporary reduction of VAT in the public interest. VAT is an indirect tax because the tax is paid to the government by the seller rather than the person who bears the economic burden of the tax.

Opponents of VAT claim it is a regressive tax because the poorest people spend a higher proportion of their disposable income on VAT than the richest people. Those in favour of VAT claim it is progressive as consumers who spend more pay more VAT. Between October 1940 and March 1973 the UK had a consumption tax called Purchase Tax, levied at different rates depending on goods' luxuriousness. Purchase Tax was applied to the wholesale price, introduced during World War II at a rate of 33​1⁄3%; this was doubled in April 1942 to 66​2⁄3%, further increased in April 1943 to a rate of 100%, before reverting in April 1946 to 33​1⁄3% again. Unlike VAT, Purchase Tax was applied at the point of manufacture and distribution, not at the point of sale; the rates of Purchase Tax at the start of 1973, when it gave way to VAT, were 13, 22, 36 and 55%. On 1 January 1973 the UK joined the European Economic Community and as a consequence Purchase Tax was replaced by Value Added Tax on 1 April 1973; the Conservative Chancellor Lord Barber set a single VAT rate on services.

In July 1974, Labour Chancellor Denis Healey reduced the standard rate of VAT from 10% to 8% but introduced a new higher rate of 12.5% for petrol and some luxury goods. In November 1974, Healey doubled the higher rate of VAT to 25%. Healey reduced the higher rate back to 12.5% in April 1976. Under Margaret Thatcher leadership, Conservative Chancellor Geoffrey Howe increased the standard rate of VAT from 8% to 15% and abolished the higher rate in June 1979; the rate remained unchanged until 1991, when Conservative Chancellor Norman Lamont increased it from 15% to 17.5%. The additional revenue was used to pay for a reduction in the hugely unpopular community charge. During the 1992 general election the Conservatives promised not to extend the scope of VAT but in March 1993, Lamont announced that domestic fuel and power, zero-rated, would have VAT levied at 8% from April 1994 and the full 17.5% from April 1995. The planned introduction of VAT on domestic fuel and power went ahead in April 1994, but the increase from 8% to 17.5% in April 1995 was scuppered in December 1994, after the government lost the vote in parliament.

In its 1997 general election manifesto, the Labour Party pledged to reduce VAT on domestic fuel and power to 5%. After gaining power, the new Labour Chancellor Gordon Brown announced in June 1997 that the lower rate of VAT on domestic fuel and power would be reduced from 8% to 5% with effect from 1 September 1997. In November 1997, Brown announced that the VAT on installation of energy saving materials would be reduced from 17.5% to 5% from 1 July 1998. Brown subsequently reduced VAT from 17.5% to 5% on sanitary protection products. In response to the late-2000s recession, Labour Chancellor Alistair Darling announced in November 2008 that the standard rate of VAT would be reduced from 17.5% to 15% with effect from 1 December 2008. In December 2009, Darling announced that the standard rate of VAT would return to 17.5% with effect from 1 January 2010. In the run up to the 2010 general election there were reports that the Conservatives would raise VAT if they gained power; the party refused to rule one out for the 2010 budget.

Following the election in May 2010, the Conservatives formed a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats. In the 2010 budget, described by PM David Cameron as an "emergency budget", Chancellor George Osborne announced that the standard rate of VAT would increase from 17.5% to 20% with effect from 4 January 2011. Before the 2015 general election Labour claimed that the Conservatives would raise VAT to 22.5% if they were re-elected and Osborne reputedly refused to deny the claim. On 25 March 2015 Cameron pledged in the House of Commons. All businesses that provide "taxable" goods and services and whose taxable turnover exceeds the threshold must register for VAT; the threshold as of 2018 is £85,000, by far the highest VAT registration threshold in the world. Businesses may choose to register if their turnover is less than that amount. All registered businesses must charge VAT on the full sale price of the goods or services that they provide unless exempted or outside the VAT system; the default VAT rate is the standard rate 20%.

Some goods and services are c

Trio Reynoso

Trio Reynoso known as "The Kings of Merengue Tipico" are considered to be one of the best musical groups of perico ripiao or merengue tipico. Trio Reynoso was composed of singer/accordionist Pedro Reynoso, percussionist Francisco Esquea, singer and güira player Domingo Reynoso, marimbero and güirero Antonio Rosario Almonte, known as one of the best güireros of all time and they laid the foundations of a new local mainstream called bachata-merengue, they were considered the most popular Latin group during Post-Trujillo era. They became a well-known group in parts of Latin America other than the Dominican Republic such as Cuba and Puerto Rico. After the death of Pedro Reynoso in July 18 of 1965, Trio Reynoso had to get a new accordionist and lead singer. In the end, it came out to be Tatico Henriquez, who in 1966, recorded his first song with the group called "Lo Que Tu Me Pidas"; some well notable songs that they have recorded were "Juana Mecho", "El Gallo Floreao", "Canto De Hacha", "Juanita Morel", "Alevántate", "Chanflin", "Mi Mujer De Oro", "Maria Luisa", "El Picoteao" and "La Lisa".

Tatico Henriquez would go into the footsteps of Pedro Reynoso and become one of the greatest accordionists of the Merengue Típico genre. He is the most popular artist of the merengue típico genre that has sold more records than any other artist in the history of Merengue Típico. In July 2013, the Association of Art Reporters included the "Trío Reynoso con Tatico" album among their collection "100 Essential Albums of Dominican music". In the Juana Mecho LP, it was a compiliation of tipicos, never complete due to the death of Pedro Reynoso. In the end, Side A consisted of six songs by Pedro Reynoso and Side B consisted of Tatico's first six recordings as an accordionist and lead singer in the trio. For a short amount of time, Joseito Mateo, considered to be "The King of Merengue", played the tambora in the Juana Mecho LP of Tatico's first recordings with the group. Mi Mujer de Oro Adela Desiderio Arias Las Tres Muchachas La Maya Prendia El Guaba Guizando Canto de Hacha Mi Desengaño Te Cayo Gas El Tira y Jala La Niña Que No Da Amor Juanita Morel Fiesta Ay Caramba El Cafe de Comay Juana Dolorita Dolores la Buenamosa Alevantate Compadre Pedro Juan Conformidad La Subidora Ta Buen Piquero Tin Tin Feliciana La Serrania La Enrama La Ligadura La Nena El Chemisse El Papujito La Espinita Virgen de la Altagracia La Lisa Baila Conmigo La Mujer Santa La Mano de Dios Matame con tu Cuchilla De Que Es Priva Dolores Las Flores El Sinverguenzon Los Algodones El Serrucho Cibao Adentro El Comisario Compay Cucu Hasta El Rio Juanita Morel Los Mangos Cualquiera Va Lucero de la Mañana Teresita El Colita Blanca El Mosquito El Guava El Merequeten Aguardiente Ven Conformidad Oye mi Merengue Encalacate Conmigo Le Cojen la Seña La Justicia El Chucu Chucu Emilio mi Colega Mingo Gonzalez El Gallo Floreao La Gina Rompe Cabezas El Picoteao Maria Dolores La Ultima Moda Mis Tres Amores Con el Alma La Vieja Bruja La Muerte De Martin Ay!

La Vida Rosa Se Llamaba La Carabana A La Buena De Dios La 7 Pasadas La Mamajuana La Mujer Mas Bella Recuerdo A Ramona No Me Llames Por Tu Nombre El Hombre Marinero Tolinlanla La Subidora Monto Mi Caballo Ahora Si Hay Melao Conformidad Tin Tin Tin "Feliciana" La Serranía Ay Mi Dios Llorar de Amores Juana Mecho Heroina Picoteao No Me Importa San Antonio Pintalabio Se Seca La Rama Lo Que a Mi Me Pasa Adeyda Lo Que Tu Pidas El Mismo Dolor El Bate Domingo Con el Alma Puro Cibaeño Emilio mi Colega Maria Dolores Saludos a Miguel Chanflin Mis Tres Mujeres Le voy a dar una pela Soñe Contigo Juan Gomero Las Mercedes Tirale Bajito De Que Es Que Priva Dolores Las Flores El Sinverguenzon Los Algodones El Serrucho Cibao Adentro El Comisario Compay Cucu Hasta El Rio Juanita Morel Los Mangos Por Una Boricua Cuidado No Hay Bocina La Gualetica Llorar de amores Maria Luisa El Pichoncito El Gallo Floreao La Vieja Bruja El Cola Blanca Emilio Mi Colega El Biberón Teresita Lucero De La Mañana La Gina Año Nuevo

(153591) 2001 SN263

2001 SN263 is a carbonaceous trinary asteroid, classified as near-Earth object and former hazardous asteroid of the Amor group 2.6 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered by the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research project at Lincoln Lab's Experimental Test Site in Socorro, New Mexico, on 20 September 2001; the two synchronous minor-planet moons measure 770 and 430 meters and have an orbital period of 16.46 and 150 hours, respectively. 2001 SN263, the primary object of this trinary system, is an unusual carbonaceous near-Earth asteroid of a C- or somewhat brighter B-type. It orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.0 -- 2.9 AU once 10 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 7 ° with respect to the ecliptic. A first precovery was taken at Palomar Observatory during the Digitized Sky Survey in 1990, extending the body's observation arc by 11 years prior to its official discovery observation at Socorro, it has an Earth minimum orbital intersection distance of 0.0520 AU, which translates into 20.3 lunar distances.

With an Earth MOID above 0.05 AU, 2001 SN263 is no longer a hazardous asteroid, but it was classified as such by the MPC until early 2017. Radar observations show, its surface has a low albedo of 0.048. Rotational lightcurves obtained from photometric observations gave a rotation period of 3.423 hours with a brightness variation between 0.13 and 0.27 magnitude. Radar observations gave a concurring period of 3.4256 hours, subsequent modeling of both radiometric and photometric observations gave a spin axis of in ecliptic coordinates. In 2008, scientists using the planetary radar at Arecibo Observatory discovered that the object is orbited by two satellites, when the triple asteroid made a close approach to Earth of 0.066 AU. The largest body is spheroid in shape, with principal axes of 2.8±0.1 km, 2.7±0.1 km, 2.9±0.3 km, with an effective diameter of 2.5±0.3 km and a density of 1.1±0.2 g/cm3. The satellites, named Beta and Gamma, are several times smaller in size. Beta is 0.77±0.12 km in diameter and Gamma 0.43±0.14 km.

The only other unambiguously identified triple asteroids in the near-Earth population are 1994 CC, discovered to be a triple system in 2009, 3122 Florence, found to be a triple system in September 2017. The orbital properties of the satellites are listed in this table; the orbital planes of both satellites are inclined relative to each other. Such a large inclination is suggestive of past evolutionary events that may have excited their orbits from a coplanar configuration to an inclined state; this minor planet was numbered by the Minor Planet Center on 2 April 2007. As of 2018, the primary and its moons have not been named. In the scientific literature, the components of the trinary system are generically referred to as Alpha and Gamma, but these labels are not recognized by the IAU; this triple asteroid system is the target for the planned ASTER mission scheduled for launch in 2021 by the Brazilian Space Agency. CBET No. 1254 – 2001 SN263, Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams Robert Roy Britt, Triple Asteroid Found Near Earth,, 13 Feb 2008 Emily Lakdawalla, Triple Near-Earth Asteroid Discovered The Planetary Society, 13 Feb 2008 Images of the asteroid and its moons A Lander to Investigate a C-type Triple Near-Earth Asteroid System: 2001 SN263 Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 2001 SN263 at NeoDyS-2, Near Earth Objects—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Obs prediction · Orbital info · MOID · Proper elements · Obs info · Close · Physical info · NEOCC 2001 SN263 at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters