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Preliminary hearing

Within some criminal justice systems, a preliminary hearing, preliminary examination, evidentiary hearing or probable cause hearing is a proceeding, after a criminal complaint has been filed by the prosecutor, to determine whether there is enough evidence to require a trial. At such a hearing, the defendant may be assisted by lawyer. In Scotland, a preliminary hearing is a non-evidential diet in cases to be tried before the High Court of Justiciary, it is a pre-trial diet to enable the court to be advised whether both parties, the prosecution and the defence, are ready to proceed to trial and may deal with ancillary procedural matters. In the United States, at a preliminary hearing the judge must find that such evidence provides probable cause to believe that the crime was committed, that the crime was committed by the defendant. There is a right to counsel at the preliminary hearing; the conduct of the preliminary hearing as well as the specific rules regarding the admissibility of evidence vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.

Hearsay is allowed. Should the court decide that there is probable cause, a formal charging instrument will issue. If the court should find that there is no probable cause typically the prosecution will cease. Many jurisdictions, allow the prosecution to seek a new preliminary hearing, or seek a bill of indictment from a grand jury; the key questions that a preliminary hearing addresses are: Is there probable cause to believe the alleged crime occurred and did it occur within the court's jurisdiction? Is there probable cause to believe that the defendant committed the crime? If a judge determines that there is sufficient evidence to believe that the defendant committed the crime, it is said that the defendant is "held to answer" or "bound over". Legal terminology varies between U. S. jurisdictions, so in some jurisdictions a reference to a "preliminary hearing" may refer to a different type of hearing than is described in this article. In criminal prosecutions the court schedules an arraignment at which the charges are formally presented to the defendant.

In many states criminal charges may be commenced with the prosecutor's filing an "information" with the court, a document that describes basic facts alleged to constitute a criminal offense by the defendant and the criminal laws that the defendant is alleged to have violated. The defendant will be scheduled for an arraignment at which the charge is formally presented. If the defendant does not plead guilty at the arraignment, the court schedules a preliminary hearing. Where an indictment is obtained through means other than an information, such as through grand jury proceedings or after an arrest when the defendant is first brought to court, the arraignment may be described using terms such as "initial hearing", or "preliminary arraignment", creating the possibility of confusing with a preliminary hearing as described article; those other hearings are not probable cause hearings. A preliminary hearing is not always required, its requirement varies by jurisdiction. In the U. S. for example, some states hold preliminary hearings in every serious criminal case.

If the defendant is charged with a felony under Federal law, the defendant has the right to an indictment by a grand jury pursuant to the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution as well as Title 18 of the United States Code. At grand jury proceedings, the defendant is not entitled to counsel present in the grand jury room, indeed may not know that a grand jury is considering the case. Article 32 hearing Committal procedure Grand jury

James of Aragon (monk)

James of Aragon was the eldest child of King James II. His mother was Blanche of the second of his father's four wives; as the king's eldest son, James was not only an infante but heir apparent to the Crown of Aragon, a realm stretching from north-eastern Spain to Sardinia and Corsica. He is best known for his unexpected decision to renounce his marriage and right to the throne and become a monk; when Queen Blanche's pregnancy became apparent in the spring of 1296, King James II sent for a respected physician from Paris, who helped the queen deliver Infante James on 29 September. King James oversaw the health of the heir apparent to the Crown of Aragon after the infante reached adulthood; the infante's chamberlain was a former royal surgeon. James was appointed procurator general in his youth, with the task of handling judicial affairs in the name of his father. In 1313, he survived severe fever. James's engagement to Eleanor of Castile was agreed upon in December 1308 at Monreal de Ariza; the union was of great importance, as the one-year-old infanta was the only child of King Ferdinand IV. Eleanor moved to Aragon in 1312, to be raised as its future queen.

James, was notoriously unpredictable. In the spring of 1318, aged 22, he announced to his father that he wished to break off the engagement and renounce his right to the crown so that he could take holy orders, despite never before having shown interest in monastic life; the infuriated king tried unsuccessfully to dissuade him. In August, the infante came down with an abscess, from which he suffered throughout the autumn and into the winter, he used it as an excuse not to visit his father. The marriage went ahead despite the bridegroom's vehement opposition, it was celebrated on 5 October 1319 in Gandesa. At the time of the wedding, the bride was only 12 years old, while James was 23; the king gave in to his son's demands. The renunciation was ratified in the presence of an assembly of noblemen at the Monastery of Saint Francis in Tarragona on 22 December; the marriage, was annulled. James entered the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, only to leave it to join the local Order of Montesa. Father and son's relationship became strained following the renunciation, with the younger James's instability and licentiousness continuously troubling the king.

On the death of their father in 1327, the crown passed to James's brother, the freshly widowed Alfons IV. Alfons proceeded to marry Eleanor, James's former wife, in 1329. James died in July 1334

Paul D. Workman

Paul Daniel Workman is a businessman from Austin, who served from 2011 to 2019 as a Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives. His District 47 encompasses the western and southern portions of populous Travis County. In the Democratic sweep of Travis County in the general election held on November 6, 2018, Workman was defeated for reelection by Vikki Goodwin, 54,890 votes to 49,980. In 1969, Workman graduated from Calallen High School in Texas. In 1973, he received a Bachelor of Science degree in Building Construction from Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas. For ten years, he was a member of the United States Army Reserve. Workman is the founder of Ltd. in Austin. He and his wife, the former Sherry Cleveland, have two children, Kyle Workman of Austin and Paula Willene Workman, six grandchildren; the Workmans are active in the non-denominational Christian Pedernales River Fellowship in Spicewood, an unincorporated community in Burnet County. Workman is affiliated with Associated General Contractors, the Real Estate Council of Austin, Citizens Against Lawsuit Abuse, the National Rifle Association, Rotary International.

Workman led a three-candidate Republican primary in 2010 for the right to challenge the Democratic incumbent representative, Valinda Bolton. He polled 5,521 votes. In the runoff election, Workman defeated Turner, 3,639 votes to 3,133. In the 2010 general election, Workman unseated Bolton, 29,873 votes to 27,773. A Libertarian Party nominee, Kris Bailey, held the remaining 2,485 votes. In 2012, Workman won re-nomination over fellow Republican Ryan H. Downton, a lawyer and non-denominational Christian from Austin. Downtown waged a conservative primary challenge and attempted to depict Workman as too moderate for Republican voters. Workman prevailed, 9,652 votes to Downton's 4,786 votes. Workman won his second House term in the general election of 2012, when he defeated the Democrat Chris Fransden, 49,220 votes to 31,294 votes. A Libertarian Party nominee, Roy Nicholas Tanner of Austin, held the remaining 4,216 votes. Workman is a member of two House committees: Business and Industry and Economic and Small Business Development.

He is a member of the Subcommittee on Manufacturing. A pro-life legislator, Workman in 2013 supported the ban on abortion after twenty weeks of gestation, he supported companion legislation to increase medical and licensing requirements of abortion providers, a move which opponents said could lead to closure of many such clinics. These issues brought forth an unsuccessful filibuster in the Texas State Senate by Wendy R. Davis of Fort Worth, who in 2014 is the Democratic nominee for governor against the Republican Greg Abbott. In 2011, Workman supported two other anti-abortion measures. One forbids state funding of agencies. Supporters of the sonogram claim that a woman could change her mind about an abortion once she witnesses the development of the unborn child. Despite Workman's support for these four measures, the Texas Right to Life Committee rated him only 67 percent and 72 percent favorable in 2013 and 2011, respectively. Workman voted against the establishment of the taxpayer-funded breakfast program for public schools.

He supported legislation to provide marshals for school security as a separate law-enforcement entity. He co-sponsored the successful bill to extend the franchise tax exemption to certain businesses. Workman voted against the adoption of the biennial state budgets for the 2011 budget, he voted for the bill to prohibit texting while driving, which passed the House, 97-45. He voted to require testing for narcotics of those individuals receiving unemployment compensation. Workman supported the measure to forbid the state from engaging in the enforcement of federal regulations of firearms, he co-sponsored a similar measure to allow college and university officials to carry concealed weapons in the name of campus security. He voted to reduce the time required to obtain a concealed-carry permit, he backed the redistricting bills for the state House and Senate and the United States House of Representatives. In 2011, Workman voted to establish guidelines for indigent health care, he voted against the prohibition of smoking in public places.

He voted to levy a sales tax on Internet transactions. The latter passed the House, 125-20, he supported picture identification of voters casting a ballot. Phyllis Schlafly's Eagle Forum, managed in Texas by Cathie Adams, a former state chairman of the Texas Republican Party, rated Workman 85 percent favorable in 2013 but only 40 percent in 2011; the Young Conservatives of Texas gave him a cumulative score in 2013 of 67 percent. The Texas League of Conservation Voters rated him 86 percent in 2013 and 69 percent in 2011; the National Rifle Association rated Workman 92 percent in 2012. In 2011, the interest group Texans for Fiscal Responsibility named him a "Taxpayer Champion" and scored him 88 percent favorable.

Ulmus 'Myrtifolia Purpurea'

The Elm cultivar Ulmus'Myrtifolia Purpurea', the Purple Myrtle-leaved Elm, was first mentioned by Louis de Smet of Ghent as Ulmus myrtifolia purpurea. An U. campestris myrtifolia purpurea Hort. was distributed by Louis van Houtte in the 1880s, by the Späth nursery, Berlin, in the 1890s and early 1900s, by the Hesse Nursery, Germany, till the 1930s. Schneider and Green believed'Myrtifolia Purpurea' a synonym of U. minor'Purpurascens', first listed in 1877. The cultivar U.'Myrtifolia' is not related to'Myrtifolia Purpurea'. The catalogue of the Späth nursery described U. campestris myrtifolia purpurea as having small reddish leaves. Not known.'Myrtifolia Purpurea' was cultivated as an ornamental. One tree was planted in 1893, as U. campestris myrtifolia purpurea, at the Dominion Arboretum, Canada. Three specimens were supplied by the Späth nursery to the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh in 1902 as U. campestris myrtifolia purpurea, may still exist in Edinburgh as it was the practice of the Garden to distribute trees about the city.

U. myrtifolia purpurea, a small tree with "elegant foliage of beautiful color", appeared in the 1902 catalogue of the Bobbink and Atkins nursery, New Jersey, in Kelsey's 1904 catalogue, New York. Three small-leaved purple-flushing elms survive in Hove, one of them the UK champion; until 2018 one was misidentified as the large-leaved purple elm U. × hollandica'Purpurascens'. Of the two names for small-leaved purple-flushing elm – U.'Myrtifolia Purpurea' and U. minor'Purpurascens' – the former was the commoner in nursery lists. EuropeBrighton & Hove City Council, UK. NCCPG Elm Collection. Cottesmore St. Mary School, Hove. U. minor'Purpurascens': Schneider, Green. Herbarium specimen of U. campestris myrtifolia purpurea,


Sobemovirus is a genus of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are 14 species in this genus including the type species Southern bean mosaic virus. Diseases associated with this genus include: mottles. Group: ssRNA Viruses in Sobemovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, T=3 symmetry; the diameter is around 30 nm. Genomes are non-segmented, around 4kb in length. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by leaky scanning, -1 ribosomal frameshifting; the virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host; the virus is transmitted via a vector. Transmission routes are seed borne; the genome is a single piece of linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA, 4100–5700 nucleotides in length. The genome encodes five open reading frames: ORFs 2a and 2b, ORF3 and ORFx.

ORF1 encodes P1 which plays a role in suppression of virus movement. ORFs 2a and 2b encode the replicational polyproteins P2ab. Translation of ORF2a from the genomic RNA is dependent on a leaky scanning mechanism. ORF3 encodes the coat protein. ORFx is conserved in all sobemoviruses, it overlaps the 5' end of ORF2a in the +2 reading frame and extends some distance upstream of ORF2a. It lacks an AUG initiation codon and its expression is predicted to depend on low level initiation at near-cognate non-AUG codons, such as CUG, by a proportion of the ribosomes that are scanning the region between the ORF1 and ORF2a initiation codons, its function is unknown but it appears to be essential for infection. Viralzone: Sobemovirus ICTV


WIBC is a commercial FM radio station in Indianapolis. It broadcasts a talk radio format; the studios are located at 40 Monument Circle in downtown Indianapolis. The transmitter and antenna are located near South Post Road and Burk Road on the far east side of Indianapolis; the station airs local conservative talk shows on weekdays, with several nationally syndicated programs, including Dana Loesch, Chad Benson, Coast to Coast AM with George Noory and on weekends Kim Komando and Bill Cunningham. Weekends feature shows on money, gardening and guns; some weekend hours are paid brokered programming. Some hours begin with national news from Fox News Radio. For nearly seven decades, WIBC broadcast on the AM radio frequency of 1070 kHz. On December 26, 2007, WIBC's call letters and talk programming moved to the FM dial at co-owned 93.1 MHz. On that date, the 1070 kHz frequency took the call sign WFNI and began an all-sports format as "1070 The Fan". WIBC broadcasts in HD, using its HD-2 signal for WFNI's local sports format heard on translator 107.5 W298BB.

WIBC's HD-3 signal carries the national ESPN Radio Network. 1070 AM WIBC went on the air on October 30, 1938. Its call sign stood for Indiana Broadcasting Company. WIBC began as a 1,000-watt daytime-only station; the station was granted approval to broadcast at 50 kW during the day and 10 kW at night. The other heritage stations in Indianapolis were WFBM, WIRE, WISH/WIFE. In its early days, WIBC was the Indianapolis network affiliate of the Mutual Broadcasting System, it carried dramas, news, game shows and soap operas during the Golden Age of Radio. In the 1950s, WIBC's owner, Fairbanks Broadcasting, petitioned the Federal Communications Commission to put a TV station on the air on Channel 13. Fairbanks sued, saying as an Indiana-based company, it should get the license over Crosley, based in Cincinnati. In 1960, WIBC added an FM station at 93.1, WIBC-FM. As TV took over most network programming in the 1950s and 60s, WIBC switched to local news and music; the station was considered among the great full service middle of the road radio stations in America, placing an emphasis on its colorful air personalities.

During the 1970s and into the early 1980s there were: Gary Todd, brought in from KOL Seattle. Doing sports on Riley's afternoon drive-time show was "Hockey Bob" Lamey, who got that nickname from doing play-by-play for the short-lived Indianapolis Racers WHA team a decade before the Indianapolis Colts moved from Baltimore and named Lamey the "Voice of the Colts". Others personalities who were on the air at WIBC were "Big" John Gillis, Pete Sullivan, Bob Simpson, Jeff Pigeon who went on to do mornings after Gary Todd retired. There were three major production voices responsible for most of the station's promos at one time or another during the 1970s and 1980s: Billy Moore from WHAS Louisville, Kentucky. Another long-time fixture was former News Director Fred Heckman, who began with WIBC in 1957, who abruptly resigned in 1993 under a dispute with its then-owners. Though the Indianapolis Motor Speedway had long-used talent from several Indianapolis radio stations, WIBC was known as the flagship station on the IMS Radio Network.

During the Great Blizzard of 1978, WIBC was granted temporary emergency authorization for nighttime broadcasting at full daytime power until the storm was over. The station is licensed to transmit at only 10 kW of power at night. Over the 1980s, more talk programming was added and music was reduced as listeners turned to FM for music. WIBC became a full-time talk radio station in 1993. Fred Heckmam returned in 1994 after the station was purchased by Emmis, remained until his 2000 retirement, his daily "My Town Indy" radio essays, which ran for thirty years, were among the station's most enduring favorites. The Indianapolis station at 93.1 FM first signed on as WIBC-FM on December 5, 1960. It aired a classical music format. On July 1, 1968, the station was re-launched as WNAP, it was the first FM station in the Indianapolis market to broadcast a mix of AOR and Top 40 hits better known as "Rock 40" ancestor of the CHR format, was in direct competition with Top 40 leader 1310 WIFE. In 1970, WNAP began broadcasting in stereo.

According to the documentary film Naptown Rock Radio Wars and program managers from across the United States came to Indianapolis to listen to WNAP in order to figure out the unique style of "The Buzzard" so they could emulate its success at their own stations. The classic top of the hour station identification from this era featured the sound of two thunderbolts and the dist