Wolfgang Reitzle is a German business executive. After leaving his school in Ulm, Reitzle continued his education at the Technical University of Munich where he studied mechanical engineering and economics. In 1971, aged just 22, he became Munich's youngest "Diplom-Ingenieur" graduate. In 1974, he received his doctorate in Engineering. In 1976, he joined BMW, he was in charge of product development for more than ten years from 1987, presiding with meticulous attention over the development and launch of a string of successful models. Between 1999 and 1 May 2002, Reitzle was the head of Ford's Premier Automotive Group, overseeing the Volvo and Land Rover marques, he let it be known that he left Ford when it became clear that he would not have sufficient control of developing new models through to the production process: the cost containing instincts of fellow director Nick Scheele were destined to ensure that the PAG vehicles would not benefit from his uncompromising approach sufficiently to compete on level terms with market leaders such as Lexus and BMW.
When he left Ford, Reitzle denied having been offered a role with General Motors as heir apparent by Bob Lutz taking over responsibility for Opel and Saab: Ford had provided him with sufficient experience of US auto industry corporate culture. A naval metaphor that he was prepared to place on record was that he "would rather be captain on a destroyer than first officer on an aircraft carrier", he instead quit the car business and became CEO of The Linde Group, at that time a leading manufacturer of Fork-lift trucks and the world's largest industrial gas company, joining the board in 2002 and becoming a chairman in 2003. He was replaced at Ford by Mark Fields, who had headed up Mazda. In Munich, on 3 May 2016 Reitzle was elected as Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Linde AG. Continental AG, Chairman of the Supervisory Board Deutsche Telekom, Member of the Supervisory Board Holcim, Chairman of the Board, Chairman of the Governance & Strategy Committee, Member of the Nomination & Compensation Committee KION Group, Member of the Supervisory Board Deutsche Bank, Member of the European Advisory Board Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz, Member of the Board of Trustees Munich Security Conference, Chairman of the Advisory Council Roland Berger Foundation, Member of the Board of Trustees Senckenberg Nature Research Society, Member of the Board of Trustees Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft and Member of the Board of Trustees Reitzle has two daughters by his first marriage.
In September 2001, he married television presenter Nina Ruge. Reitzle profile at Linde AG Article on Wolfgang Reitzle by David E. Davis
The Lincoln Navigator is a full-size luxury SUV marketed and sold by the Lincoln brand of Ford Motor Company since the 1998 model year. Sold in North America, the Navigator is the Lincoln counterpart of the Ford Expedition. While not the longest vehicle sold by the brand, it is the heaviest production Lincoln built, it is the Lincoln with the greatest cargo capacity and the first non-limousine Lincoln to offer seating for more than six people. Lincoln Navigator production was sourced from 1997 to 2009 at the Michigan Assembly Plant in Wayne, Michigan. Since 2007, production has been sourced from the Kentucky Truck Plant in Louisville, Kentucky. At the end of the 1980s, in the United States, sport-utility vehicles began to transition from dedicated off-road vehicles towards dedicated family vehicles, similar to station wagons. In 1991, the Jeep Grand Wagoneer ended its 28-year production run. However, by the time of its discontinuation, the vehicle had gained a famous reputation for its high content, featuring the same content as a luxury sedan.
Following its official entry into the United States in 1987, the Range Rover was upgraded in trim corresponding with its higher price. As a response, General Motors introduced the Oldsmobile Bravada in 1990, convincing several other manufacturers to introduce mid-size luxury SUVs; as full-size SUVs such as the Chevrolet Suburban and Ford Expedition are profitable vehicles, the Lincoln Navigator came to life. The Lincoln Navigator was launched on July 1, 1997 for the 1998 model year, with the first vehicle rolling off the assembly line on May 14, 1997. Based directly on the Ford Expedition, introduced the year before, the Navigator gave the Lincoln-Mercury division its first full-size SUV. In its first calendar year of sales, Navigator contributed to an unprecedented event of recent decades – with Lincoln overtaking perennial rival Cadillac in annual sales volume. Published figures indicated that Cadillac had outsold Lincoln by a scant 222 vehicles sold, thanks to an enormous surge in Cadillac Escalade sales in December 1998, from hundreds in previous months to 5,000.
A subsequent audit resulted in a retraction/apology in May 1999, attributing the "error" to "overzealous" "low-level" employees. The Lincoln Navigator was developed under the Ford program code name UN173, with the Expedition developed under the UN93 program code name. A full-size body-on-frame vehicle, the Navigator was mechanically related to the Ford Expedition; the Navigator featured independent front suspension. Using an optional feature from its Ford counterpart, the Navigator was designed with load-leveling air suspension. Although technically available with rear-wheel drive, the primary drivetrain on the Lincoln Navigator was ControlTrac, a computer-controlled automatic four-wheel drive system; as with the Expedition, the Navigator was fitted with four-wheel anti-lock disc brakes. Using the same 230 hp 5.4L Triton V8 as the Expedition/F-150 paired with the 4-speed 4R100 automatic transmission, the 1998 Lincoln Navigator came with a towing capacity of 7,700 lb. During 1999, Lincoln would fit two different engines in the Navigator in an effort to better match full-size SUVs from General Motors.
At the beginning of the model year, the Triton V8 was upgraded to 260 hp. Due to the increase in power, towing capacity would increase to over 8,500 lb. Although the Lincoln Navigator shares the same bodyshell as the Ford Expedition, giving it a similar exterior appearance, Lincoln stylists would make many design changes to differentiate the two vehicles. Forward of the windshield, the Lincoln Navigator shares no body panels with its Ford counterpart, with its own front fascia, roof rack, lower body trim, taillights; the interior of the two vehicles shared more commonality, with the dashboard common to both vehicles. To make for a quieter interior over the Expedition and Ford F-Series, the Navigator made greater use of sound deadening materials and higher-quality carpeting; the Lincoln Navigator included standard features available or optional on the Expedition, including power driver and passenger bucket seats, 2nd-row bucket seats, floor consoles, keyless entry. The few options available included a power moonroof, a universal garage door opener, 7 seven to 8 eight passenger seating an electrochromic rearview mirror, a premium audio system, 17-inch alloy wheels.
During its production run, Lincoln made few changes to the first-generation Navigator. In 1999, alongside the addition of the InTech V8, power-adjustable brake and accelerator pedals were added. For 2000, the fender-mounted radio antenna was integrated into the right-rear window, while the interior received Nudo leather seating surfaces; the options list expanded to include a satellite navigation system and cooled front seats, a reverse-sensing system, side-impact airbags. For 2001, several minor cosmetic changes we
Alan Roger Mulally is an American engineer, business executive, former President and Chief Executive Officer of the Ford Motor Company. He retired from Ford Motor Company on July 1, 2014. Ford had been struggling during the late-2000s recession, returned to profitability under Mulally, was the only American major car manufacturer to avoid a bailout fund provided by the government. Mulally's achievements at Ford are chronicled in the book American Icon: Alan Mulally and the Fight to Save Ford Motor Company by Bryce G. Hoffman, published in 2012. On July 15, 2014, he was appointed to the Google Board of Directors. Mulally was the CEO of Boeing Commercial Airplanes, he began his career with Boeing as an engineer in 1969 and was credited with BCA's resurgence against Airbus in the mid-2000s. In 2015, Mulally was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame at the San Diego Air & Space Museum. Mulally was born in Oakland, the son of Lauraine Lizette and Charles R. Mulally, who met at a USO dance.
Mulally grew up in his mother's hometown of Lawrence, where he was a member of Plymouth Congregational Church. He considered Rev. Dale Turner "a mentor and an inspiration", he used to sit at the front of the church to study the minister's influence on the congregation. Mulally said that he found himself motivated at the age of 17 by president John F. Kennedy's challenge to send a man to the moon. Mulally graduated from the University of Kansas his mother's alma mater, with Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees in aeronautical and astronautical engineering, he was a member of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity. He received a Master's degree in Management as a Sloan Fellow from MIT's Sloan School of Management in 1982. Mulally was hired by Boeing out of college in 1969 as an engineer, he held a number of engineering and program management positions, making contributions to the Boeing 727, 737, 747, 757, 767 and Boeing 777 projects. He led the cockpit design team on the 757/767 project, its revolutionary design featured the first all-digital flight deck in a commercial aircraft, the second two-man crew for long range aircraft after the Airbus A300, a common type rating for pilots on two different aircraft.
He worked on the 777 program first as director of engineering and, from September 1992, as vice-president and general manager. He was named as Vice President of Engineering for the commercial airplane group, he is known and recognized for elevating Phil Condit's "Working Together" philosophy through and beyond the 777 program. In 1994, Mulally was promoted to senior vice president of Airplane Development and was in charge of all airplane development activities, flight test operations and government technical liaison. In 1997, Mulally became the president of the Boeing Information, Space & Defense Systems and senior vice president, he held this position until 1998 when he was made president of Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Chief Executive Officer duties were added in 2001. Following the forced resignations of Phil Condit in 2003 and Harry Stonecipher in 2005, Mulally was considered one of the leading internal candidates for the CEO position; when Mulally was passed over in both instances, questions were raised about whether he would remain with the company.
For Mulally's performance at Boeing, Aviation Week & Space Technology named him as person of the year for 2006. Former Ford CEO Donald Petersen recommended Mulally to Ford, he was named the President and CEO of Ford Motor Company on September 5, 2006, succeeding Bill Ford, who became executive chairman. Mulally called his Lexus LS430 the'finest car in the world', just as Ford was about to announce his selection as CEO, making the point that Ford was not in a leadership position, though he faced some criticism and switched to driving Ford models. William Clay Ford Jr. had been searching for his successor as Ford CEO for some time, with Daimler AG's Dieter Zetsche and Renault/Nissan Motors's Carlos Ghosn both turning down the offer. One of Mulally's first decisions at Ford was to bring back the Taurus nameplate, he said that he could not understand why the company scrapped the Taurus, one of the company's best sellers until losing ground in the late 1990s. Mulally took over "The Way Forward" restructuring plan at Ford to turn around its massive losses and declining market share.
Mulally's cost-cutting initiatives led to the company's first profitable quarter in two years. Dividends to shareholders were suspended. Mulally led the effort for Ford to borrow US$23.6 billion by mortgaging all of Ford's assets. Mulally said that he intended to use the money to finance a major overhaul and provide “a cushion to protect for a recession or other unexpected event". At the time, the loan was interpreted as a sign of desperation, but is now credited with stabilizing Ford's financial position, compared to crosstown rivals General Motors and Chrysler, both of whom had gone bankrupt during the automotive industry crisis of 2008–2009. Ford was the only one of the Detroit Three. Mulally did testify before the United States Congress in favor of government loans for General Motors and Chrysler, discussing the impact to the economy and to other automobile manufacturers if parts suppliers were to go bankrupt in the light of a GM or Chrysler collapse. In May 2009, Ford chairman William Clay Ford, who hired Mulally, said that "Alan was the right choice, it gets more right every day".
In 2007, he presided over the sale of Jaguar Cars and Land Rover to Tata Motors, an Indian car and truck manufacturer. Mulally said he had "no regrets" over the sale, preferring to concentrat
SAIC Motor Corporation Limited is a Chinese state-owned automotive design and manufacturing company headquartered in Shanghai, with multinational operations. A Fortune Global 100 company and one of the "Big Four" state-owned Chinese automakers, the company had the largest production volume of any Chinese automaker in 2014 making more than 4.5 million vehicles. Its manufacturing mix is not wholly consumer offerings, with as many as one million SAIC passenger vehicles being commercial vans. SAIC traces its origins to the early years of the Chinese automobile industry in the 1940s, SAIC was one of the few carmakers in Mao's China, making the Shanghai SH760, it participates in the oldest surviving sino-foreign car making joint venture, with Volkswagen, in addition has had a joint venture and 40% shares of General Motors since 1998. SAIC products sell under a variety including those of its joint venture partners. Two notable brands owned by SAIC itself are MG, a historic British car marque, Roewe, one of the few domestic Chinese luxury car brands.
Although it has a long history, originating from an automobile assembly factory established in Shanghai sometime around World War II, SAIC, unlike domestic rivals FAW Group and Dongfeng Motors, has only attained a position of prominence in the Chinese vehicle industry. A small company in the 1970s, SAIC owes its rise to more than an increase in domestic demand for passenger vehicles. A cooperative agreement made with Volkswagen in 1984 followed by the formal establishment of Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive Co Ltd in March 1985 allowed it to produce competitive cars with foreign technology. Early success at SAIC may be a result of guidance provided by local Shanghai authorities. For these two reasons and more, SAIC grew swiftly. In the 11 years leading to 1996, annual production capacity increased ten-fold to 300,000 units/year, the company established itself as one of the leading Chinese automakers. During this period, SAIC built an entire modern automotive component supply chain in Shanghai from scratch, the number and quality of locally produced auto parts rose significantly.
Cars that were assembled in China from knock-down kits provisioned by Volkswagen became products built from parts produced in Shanghai, between 1990 and 1996 the city more than doubled its contribution to the national output of automotive components. In 1987, the only local parts used in one car, the Volkswagen Santana, were tires and antenna, but by 1998 over 90% of the components used in its manufacture were locally sourced. A goal set by the Shanghai Municipal government, creation of a local parts industry is an example of the influence that the local government has had on the development of SAIC. In June 1997, SAIC formed a second major joint venture, Shanghai General Motors Co Ltd, with General Motors; the new joint venture began operations in 1998, helped to drive a doubling in SAIC's vehicle production between 2000 and 2004. Partnering with foreign automakers, creating joint ventures with component suppliers, such as the American Visteon, may now help underpin SAIC success. At the start of the 2000s, SAIC made several acquisitions in Korea.
In 2002 it participated in GM's purchase of Korean automaker Daewoo, acquiring a 10% stake in the newly formed GM Daewoo company for US$59.7 million, in 2004 it assumed control of an ailing South Korean automaker, SsangYong Motor, paying US$500 million for 48.9% ownership of the company. Around this time SAIC created a new holding company for its subsidiaries employed in passenger car production, Shanghai Automotive Group. In the middle of the decade, SAIC attempted to acquire the British automaker MG Rover, but in 2005 was outbid by another Chinese automaker, Nanjing Automobile. SAIC did manage to obtain some MG Rover technology, incorporated into a new line of luxury sedans sold under the Roewe marque, it subsequently purchased the winning bidder. While the company saw sales success in the late 2000s, with 2.72 million vehicles sold in 2009, its 2004 purchase of an ownership stake in a Korean SUV-maker, soured. In January 2009, after an additional US$45 million was provided to it by SAIC, SsangYong Motor Company was placed into receivership in Korea.
Courts might have mandated SAIC reduce its ownership, by 2010 a 51.33% share of the Korean company had become a 10% one. The 2009 Ssangyong failure saw riot police quell protesting Ssangyong workers who staged a 77-day-long sit in. SAIC may have benefitted from exposure to some technology from Mercedes that Ssangyong controlled during this time. In 2010, SAIC produced 3.58 million units, the largest output of any China-based automaker that year. In February 2011, SAIC unveiled Maxus. On 13 April 2011, mass production resumed at the MG Motor UK Longbridge plant as the first MG 6 to be produced in the United Kingdom came off the production line; this plant is little more than a CKD factory on a par with similar setups in Africa and other developing nations. In 2011, SAIC produced 3.97 million vehicles, the largest output of any China-based automaker that year. In June 2012, SAIC's United States-based subsidiary Shanghai Automotive Industries Corp USA, Inc. opened a new North American Operations Center in Birmingham, Michigan.
The opening ceremony was attended by the Governor of Michigan Rick Snyder, Oakland County Executive L. Brooks Patterson, senior executives from General Motors and SAIC Motor; the 30,000-square-foot, three-story facility will house nearly 100 staff and focus on sourcing componen
A brand is an overall experience of a customer that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands; the practice of branding is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians, who were known to have engaged in livestock branding as early as 2,700 BCE. Branding was used to differentiate one person’s cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. If a person stole any of the cattle, anyone else who saw the symbol could deduce the actual owner. However, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Over time, the practice of branding objects extended to a broader range of packaging and goods offered for sale including oil, wine and fish sauce. Branding in terms of painting a cow with symbols or colors at flea markets was considered to be one of the oldest forms of the practice.
Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, various branding strategies. Many companies believe that there is little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, therefore branding is one of a few remaining forms of product differentiation. Brand equity is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components; as markets become dynamic and fluctuating, brand equity is a marketing technique to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, with side effects like reduced price sensitivity. A brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits.
When a customer is familiar with a brand, or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Special accounting standards have been devised to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset, is the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands to create shareholder value, brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a monetary value to a brand, allows marketing investment to be managed to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company's balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value; the word ‘brand’ is used as a metonym referring to the company, identified with a brand. Marque or make are used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand, associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business.
A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity. The word, derives from its original and current meaning as a firebrand, a burning piece of wood; that word comes from the Old High German and Old English byrnan and brinnan via Middle English as birnan and brond. Torches were used to indelibly mark items such as furniture and pottery, to permanently burn identifying marks into the skin of slaves and livestock; the firebrands were replaced with branding irons. The marks themselves took on the term and came to be associated with craftsmen's products. Through that association, the term acquired its current meaning. Branding and labelling have an ancient history. Branding began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft. Images of the branding of cattle occur in ancient Egyptian tombs dating to around 2,700 BCE. Over time, purchasers realised that the brand provided information about origin as well as about ownership, could serve as a guide to quality. Branding was adapted by farmers and traders for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics.
Forms of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seals, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty. Identity marks, such as stamps on ceramics, were used in ancient Egypt. Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions", she has shown that amphorae used in Mediterranean trade between 1,500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which consumers used to glean information about the type of goods and the quality. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of o
Lincoln Motor Company
Lincoln, formally the Lincoln Motor Company, is a luxury vehicle brand of the American manufacturer Ford Motor Company. Marketed among the top luxury brands in the United States, Lincoln has competed against Cadillac for nearly its entire existence. Lincoln has the distinction of establishing the personal luxury car segment, with the entry of the Lincoln Continental into mass production in 1940. Lincoln Motor Company was founded in 1917 by Henry M. Leland. Following World War II, Ford formed the Lincoln-Mercury Division, pairing Lincoln with its mid-range Mercury brand through 2010. In 2012, Ford rebranded the Lincoln division under Lincoln Motor Company. Founded as a freestanding division above Lincoln, Continental was integrated within Lincoln in 1959; the Continental-branded Mark Series was marketed through Lincoln starting in 1968, adapting the Lincoln name in 1986. The Lincoln star emblem is derived from a badge first used on the 1956 Continental Mark II. Following the divestiture of Jaguar, Land Rover, Aston Martin and Volvo and the closure of Mercury, Lincoln remains the sole luxury nameplate of Ford Motor Company.
The current product range of Lincoln consists of sedans, SUVs. Outside of retail markets, Lincoln has produced vehicles for limousine and livery use throughout its entire existence, with several examples used as official state limousines for Presidents of the United States. In 2017, Lincoln sold 188,383 vehicles globally. Outside of North America, Lincoln vehicles are sold in the Middle East and South Korea; the Lincoln Motor Company was founded in August 1917 by his son Wilfred. Among the founders of Cadillac, Leland had sold the company to General Motors in 1909, remaining on as an executive until 1917, when he left over a dispute with GM President William Durant. Naming Lincoln Motor Company after Abraham Lincoln, the first President for whom he voted, Leland financed the company by securing a $10 million contract to build Liberty V12 aircraft engines, breaking ground on the Lincoln Motor Company Plant. To build the Liberty engines, Lincoln sourced parts from other manufacturers. In total, 6,500 Liberty V12 engines were produced by Lincoln before the end of World War I ceased wartime production.
Following a complete retooling for automobile production, Lincoln Motor Company developed its first automobile, the Lincoln Model L. Intended as a rival for Cadillac and similar luxury car manufacturers, the Model L was powered by a V8 engine, derived from the technology of the Liberty V12. During the early 1920s, Lincoln Motor Company struggled with the shift from military to automobile production, with some customers having to wait nearly a year for their vehicles to be completed from the time of purchase. By 1922, Lincoln was placed in receivership. On February 4, 1922, Lincoln Motor Company was acquired by Ford Motor Company for $8 million. Although Henry Ford had designed several luxury vehicles under the Ford brand, Ford sought to create a stand-alone luxury-vehicle division, as General Motors had done with Cadillac. With the acquisition of Lincoln, Ford Motor Company produced a rival for Cadillac, Pierce-Arrow, Peerless and Packard alongside the Ford Model T. In addition to more competing against General Motors in different price segments, the purchase of Lincoln held personal value within Ford management.
In 1902, Henry Ford had been forced out of his second company by a group of investors led by Leland. Henry Ford Company was renamed Cadillac Automobile Company. While Henry and Wilfred Leland were retained to manage Lincoln, on June 10, 1922, both Lelands were removed, with Edsel Ford brought in to manage the company. Following the introduction of Edsel Ford to Lincoln management, the fortunes of Lincoln began to improve. For 1923, the Lincoln Model L underwent extensive changes. While the chassis and drivetrain were left alone, several new bodystyles were introduced. In line with a Duesenberg or a Rolls-Royce, customers could purchase a Model L with coachbuilt bodywork. For 1923, Lincoln produced 7,875 cars. During the early 1920s, Lincoln steered away from the common American automotive industry practice of yearly model changes. While used to market fresh designs to customers, Lincoln found that its customers had begun to purchase multiple Lincolns in different bodystyles. Following the 1930 model year, Lincoln chose to withdraw the Model L in favor of a more modern vehicle.
For 1931, the Lincoln Model K was introduced as a competitor to the Cadillac 355 Chrysler Imperial, Duesenberg Model J, Packard Eight. For 1932, Lincoln became an American manufacturer to produce a "multi-cylinder" engine as it introduced its first V12 engine. While not the first to produce a V12 engine in an American-produced car, in 1933, Lincoln became the first manufacturer to produce vehicles with V12 engines, as it retired the L-head V8 engine. During the 1930s, Lincoln expanded to two model lines for the first time; as Lincoln shifted the Model K upwards in price, Edsel Ford introduced the Lincoln-Zephyr as a su
The Jaguar X-Type is a front-engine, all-wheel/front-wheel drive compact executive car manufactured and marketed by Jaguar Cars from 2001 to 2009 under the internal designation X400, for a single generation, in saloon and estate body styles. In addition to offering Jaguar's first estate in series production, the X-type would introduce its first diesel engine, four-cylinder engine and front-wheel drive configuration; the X-Type was developed during the period when Jaguar was owned by Ford as a division of its Premier Automotive Group — and marked Jaguar's entry into the critical compact executive segment. The programme aimed to double the marque's worldwide sales — requiring expansion of engineering resources, factory capacity, marketing capability, sales support and service. At launch, Autocar called the X-Type "the most important Jaguar ever."With annual projections of 100,000 sales, the X-Type recorded a production of 350,000 over its eight year manufacturing run. The X-Type, codenamed X400, launched in 2001 to compete in the compact executive class dominated by the rear-wheel drive BMW 3-series and Mercedes C-class despite Ford/Jaguar having no directly competitive platform.
Instead, the X-type used a modified version of the front-drive Ford CD132 platform shared with the contemporary Ford Mondeo — with the addition of all-wheel drive and handling and steering engineered to minimise front-wheel drive torque-steer. The X-Type was available only with all wheel drive, using a centre differential and a compact, maintenance-free viscous coupling with a default split of 60 percent torque to the rear wheels, 40 percent to the front wheels. Under loss of traction front or rear, the coupling could vary the front/rear torque split and could transfer torque to either front or rear wheels to ensure grip. From 2005-on, X-Types used an electronically controlled transfer cases rather than the centre viscous coupling; as Jaguar's first compact executive car since the Jaguar Mark 2 of 1959, the X-Type was the last Jaguar styled under the supervision of Geoff Lawson, with Wayne Burgess and Simon Butterworth as principal designers. The four door saloon launched in 2001, the five door estate followed in January 2004, with production of both ending in July 2009.
The estate offered a Cd of 0.32 in 0.33 in Sport trim. Engines included either of two V6 petrol engines: 3.0 litre. In 2002, an entry level. All three engines were available with either five - five speed manual gearboxes; the X-Type grille was modified for both the 2004 and 2006 model years. The base petrol engine derived from the 2.5-litre that served in the Ford Mondeo, the 3.0-litre V6 is an adaptation of the base engine from the Jaguar S-Type and Lincoln LS. Despite the X-Type's critical importance to Jaguar and Ford's Premier Automotive Group, despite extensive engineering and testing, the X-Type was nonetheless sometimes "derided as little more than a reshelled Ford Mondeo."Eventually, the X-Type would become available with front-wheel drive and sluggish 2.0-litre petrol and diesel engines. In July 2009, Jaguar Land Rover announced the end of X-Type production by the end of 2009. Both saloon and estate configurations were manufactured at the Halewood Assembly Facility near Liverpool, renovated at a cost of $450 million.
The X-Type was based on a modified version of the Ford CD132 platform shared with the Ford Mondeo. The X-Type was offered as all-wheel drive only and mated to a 2.5 litre and 3.0 litre AJ-V6 petrol engine. One notable addition to AJ-V6 engine design is the use of variable valve timing; the X-Type's petrol engine is set apart by the use of SFI fuel injection, four valves per cylinder and featured fracture split forged powder metal connecting rods, plus a one piece cast camshaft, has direct acting mechanical bucket tappets. In 2003, the X-Type was offered in front-wheel drive with the introduction of Jaguar’s first four-cylinder diesel engines, with the smaller 2.1 litre petrol V6. The six speed automatic transmission supplied on the 2.2 litre diesel models includes Jaguar Sequential Shift. At the X-Type's launch, standard equipment included automatic climate control. Trim configurations would introduce carbon fibre dash panels alcantara seat surfaces. All interior wood was genuine, manufactured with veneers for the rest of the Jaguar line-up at Browns Lane’s Veneer Manufacturing Centre, including the door trim pieces on higher models, increasing the development and production costs.
The estate adds a 320-watt premium Alpine sound system, wood-and-leather steering wheel, 10-way power adjustable seats for driver and front-seat passenger, electrochromic mirrors inside and out, rain-sensing windshield wipers, a programmable garage-door opener, message centre and trip computer, Reverse Park Control, 17-inch alloy wheels. The estate was the first Jaguar model designed by Ian Callum. From its saloon counterpart, the design revised 420 tooled parts and 58 stampings for all components rearward of the windscreen, adding 150-pounds; the design used a tailgate with independently-opening, strut-supported rear window, operable by key fob or dashboard located switch.