Politics of South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary representative democratic republic. The President of South Africa serves both as head of government; the President is elected by the National Assembly and must retain the confidence of the Assembly in order to remain in office. South Africans elect provincial legislatures which govern each of the country's nine provinces. Since the end of apartheid in 1994 the African National Congress has dominated South Africa's politics; the ANC is the ruling party in the national legislature, as well as in eight of the nine provinces. The ANC received 62.15% of the vote during the 2014 general election. It had received 62.9% of the popular vote in the 2011 municipal election. The main challenger to the ANC's rule is the Democratic Alliance, led by Mmusi Maimane, which received 22.23% of the vote in the 2014 election. Other major political parties represented in Parliament include the Economic Freedom Fighters and the Inkatha Freedom Party, which represents Zulu voters.
The dominant New National Party, which both introduced and ended apartheid through its predecessor the National Party, disbanded in 2005 to merge with the ANC. Jacob Zuma served as President of South Africa since May 9, 2009 until his resignation in February 2018. Zuma was replaced by Cyril Ramaphosa; the country's next general election will be held in 2019. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated South Africa as "flawed democracy" in 2016. South Africa is a parliamentary representative democratic republic, wherein the President of South Africa, elected by parliament, is the head of government, of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of Parliament, the Council of Provinces and the National Assembly; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. Government is three-tiered, with representatives elected at the national and local levels. Following the 1994 elections, South Africa was governed under an interim constitution.
This constitution required the Constituent Assembly to draft and approve a permanent constitution by 9 May 1996. The Government of National Unity established under the interim constitution ostensibly remained in effect until the 1999 national elections; the parties comprising the GNU – the African National Congress, the National Party, the Inkatha Freedom Party – shared executive power. On 30 June 1996, the NP withdrew from the GNU to become part of the opposition. Under the Constitution, the President is both head of head of government. General elections take place every 5 years; the first multi-racial democratic election was held in 1994, the second in 1999, the third in 2004, the fourth in 2009, the most recent in 2014. Until 2008, elected officials were allowed to change political party, while retaining their seats, during set windows which occurred twice each electoral term, due to controversial floor crossing legislative amendments made in 2002; the last two floor crossing windows occurred in 2005 and in 2007.
After the 2009 elections, the ANC lost its two-thirds majority in the national legislature which had allowed it to unilaterally alter the constitution. The Congress of South African Trade Unions and the South African Communist Party are in a formal alliance with the ruling ANC, thus do not stand separately for election. Notes: The constitution's bill of rights provides extensive guarantees, including equality before the law and prohibitions against discrimination; the legal rights of criminal suspects are enumerated. It includes wide guarantees of access of food, education, health care, social security; the constitution provides for an independent and impartial judiciary, and, in practice, these provisions are respected. Citizens' entitlements to a safe environment, housing and health care are included in the bill of rights, are known as secondary constitutional rights. In 2003 the constitutional secondary rights were used by the HIV/AIDS activist group the Treatment Action Campaign as a means of forcing the government to change its health policy.
Violent crime, including violence against women and children, organised criminal activity are at high levels and are a grave concern. As a result, vigilante action and mob justice sometimes occur; some members of the police are accused of abusing suspects in custody. In April 1997, the government established an Independent Complaints Directorate to investigate deaths in police custody and deaths resulting from police action; some discrimination against women continues, discrimination against those living with HIV/AIDS is becoming serious. There has been growing political repression. Many leaders of former bantustans or homelands have had a role in South African politics since their abolition. Mangosuthu Buthelezi was chief minister of his Kwa-Zulu homeland from 1976 until 1994. In post-apartheid South Africa he has served as President of the Inkatha Freedom Party, he was a Minister in President Mandela's cabinet. He acted as President of the country when President Nelson Mandela was out of the country.
Bantubonke Holomisa, a general in the homeland of Transkei from 1987, has served as the president of the United Democratic Mov
Thabang Sampson Makwetla MP is a South African politician affiliated with the African National Congress. He is a Member of the National Assembly of South Africa and has served as the Deputy Minister of Justice and Correctional Services since 2014. Makwetla served as Deputy Minister of Defence and Military Veterans and was Premier of Mpumalanga province between 2004 and 2009. Makwetla is known for being the victim of a hijacking and kidnapping, which took place in May 2017. Thabang Sampson Phathakge Makwetla was born on 18 May 1957 in Lydenburg, a mining town in the Eastern Transvaal province, now known as Mpumalanga, South Africa. Since he participated in the Soweto Student Uprising in June 1976, he was forced to flee the country before he could matriculate, he fled to Lesotho to complete his schooling and joined the ANC's military wing Umkhonto we Sizwe serving as an instructor and political commissar in the organization. While serving in the MK, Makwetla was stationed in neighboring countries, such as Angola and Zambia.
Matwetla received education in Europe, earning a diploma from the Academy of Sciences in Bulgaria, undertook a short military training course from the Soviet Union in 1979. Makwetla returned to Africa and worked as treasurer for the South African Communist Party in the Botswanan region from 1981 to 1990, it was near the end of apartheid when Makwetla returned to South Africa, joining the National Executive Committee of the ANC's youth wing, the African National Congress Youth League. Makwetla is a member of the African National Congress, a centre-left democratic-socialist party, is working under the cabinet of South African President Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa, who took office after Jacob Zuma's resignation on 14 February 2018. Makwetla is a leftist, a political stance substantiated by his history as a member of the South African Communist Party and the African National Congress. Makwetla, during his time as an ANC chairman, was asked about how to cease the spreading of HIV and AIDS throughout South Africa.
"As the ANC, we need to lead in this regard to change attitudes associated with being infected with the AIDS virus," and, "We should start seeing AIDS for what it is, a biological disaster visited upon humanity, stop blaming individuals."Makwetla delivered a noted progress report to ANC Representatives on 9 March 2012 in Johannesburg, during his term as Minister of Defence and Military Veterans. He stated in the report that soldiers could, "receive counselling as their lives had been disrupted at the time of the struggle for the democracy," as well as educate veterans, wanting to, "provide entrepreneurial training for those interested in taking up business careers."During his term as Minister of Justice and Correctional Services, Makwetla visited St. Alban's Prison in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, where a clash between inmates and officers resulted in three deaths. During the 27 December 2016 visit, he stated, “In order to strengthen our enforcement capabilities, we have decided to place St. Albans on a lockdown and suspend all family visits to the centre.
This is a necessary precautionary step in order to bring back normalcy to the centre” and, “the Ministry wish to commend officials who managed to quell down this rebellious act that could have led to a calamitous situation on our hands. In the same vein, our condolences and sympathy goes to the families and relatives of the deceased inmates"It was reported a fight had broken out between factions of the MKMVA in late 2017, "One group, made up of some MKMVA members and the MK National Council led by Deputy Minister of Justice and Correctional Services Thabang Makwetla and former MK chief of staff Siphiwe Nyanda, has threatened to go to court if the ANC fails to nullify the results of an MKMVA elective conference in June at which Kebby Maphatsoe was re-elected president."Makwetla has denounced the rampant corruption and immorality of South African governments while in office. In a media briefing, he stated that, “there is a need for lifestyle audits and vetting of ANC leadership at all levels of the organisation, stamping out corruption and state capture", separately, "You cannot have any group of people who purport to have the capacity to protect lives in South Africa who are not mandated to do so.
We have police, military establishment to deal with unlawful acts." On 30 March 2017, Makwetla opened a new pharmacy at the Mthatha Correctional Centre to provide medication to the 4000 inmates in correctional centres in Mthatha and its surrounding areas, such as Tabankulu and Mount Fletcher. On 26 September 2017, Makwetla built a new home for a Soweto family in Moletsane, after their original home burned in an electrical fire, he was joined by parolees from seven different police facilities in the area. On 6 December 2017, Makwetla helped organise the construction of a different home for 93-year-old Harriet Mfolozi, her unemployed 30-year-old grandson in the Eastern Cape town of Lusikisiki, they were living in a mud house. In the late 2000s, Makwetla was reported to have pledged his support for former South African President, Thabo Mbeki, who announced his resignation amidst corruption charges on 20 September 2008; as a consequence of this support, Makwetla lost his position of regional chairperson of Mpumalanga, but assumed the role of deputy of the Minister of Defence and Military Veterans.
During a conference with former MK soldiers in Johannesburg, he accused MK Military Veterans’ Association chairperson Kebby Maphatsoe of seeking to "derail his vision" by interfering in the politics of the ANC. He began to lash out during the meeting at the MKMVA for performing “an intention on the part of leadership to convene a unilateral conference aimed deliberately at sidelining
2019 South African general election
General elections will be held in South Africa on 8 May 2019 to elect a new National Assembly and provincial legislatures in each province. They will be the sixth elections held since the end of apartheid in 1994 and will determine who will become the next President of South Africa. Incumbent President Cyril Ramaphosa will lead the ruling African National Congress, with the party attempting to retain its majority status and secure Ramaphosa a full term in office as president. South Africa has a parliamentary system of government. Two hundred members are elected from national party lists; the President of South Africa is elected by the National Assembly after the election. The provincial legislatures, which vary in size from 30 to 80 members, are elected by proportional representation with closed lists; the premiers of each province will be elected by the respective provincial legislatures. The National Council of Provinces consists of 90 members, ten elected by each provincial legislature; the NCOP members will be elected by the provincial legislatures in proportion to the party makeup of the legislatures.
The term of the National Assembly is five years. The last general election was held on 7 May 2014, the term of the National Assembly therefore ends on 6 May 2019, but the National Assembly remains competent to function from the time it is dissolved, or its term expires, until the day before the first day of polling for the next National Assembly; when the National Assembly's term expires, the President must call and set dates for an election, which must be held within 90 days of the date the National Assembly was dissolved or its term expired. Therefore if the National Assembly is not dissolved before 6 May 2019, the election must be held by 4 August 2019. A proclamation calling and setting dates for an election may be issued before or after the expiry of the term of the National Assembly. On 7 February 2019, while President Cyril Ramaphosa was delivering the annual State of the Nation Address before Parliament, he announced that national and provincial elections will be held on Wednesday, 8 May 2019.
This was confirmed in the official proclamation of the election date, made on 26 February, which closed the voters' roll. On the weekends of 10–11 March 2018 and 26–27 January 2019, all voting stations were opened for new voters to register and for those who moved residence to re-register in their new voting district. All South African political parties launched voter registration campaigns. Politicians urged the youth to register to vote. Following the January 2019 registration, the Commission announced that over 700,000 new voters had registered over the January registration weekend; this brings the combined total of new voters to over 1.1 million, which brings the total number of voters on the voters' roll to 26,727,921. Voter registrations for all South Africans living abroad took place from 1 to 4 February 2019; the registration took place during the office hours at all of South Africa’s 120 diplomatic missions. On 14 March 2019, the Independent Electoral Commission confirmed that 30,532 South African voters abroad applied to be included in the election, of which 29,334 applications were approved.
The Electoral Commission of South Africa announced on 20 March 2019 that a record number of 48 parties had registered candidates for the national parliamentary election. This is 19 more parties. In the provincial legislature elections, the total number of parties registering candidates are: Eastern Cape - 26 Free State - 28 Gauteng - 36 KwaZulu-Natal - 31 Limpopo - 34 Mpumalanga - 28 Northern Cape - 21 North West - 29 Western Cape - 34The electoral code of conduct was signed at the Gallagher Convention Centre in Midrand, Gauteng on 20 March 2019. At the signing event, a draw was held in which the African Security Congress won the right to appear at the top of the ballot paper; the following list of parties intending to contest the national ballot were presented by the IEC on the 20 March 2019 in the order that they will appear on the ballot: The following parties are contesting at provincial level only: The governing African National Congress has held a majority of the seats in the National Assembly since 1994, being re-elected with increasing majorities in 1999 and 2004, with a slight fall in its majority in 2009 and 2014.
The ANC is led by Cyril Ramaphosa, elected to a five-year term as President of the African National Congress, beating his rival, Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, by a narrow margin. David Mabuza was elected as Deputy President of the ANC. National Assembly Speaker Baleka Mbete, former Mpumalanga Premier Mathews Phosa, ANC Treasurer General Zweli Mkhize, Human Settlements Ministers Lindiwe Sisulu, were all candidates for the position of ANC President, but all withdrew. On 14 February 2018, Zuma resigned as President of South Africa, leading Ramaphosa, as Deputy President, to succeed him as acting president and serve out the remainder of Zuma's term. Ramaphosa was elected president on 15 February 2018. Ramaphosa will thus run for a full term in office as president; the party lost many municipalities and support in the 2016 municipal elections, including the mayoralty and majority in councils such as: Nelson Mandela Bay and Johannesburg. The party had to form coalitions to retain control of the City of Ekurhuleni and many other mu
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
President of South Africa
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa. From 1961 to 1994, the head of state was called the State President; the President is elected by the National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, is the leader of the largest party, the African National Congress since the first non-racial elections were held on 27 April 1994. The Constitution limits the president's time in office to two five-year terms; the first president to be elected under the new constitution was Nelson Mandela. The incumbent is Cyril Ramaphosa, elected by the National Assembly on 15 February 2018 following the resignation of Jacob Zuma. Under the interim constitution, there was a Government of National Unity, in which a Member of Parliament from the largest opposition party was entitled to a position as Deputy President. Along with Thabo Mbeki, the last State President, F. W. de Klerk served as Deputy President, in his capacity as the leader of the National Party, the second-largest party in the new Parliament.
But De Klerk resigned and went into opposition with his party. A voluntary coalition government continues to exist under the new constitution, although there have been no appointments of opposition politicians to the post of Deputy President; the President is required to be a member of the National Assembly at the time of his election. Upon his election, he resigns his seat for the duration of his term; the President may be removed either by a motion of an impeachment trial. The office of the President, the roles that come with it, were established by Chapter Five of the Constitution of South Africa, formed by a Constituent Assembly upon the dissolution of apartheid as state policy. A number of manifestations of the office have existed. Aspects of these offices exist within the presidency today; the executive leadership of the British colonies of Natal and of the Cape of Good Hope were invested in their Governors was invested in the Presidents of the Boer republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
Alternating sovereignty as a result of wars culminated in the Vereeniging Treaty signed in which concluded the South African War. The Union of South Africa, a British Dominion, was established on 31 May 1910 with the British monarch as titular head of state, represented by a viceroy, the Governor-General. Upon the declaration of the Republic of South Africa on 31 May 1961, the office of State President was created, it was a ceremonial post, but became an executive post in 1984 when a new constitution abolished the post of Prime Minister and transferred its powers to the State President. South Africa has a distinctive system for the election of its president. Unlike other former British colonies and dominions who have adopted a parliamentary republican form of government and those that follow the Westminster system, South Africa's President is both head of state and head of government and Commander-in-Chief of the South African National Defence Force. Contrary to presidential systems around the world, the President of South Africa is elected by the Parliament of South Africa rather than by the people directly.
He is thus answerable to it in theory and able to influence legislation in practice as head of the majority party. The President is elected at the first sitting of Parliament after an election, whenever a vacancy arises; the President is elected by the National Assembly, the lower house of parliament, from among its members. The chief justice must oversee the election. Once elected, a person is no longer a member of the National Assembly, they must be sworn in as President within five days of the election. Should a vacancy arise, the date of a new election must be set by the chief justice, but not more than 30 days after the vacancy occurs; the Constitution has thus prescribed a system combining both parliamentary and presidential systems in a unique manner. Only Botswana and a few other countries use a similar system. Between 1996 and 2003 Israel combined the two systems in an opposite way, with an elected prime minister. Although the presidency is the key institution, it is hedged about with numerous checks and balances that prevent its total dominance over the government, as was the case in many African countries.
The presidential term is five years, with a limit of two terms. Thus the electoral system attempts to prevent the accumulation of power in the president as was during Apartheid or in many other African countries. According to chapter five of the constitution, the President can only exercise the powers of his or her office while within the Republic of South Africa. Should the president be outside of the country, or unable to fulfil the duties of the office, they may appoint an acting president; the presidential vacancy should be filled first by the Deputy President cabinet minister selected by the President a cabinet minister selected by the cabinet, by the Speaker of the National Assembly. The President is the head of state, head of government and commander-in-chief of the South African National Defence Force; the rights and remuneration of the President are enumerated in Chapter V of the Constitution of South Africa and subsequent amendments and laws passed by the Parliament of South Africa.
The executive powers of the Republic are vested in the President. He appoints various officials to positions listed in the Constitution however the most significant are the ministers and justices of the Supreme Court of Appeal and the Constitutional Court. Through the Cabinet, the President implements and enforces the constitution and laws and enforces his
Freedom Front Plus
The Freedom Front Plus is a national South African political party, formed in 1994. It is led by Pieter Groenewald, its current stated. Along with other smaller parties, the FF+ has entered into coalition with the larger Democratic Alliance after the 2016 municipal elections to govern Johannesburg and several other municipalities; the Freedom Front was founded on 1 March 1994 by members of the Afrikaner community under Constand Viljoen, after he had left the Afrikaner Volksfront amidst disagreements. Seeking to achieve his goals through political means, Viljoen registered the Freedom Front with the Independent Electoral Commission on 4 March 1994 to take part in the April 1994 general elections. On 12 March 1994 Viljoen handed in a list of candidates for the FF to the IEC, confirming that his party would take part in the elections. Viljoen considered the election as a chance for an unofficial referendum, urged Afrikaners to vote for the Freedom Front in their numbers to show support for the idea of a "volkstaat", a separate nation for Afrikaners away from the rest of South Africa.
In the election, under the leadership of General Viljoen, the Freedom Front received 2.2% of the national vote, earning nine seats in the National Assembly, 3.3% of the combined vote to the nine provincial legislatures. This suggested; the party performed the best in the rural areas of the former Transvaal and Orange Free State, was noted by the new deputy president Thabo Mbeki as representing as much as half the Afrikaner voting population in these areas, with the strongest support among farmers and the working class. Freedom Front support would melt away in the coming years, as the party was strung along in fruitless negotiations with the African National Congress to create a volkstaat, making the party lose its importance, it would receive increased competition from new parties such as the Afrikaner Eenheidsbeweging. In the 1999 election their support dropped to 0.8% with three seats in the National Assembly and between 1-2% in their stronghold provinces. This represented a respectable portion of the Afrikaner vote, but nowhere near earlier levels.
The party's support has remained stable in all national elections held since. In 2001, Viljoen handed over the leadership of the Freedom Front to Pieter Mulder. In 2003, shortly before the 2004 general election, the Conservative Party, the Afrikaner Eenheidsbeweging and the Freedom Front decided to contest the election as a single entity under the name Freedom Front Plus, led by Mulder; the Federal Alliance joined the VF+/FF+. In the 2004 general election, support for the Freedom Front Plus rose to 0.89%. The party won one seat in most of the provincial legislatures, four seats in the National Assembly. In the 2006 municipal elections, the Freedom Front Plus received 1% of the popular vote. In the 2009 general election, the party received 0.83% and retained its four seats in the National Assembly but lost its seats in the provincial legislatures of North West and Northern Cape. After the elections, the Freedom Front's leader Pieter Mulder was appointed as Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries by the new President Jacob Zuma.
In the 2014 general election, the FF+ increased its vote to 0.9%. It retained its 4 MPs, regained a seat in the North West; the party has enjoyed consistent landslide victories in the Afrikaner enclave Orania. These charts show the electoral performance for the Freedom Front Plus since the advent of democracy in 1994: Afrikaner Boer Republics Whites in South Africa Homeland Home Rule Separatism Ethnic nationalism Orania, Northern Cape Freedom Front official site SA Talent Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation
A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. Members of a cabinet are called Cabinet ministers or secretaries; the function of a Cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures. In some countries those that use a parliamentary system, the Cabinet collectively decides the government's direction in regard to legislation passed by the parliament. In countries with a presidential system, such as the United States, the Cabinet does not function as a collective legislative influence. In this way, the President obtains opinions and advice relating to forthcoming decisions.
Under both types of system, the Westminster variant of a parliamentary system and the presidential system, the Cabinet "advises" the Head of State: the difference is that, in a parliamentary system, the monarch, viceroy or ceremonial president will always follow this advice, whereas in a presidential system, a president, head of government and political leader may depart from the Cabinet's advice if they do not agree with it. In practice, in nearly all parliamentary democracies that do not follow the Westminster system, in three countries that do often the Cabinet does not "advise" the Head of State as they play only a ceremonial role. Instead, it is the head of government who holds all means of power in their hands and to whom the Cabinet reports; the second role of cabinet officials is to administer executive branches, government agencies, or departments. In the United States federal government, these are the federal executive departments. Cabinets are important originators for legislation.
Cabinets and ministers are in charge of the preparation of proposed legislation in the ministries before it is passed to the parliament. Thus the majority of new legislation originates from the cabinet and its ministries. In most governments, members of the Cabinet are given the title of Minister, each holds a different portfolio of government duties. In a few governments, as in the case of Mexico, the Philippines, the United Kingdom, United States, the title of Secretary is used for some Cabinet members. In many countries, a Secretary is a cabinet member with an inferior rank to a Minister. In Finland, a Secretary of State is a career official. In some countries, the Cabinet is known by names such as "Council of Ministers", "Government Council" or "Council of State", or by lesser known names such as "Federal Council", "Inner Council" or "High Council"; these countries may differ in the way that the cabinet is established. The supranational European Union uses a different convention: the European Commission refers to its executive cabinet as a "college", with its top public officials referred to as "commissioners", whereas a "European Commission cabinet" is the personal office of a European Commissioner.
In presidential systems such as the United States, members of the Cabinet are chosen by the president, may have to be confirmed by one or both of the houses of the legislature. In most presidential systems, cabinet members cannot be sitting legislators, legislators who are offered appointments must resign if they wish to accept. In parliamentary systems, several different policies exist with regard to whether legislators can be Cabinet ministers: cabinet members must, must not, or may be members of parliament, depending on the country. In the United Kingdom, cabinet ministers are mandatorily appointed from among sitting members of the parliament. In countries with a strict separation between the executive and legislative branches of government, e.g. Luxembourg and Belgium, cabinet members have to give up their seat in parliament; the intermediate case is when ministers are members of parliament, but are not required to be, as in Finland. The candidate prime minister and/or the president selects the individual ministers to be proposed to the parliament, which may accept or reject the proposed cabinet composition.
Unlike in a presidential system, the cabinet in a parliamentary system must not only be confirmed, but enjoy the continuing confidence of the parliament: a parliament can pass a motion of no confidence to remove a government or individual ministers. But not these votes are taken across party lines. In some countries attorneys general sit in the cabinet, while in many others this is prohibited as the attorneys general are considered to be part of the judicial branch of government. Instead, there is a minister of justice, separate from the attorney general. Furthermore, in Sweden and Estonia, the cabinet includes a Chancellor of Justice, a civil servant that acts as the legal counsel to the cabinet. In multi-party systems, the formation of a government may require the support of multiple parties. Thus, a coalition government is formed. Continued cooperation between the participating political parties is nece