Cruising by boat is a lifestyle that involves living for extended time on a vessel while traveling from place to place for pleasure. Cruising refers to trips of a few days or more, can extend to round-the-world voyages. Boats were exclusively used for working purposes prior to the nineteenth century. In 1857, the philosopher Henry David Thoreau, with his book Canoeing in Wilderness chronicling his canoe voyaging in the wilderness of Maine, was the first to convey the enjoyment of spiritual and lifestyle aspects of cruising; the modern conception of cruising for pleasure was first popularised by the Scottish explorer and sportsman John MacGregor. He was introduced to the canoes and kayaks of the Native Americans on a camping trip in 1858, on his return to the United Kingdom constructed his own'double-ended' canoe in Lambeth; the boat, nicknamed'Rob Roy' after a famous relative of his, was built of lapstrake oak planking, decked in cedar covered with rubberized canvas with an open cockpit in the center.
He cruised around the waterways of Britain and the Middle East and wrote a popular book about his experiences, A Thousand Miles in the Rob Roy Canoe. In 1866, Macgregor was a moving force behind the establishment of the Royal Canoe Club, the first club in the world to promote pleasure cruising; the first recorded regatta was held on April 27, 1867, it received Royal patronage in 1873. The latter part of the century saw cruising for leisure being enthusiastically taken up by the middle class; the author Robert Louis Stevenson wrote An Inland Voyage in 1877 as a travelogue on his canoeing trip through France and Belgium. Stevenson and his companion, Sir Walter Grindlay Simpson travelled in two'Rob Roys' along the Oise River and witnessed the Romantic beauty of rural Europe; the Canadian-American Joshua Slocum was one of the first people to carry out a long-distance sailing voyage for pleasure, circumnavigating the world between 1895 and 1898. Despite opinion that such a voyage was impossible, Slocum rebuilt a derelict 37-foot sloop Spray and sailed her single-handed around the world.
His book Sailing Alone Around the World was a classic adventure, inspired many others to take to the seas. Other cruising authors have provided both instruction to prospective cruisers. Key among these during the post World War II period are Electa and Irving Johnson and Beryl Smeeton, Bernard Moitessier, Peter Pye, Eric and Susan Hiscock. During the 1970s - 1990s Robin Lee Graham and Larry Pardey, Annie Hill, Herb Payson and Steve Dashew and Hal Roth, Beth Leonard & Evans Starzinger have provided inspiration for people to set off voyaging; the development of ocean crossing rallies, most notably the ARC, have encouraged less experienced sailors to undertake ocean crossings. These rallies provide a group of sailors crossing the same ocean at the same time with safety inspections, weather information and social functions. Cruising is done on both sail and power boats and multihulls although sail predominates over longer distances, as ocean-going power boats are more expensive to purchase and operate.
The size of the typical cruising boat has increased over the years and is in the range of 10 to 15 metres although smaller boats have been used in around-the-world trips, but are not recommended given the dangers involved. Many cruisers are "long term" and travel for many years, the most adventurous among them circle the globe over a period of three to ten years. Many others take a year or two off from work and school for shorter trips and the chance to experience the cruising lifestyle. Blue-water cruising is inherently more dangerous than coastal cruising. Before embarking on an open-ocean voyage and preparation will include studying charts, weather reports/warnings and navigation books of the route to be followed. In addition, supplies need to be stocked, navigation instruments checked and the ship itself needs to be inspected and the crew needs to be given exact instruction on the jobs are expected to perform. In addition, the crew needs to be well trained at working together and with the ship in question.
The sailor must be mentally prepared for dealing with harsh situations. There have been many well-documented cases where sailors had to be rescued because they were not sufficiently prepared or lacked experience for their venture and ran into serious trouble. Sailing near the coast gives a certain amount of safety. A ship is always granted'innocent passage' through the country; when this method is practiced however, if the ship needs to stop, a trip to a customs checkpoint to have passports checked would be required. Cruisers use a variety of equipment and techniques to make their voyages possible, or more comfortable; the use of wind vane self steering was common on long distance cruising yachts but is being supplemented or replaced by electrical auto-pilots. Though in the past many cruisers had no means of generating electricity on board and depended on kerosene and dry-cell batteries, today electrical demands are much higher and nearly all cruisers have electrical devices such as lights, communications equipment and refrigeration.
Although most boats can generate power from their inboard engines, an increasing number carry auxiliary generators. Carrying sufficient fuel to power engine and generator over a long voyage can be a problem, so many cruising boats are equippe
Cammell Laird is a British shipbuilding company. The company came about following the merger of Laird Brothers of Birkenhead and Johnson Cammell & Co. of Sheffield at the turn of the twentieth century. The company built railway rolling stock until 1929, when that side of the business was separated and became part of the Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage and Wagon Company; the Laird company was founded by William Laird, who had established the Birkenhead Iron Works in 1824. When he was joined by his son, John Laird in 1828, their first ship was an iron barge. John realised; the company soon became preeminent in the manufacture of iron ships and made major advances in propulsion. In 1860, John Laird was joined in the business by his three sons, renaming it John Sons & Co.. The sons continued the business after their father's death in 1874 as Laird Brothers. Johnson Cammell & Co. was founded by Charles Cammell and Henry and Thomas Johnson: it made, amongst many other metal products, iron wheels and rails for Britain's railways and was based in Sheffield.
In 1903 the businesses of Messrs. Cammell and Laird merged to create a company at the forefront of shipbuilding; the company built a number of vehicles for the London Underground. An order was placed for 20 trailer cars and 20 control trailer cars in 1919, which were known as 1920 Stock, were the first tube cars to be built with doors operated by compressed air, they ran with converted French motor cars built in 1906. The doors were fitted with a sensitive edge, designed to re-open the door if someone became trapped in it, but the mechanism was too sensitive, was removed after an initial trial period; the cars continued in operation until 1938, eight years after the motor cars were withdrawn, but following withdrawal, five cars became a mobile training school. Cammell Laird built a number of Standard Stock vehicles for the Underground, they were one of five builders approached to build a sample car to a general specification, which were put into service in February 1923, three of the builders subsequently built production runs.
The company supplied 41 motor cars and 40 trailer cars in 1923, 25 control trailers in 1924, a further 48 motor cars in 1925. In 1927, they built 160 passenger coaches for use in India. To transport them, Cammell Laird asked Watsons of Gainsborough to build five dumb barges; the coaches were loaded onto the barges at Clifton, near Nottingham on the River Trent, towed in pairs downriver by a twin-screwed tug named Motorman, built by Henry Scarr of Hessle in 1925. They were taken to Hull for export. In 1929, the railway rolling stock business of Cammell Laird was spun off and merged to become Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage and Wagon Company Ltd. Between 1829 and 1947, over 1,100 vessels of all kinds were launched from the Cammell Laird slipways into the River Mersey. Among the many famous ships made by the companies were the world's first steel ship, the Ma Roberts, built in 1858 for Dr. Livingstone's Zambezi expedition, CSS Alabama, built in 1862 for the Confederate States of America, HMS Caroline that holds the record fastest build time of any significant warship, the first all-welded ship, the Fullagar built in 1920, Cunard's second RMS Mauretania, the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal the battleship HMS Prince of Wales and the largest vessel to have been built for the Royal Navy up to that time, HMS Ark Royal.
In 1898, Cammell provided the half-inch armour plate used to fabricate the four Fowler Armoured Road Trains built during the Second Anglo-Boer War. The armoured road train was the first self-propelled, free-roaming, armoured military land vehicle built, predating the tanks of World War One by nearly two decades; the company was nationalised along with the rest of the British shipbuilding industry as British Shipbuilders in 1977. In 1986, it returned to the private sector as part of Barrow-in-Furness-based Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering. VSEL and Cammell Laird were the only British shipyards capable of producing nuclear submarines. In 1993, it completed HMS Unicorn – now HMCS Windsor. After the end of the Upholder-class submarine building programme in 1993, the owners of Cammell Laird, VSEL, announced the yard's closure; this was opposed by the workforce through trade union campaigners including the GMB, led by communist firebrand official Barry Williams, a point noted in his obituary in the Liverpool Daily Post.
Part of the shipyard site was leased by the Coastline Group as a ship repair facility. Coastline bought part of the shipyard and adopted the Cammell Laird name, before floating on the London stock exchange in 1997 and acquiring dockyards at Teesside and Gibraltar. After experiencing financial difficulties due to the late withdrawal from a £50 million refit contract for the Costa Classica cruise ship by Costa Crociere, the company was forced to enter receivership in April 2001, the Birkenhead and Tyneside shipyards owned by Cammell Laird shiprepair were acquired by the A&P Shiprepair Group in 2001. Cammell Laird Gibraltar, the Royal Dockyard facility in Gibraltar, was disposed of through a local management buyout. A&P Group sold its Birkenhead subsidiary to Northwestern Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders in 2005. Peel Holdings, owners of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Company and 50% owners of Northwestern Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders, purchased the Cammell Laird shipyard site and surrounding land in January 2007, to facilitate the proposed Wirral Waters development, although Northwestern Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders continue to maintain a long-term lease on the shipyard facilities, which will form an integral part of t
Holland America Line
Holland America Line is a British/American-owned cruise line, a subsidiary of Carnival Corporation & plc. Originating in the Netherlands, the company moved its headquarters to Seattle, United States. From 1873 to 1989, it was a Dutch shipping line, a passenger line, a cargo line and a cruise line operating between the Netherlands and North America; as part of the company's legacy, it was directly involved in the transport of many hundreds of thousands of immigrants from the Netherlands to North America. Holland America Line was founded in 1873 as the Nederlandsche-Amerikaansche Stoomvaart Maatschappij, a shipping and passenger line, it was headquartered in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, provided service to the Americas. The company was formed as a result of the reorganization of an earlier company, Reuchlin & Co; the company's first ship was the original Rotterdam, which sailed its 15-day maiden voyage from the Netherlands to New York City on October 15, 1872. Other services were started to other new world ports, including Hoboken and South America.
Cargo service to New York started in 1809. During the first 25 years the company carried 400,000 people from Europe to the Americas. Other North American ports were added during the early 20th century. Though transportation and shipping were the primary sources of revenue, in 1895 HAL offered its first vacation cruise, its second vacation cruise, from New York to Palestine, was first offered in 1910. One notable ship was the elegant 36,000 gross ton SS Nieuw Amsterdam of 1937, it and RMS Queen Mary being the only two liners built in the 1930s to make a profit. At the start of the Second World War, HAL had 25 ships. At the beginning of the war, the Westernland acquired from the Red Star Line in 1939, berthed at Falmouth, became the seat of the Dutch government; the Nieuw Amsterdam sailed half a million miles transporting 400,000 military personnel. After the war, the cruise line was instrumental in transporting a massive wave of immigrants from the Netherlands to Canada and elsewhere. Another notable ship during the post-war period was the SS Rotterdam of 1959, one of the first North Atlantic ships equipped for two-class transatlantic crossing and one-class luxury cruising.
By the late 1960s, the golden era of transatlantic passenger ships had been ended by the introduction of transatlantic jet air travel. HAL ended transatlantic service during the early 1970s, leaving the North Atlantic passenger trade for Cunard's RMS Queen Elizabeth 2. In 1973 it sold its cargo shipping division, it ceased operating as a Dutch line in 1989, when it was purchased by Carnival for 1.2 billion guilders. The proceeds were put into an investment company, the majority of, owned by the van der Vorm family; this is the category of Holland America Line Ships that left service or sank before 1989. The ones that had left service after 1989 are at the bottom of the page at the other category. MS Prinsendam, 1973–80 — Sank off of the coast of Alaska. SS Veendam, 1972–74, 1975–76, 1978–84 — Last in service for Commodore Cruise Line as Enchanted Isle SS Volendam, 1922–1952 — 1940-45 Escaped to Britain in WW2, served as troop transport, returned to Rotterdam in 1945 SS Volendam, 1972–76, 1978–84 — Sister to SS Veendam.
Inactive after Regent Star went bankrupt. SS Maasdam Torpedoed and sunk in convoy HX-133 on 27 Jun, 1941 by U-564 south of Iceland SS Maasdam, 1952–1968 — 1968–1990 in service for Polish Ocean Lines as Stefan Batory, the last scheduled transatlantic liner, scrapped Turkey 2000 SS Ryndam, 1951–1973 — Sank 2003 on way to breakers SS Waterman, 1951–1963 — Launched January 16, 1945 Decommissioned 1970. SS Zuiderkruis, 1951–1963 — Launched May 5, 1944 Decommissioned 1969. SS Groote Beer, 1951–1963 — Launched June 17, 1944 Decommissioned 1971. SS Westerdam, 1945–1965 — Combination first class passenger/cargo vessel. SS Nieuw Amsterdam, 1937 — In WW2 escaped to US neutral port, served as a British War Transport carrying over 350,000, returned to Holland in 1946. Breakers yard in 1974. SS Rotterdam, 1908 — Scrapped 1940. SS Noordam, 1902 — Scrapped 1927, alerted RMS Titanic to ice early into its ill-fated maiden voyage. SS Potsdam, 1900 — Scrapped 1947, it was the largest ship HAL owned at the time. SS Rotterdam, 1886 — scrapped 1895.
SS Rotterdam, 1872 — Wrecked September 26, 1883. SS Veendam — Sister ship of SS Volendam. In 1940, bombed in Rotterdam and requestioned by Hamburg-America Line. Used for German submarine crews stationed in Hamburg. Returned to service from Rotterdam 1947, scrapped Baltimore 1953. MS Sommelsdyk — 1939 Pacific service, wartime service as U. S. troopship until Atlantic service in 1947, scrapped 1965. In 1989, the Holland America Line was purchased by Carnival Corp, thus becoming an American owned cruise line headquartered in Seattle in the United States. In 2003, Holland America announced its "Signature of Excellence" program; the ongoing program has focused on upgrading existing ships. The first phase included adding the Pinnacle Grill specialty restaura
Cape Canaveral, Florida
Cape Canaveral is a city in Brevard County, Florida. The population was 9,912 at the 2010 United States Census, it is part of the Palm Bay–Melbourne–Titusville Metropolitan Statistical Area. After the establishment of a lighthouse in 1848, a few families moved into the area and a small but stable settlement was born; as the threat of Seminole Indian attacks became unlikely, other settlers began to move into the area around the Indian River. Post offices and small community stores with postal facilities were established at Canaveral, Canaveral Harbor and Artesia, it is thought the Artesia post office was so named for the ground water of artesian springs that are prevalent in the area. In 1890 a group of Harvard Alumni students established a hunters gun club called the Canaveral Harvard Club with a holding of over 18,000 acres, their game hunts helped clear the wilderness for other settlers to move in. In the early 1920s, a group of Orlando journalists invested more than $150,000 in the beach acreage that now encompasses the area of presidentially-named streets in Cape Canaveral.
They called their development Journalista in honor of their trade. A wooden bridge linking Merritt Island with the area had just been constructed; the developers anticipated a growing number of seasonal visitors. At that time, fishermen and descendants of Captain Mills Burnham —the original official keeper of the Cape Canaveral Light—resided in the northern part of the present city. Due to the hardships caused by the Great Depression, many investors defaulted on their holdings. Much of this land was recovered by newspaper owner R. B. Brossier and his son, after they sold their Orlando home and used the remaining $4,500 to purchase much of the Avon area, it was their dream that a port would be developed and a direct route to Orlando would be constructed. In the 1930s, archaeologists from Yale University surveyed various Native American sites in the area. In 1951, anthropologist Irvine Rouse of Yale University performed research. By 1958 the workforce and the economy had grown with the space program.
At that time, state statute allowed an adjacent city to annex an unincorporated area without a vote of the residents. Local property owners were concerned. Landowners felt that Cocoa Beach had more city debt and higher land taxes than they wished to support; the City of Cape Canaveral started in 1961. Due to paperwork delays the city charter was made into bill 167 and approved by the Florida State Legislature in Tallahassee on May 16, 1963. In 1967, the annual Sun and Space Festival was started, it had a parade that included a stop at the newly opened Museum of Sunken Treasure. This contained artifacts from the 1715 Treasure Fleet. An annual celebration was started on October 9, 1990, The Patriot's Day Parade in honor of the last naval battle of the American Revolution, fought off the Cape Canaveral coast in 1783. In 2000, the city made national headlines when the Washington Post reported that the city's divorce rate was the highest in the country, 22%, it was the same rate in 2018. In 2012, the city started celebrating its 50th year since incorporation.
At a Heritage Day event in March 2013 part of the festivities included author Jay Barbree who delivered an oral history of the early days. On the official 50th anniversary date of May 16, 2013 a 50-year time capsule was sealed and a pictorial postmark of the city's anniversary was stamped. In 2017, the city won "Most Fit City" in the Mayor's Fitness Challenge; the city of Cape Canaveral is located on a barrier island on the Atlantic coast of Florida. It is due south of the geographical feature Cape Canaveral, it is separated from the mainland by the Banana River, Merritt Island and the Indian River from east to west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.3 square miles. 2.3 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. Cape Canaveral has a humid subtropical climate, with hot and wet summers, mild and dry winters. In winter drought can become severe while in late summer and fall tropical cyclones can brush the area. On August 20, 2008, Tropical Storm Fay dropped 20.03 inches of rain.
As of the census of 2000, there were 8,829 people, 5,066 households, 2,097 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,788.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,641 housing units at an average density of 2,849.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.68% White, 1.43% African American, 0.32% Native American, 1.70% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.42% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races. Out of all of which Hispanics or Latinos of constituted 3.48% of the population, regardless of race. There were 5,066 households out of which 11.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.7% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 58.6% were non-families. 47.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.74 and the average family size was 2.41. In the city, the population was spread out with 11.3% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 28.8% from 45 to 64, 23.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,858, the median income for a family was $43,109. Males had a median income of $33,571 versus $22,423 for females; the per capita income for t
Dodge Island is an artificial island near downtown Miami, United States. The Port of Miami has berths for both cruise and cargo ships; the original and much smaller Dodge Island was created during the dredging of Government Cut in the early 1900s. According to The Miami News, the island went unnamed until 1950 when Mr and Mrs Ray Dodge of Wisconsin, friends of Frank Stearns, director of the City of Miami Planning Board, were visiting and asked what the island was called and, "unable to come up with a name of the island... Stearns gave the parcel of land its present name." The current island was formed by further filling which combined Dodge Island with two other man-made islands, Lummus Island and Sam's Island. It is located in Biscayne Bay between Miami Beach. Port of Miami Port Boulevard Port of Miami Tunnel
Freeport is a city and free trade zone on the island of Grand Bahama of the northwest Bahamas. In 1955, Wallace Groves, a Virginian financier with lumber interests in Grand Bahama, was granted 50,000 acres of pineyard with substantial areas of swamp and scrubland by the Bahamian government with a mandate to economically develop the area. Freeport has grown to become the second most populous city in the Bahamas; the main airport serving the city is the Grand Bahama International Airport, which receives domestic flights from various islands of the Bahamas as well as several international flights from the United States and Canada. Freeport is served by domestic Bahamian ferry services to other islands; the Grand Bahama Port Authority operates the free trade zone, under the Hawksbill Creek Agreement signed in August 1955 whereby the Bahamian government agreed that businesses in the Freeport area would pay no taxes before 1980 extended to 2054. The area of the land grants within which the Hawksbill Creek Agreement applies has been increased to 138,000 acres.
Freeport is a 230-square-mile free trade zone on Grand Bahama Island, established in 1955 by the government of The Bahamas. Birthplace of S. D. N. C; the city of Freeport emerged from a land grant comprising 50,000 acres of swamp and scrub to become a cosmopolitan centre. The Grand Bahama Port Authority operates the free trade zone, under special powers conferred by the government under the Hawksbill Creek Agreement, extended until August 3, 2054; the agreement increased the land grants to 138,000 acres. Freeport is located just 80 miles off the coast of Palm Beach, on the major EW–NS shipping routes; this has positioned it as an ideal centre for international business. A growing number of international companies use Freeport for a business site. Parks include the Rand Nature Centre, named after its founder James Rand; the Lucayan National Park is 40 acres in extent and includes five ecological zones stretching from the south shore to the pineyard. There is an extensive underwater cave system beneath the park.
One cave entrance is accessible by stairs at the national park, while other caves are accessible for certified scubas. Freeport features a tropical rainforest climate, similar to South Florida's. According to Köppen Climate Classification, more with mild winters and hot, humid summers. Do temperatures drop below 60 °F. Average temperatures range in the low to upper 80s, with water temperature varying between 72 to 78 °F; the winters are mild and dry, while the summers are hot and wet. Although a freeze has never been reported in the Bahamas, snow was reported to have mixed with rain in Freeport in January 1977, the same time that it snowed in the Miami area; the temperature was about 4.5 °C at the time. Tourism, which topped over a million visitors a year, has diminished since 2004, when two major hurricanes, Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Jeanne, in 2016, Hurricane Matthew, hit the island. Several cruise ships stop weekly at the island. Much of the tourist industry is centered on the seaside suburb of Lucaya, owing its name to the pre-Columbian Lucayan inhabitants of the island evidence of whom has been found on the island.
Freeport features at least two Junkanoo festivals near New Year's. The city is promoted as Freeport/Lucaya. Most hotels on the island are located along the southern shore facing the Northwest Providence Channel. Primary shopping venues for tourists include the International Bazaar near downtown Freeport and the Port Lucaya Market Place in Lucaya. Recovery from the 2004 hurricanes took nearly a decade. Janine Antoni - conceptual artist Robert Antoni - novelist, professor Sebastian Bach - Canadian singer, frontman of the band Skid Row Andre Deveaux - NHL player Kevin Foxx - comedian/writer Tynia Gaither - sprint Olympian Jeffery Gibson - 400mH world champ medalist & Olympian Shavez Hart - sprint Olympian Jack Hayward - British businessman Raymond Higgs - Olympian Jumper Buddy Hield - NBA player Jonquel Jones - WNBA player Johnny Kemp- Singer/Songwriter Justin Hill - British writer Michael Mathieu - sprint Olympic medalist Demetrius Pinder - sprint Olympic medalist Mate Pavic - Croatian professional tennis player Vasek Pospisil - Canadian professional tennis player Magnum Rolle - NBA Player Alonzo Russell - sprint Olympian medalist Nivea Smith - Sprint athlete Teray Smith - Sprint Olympian Donald Thomas - high jump world champion and Olympian Andrae Williams - sprint Olympic medalist Latoy Williams - sprint athlete Chavez Young - baseball player Mary Star of the Sea Church, Freeport Barratt, Peter.
Grand Bahama. IM Publishing, Freeport, 2002 ISBN 0-9717351-0-7 The Grand Bahama Port Authority web site Official Tourism Site of Grand Bahama Island >yields 404 Not Found error on 5/23/18 Official Site of the Grand Bahama Island Tourism Board "Freeport," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. "Fast Facts," Grand Bahama Port Authority, http://www.gbpa.com/index.php/freeport, c.2008. Official Bahamas Tour Center
Miami the City of Miami, is the cultural and financial center of South Florida. Miami is the seat of the most populous county in Florida; the city covers an area of about 56.6 square miles, between the Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay on the east. The Miami metropolitan area is home to 6.1 million people and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Miami's metro area is the second-most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States and fourth-largest urban area in the U. S. Miami has the third tallest skyline in the United States with over 300 high-rises, 80 of which stand taller than 400 feet. Miami is a major center, a leader in finance, culture, entertainment, the arts, international trade; the Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. In 2012, Miami was classified as an Alpha − level world city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory. In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 33rd among global cities in terms of business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, political engagement.
In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, citywide recycling programs. According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, the world's seventh-richest city in terms of purchasing power. Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America" and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality. Greater Downtown Miami has one of the largest concentrations of international banks in the United States, is home to many large national and international companies; the Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, biotechnology industries. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World", has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world, it accommodates some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, is the busiest port in both passenger traffic and cruise lines.
Metropolitan Miami is a major tourism hub in the southeastern U. S. for international visitors, ranking number two in the country after New York City. The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes; the Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B. C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River. In 1566 admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor, claimed the area for Spain. A Spanish mission was constructed one year in 1567. Spain and Great Britain successively ruled Florida. Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress and remove the Seminole; the Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War. Miami is noted as "the only major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle", a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native.
The Miami area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness; the area was characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida." The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami." Miami was incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896, with a population of just over 300. It was derived from Mayaimi, the historic name of Lake Okeechobee. Black labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. During the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from the Bahamas and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population. Whatever their role in the city's growth, their community's growth was limited to a small space.
When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans in neighborhoods close to Avenue J, a gang of white men with torches visited the renting families and warned them to move or be bombed. During the early 20th century, northerners were attracted to the city, Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure; the legacy of Jim Crow was embedded in these developments. Miami's chief of police, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami police officers, was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman."The collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane, the Great Depression in the 1930s slowed development. When World War II began, well-situated on the southern coast of Florida, became a base for US defense against German submarines.
The war brought an increase in Miami's population. After Fidel Castro rose to power in Cuba in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population; the city developed cultural amenities as part of the New South. In the 1980s and 1990s