Head of government
Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country; the authority of a head of government, such as a president, chancellor, or prime minister and the relationship between that position and other state institutions, such as the relation between the head of state and of the legislature, varies among sovereign states, depending on the particular system of the government, chosen, won, or evolved over time. In parliamentary systems, including constitutional monarchies, the head of government is the de facto political leader of the government, is answerable to one chamber or the entire legislature. Although there is a formal reporting relationship to a head of state, the latter acts as a figurehead who may take the role of chief executive on limited occasions, either when receiving constitutional advice from the head of government or under specific provisions in a constitution.
In presidential republics or in absolute monarchies, the head of state is usually the head of government. The relationship between that leader and the government, can vary ranging from separation of powers to autocracy, according to the constitution of the particular state. In semi-presidential systems, the head of government may answer to both the head of state and the legislature, with the specifics provided by each country's constitution. A modern example is the present French government, which originated as the French Fifth Republic in 1958. In France, the president, the head of state, appoints the prime minister, the head of government. However, the president must choose someone who can act as an executive, but who enjoys the support of the France's legislature, the National Assembly, in order to be able to pass legislation. In some cases, the head of state may represent one political party but the majority in the National Assembly is of a different party. Given that the majority party has greater control over state funding and primary legislation, the president is in effect forced to choose a prime minister from the opposition party in order to ensure an effective, functioning legislature.
In this case, known as cohabitation, the prime minister, along with the cabinet, controls domestic policy, with the president's influence restricted to foreign affairs. In directorial systems, the executive responsibilities of the head of government are spread among a group of people. A prominent example is the Swiss Federal Council, where each member of the council heads a department and votes on proposals relating to all departments. A common title for many heads of government is prime minister; this is used as a formal title in many states, but informally a generic term to describe whichever office is considered the principal minister under an otherwise styled head of state, as minister — Latin for servants or subordinates — is a common title for members of a government. Formally the head of state can be the head of government as well but otherwise has formal precedence over the Head of Government and other ministers, whether he is their actual political superior or rather theoretical or ceremonial in character.
Various constitutions use different titles, the same title can have various multiple meanings, depending on the constitutional order and political system of the state in question. In addition to prime minister, titles used for the democratic model, where there is an elected legislative body checking the Head of government, include the following; some of these titles relate to governments below the national level. Chancellor Chairman of the Executive Council Chief Minister Chief Executive First Minister Minister-President Premier President of the Council of Ministers President of the Council of State President of the Executive Council President of the Government Prime Minister State Counsellor State President Albanian: Kryeministër Bengali: For the Prime Minister of Bangladesh Pradan Mantri.
Economic Freedom Fighters
The Economic Freedom Fighters is a South African far-left political party. It was started by expelled former African National Congress Youth League President Julius Malema, his allies, in 2013. Malema is President of the EFF, heading the Central Command Team which serves as the central structure of the party, it is the third-largest party in both houses of the South African Parliament, receiving 1,169,259 votes and a 6.35% share of the vote in the 2014 general election. At a 26 July 2013 press briefing in Soweto, Malema announced that the new party had over 1000 members, double the 500 required for registration with the Independent Electoral Commission; the EFF is now registered with the IEC, after an objection to its registration by the Freedom Front Plus was dismissed in September 2013. In 2015, the EFF suspended MP Lucky Twala and expelled three MPs, Mpho Ramakatsa, Andile Mngxitama and Khanyisile Litchfield-Tshabalala. Mngxitama formed his own party, named Black First Land First, while Litchfield-Tshabalala joined the United Democratic Movement.
The EFF "draws inspiration from the broad Marxist–Leninist tradition and Fanonian schools of thought in their analyses of the state, imperialism and class contradictions in every society", according to one of its declarations. It criticises the African National Congress and their primary opposition, the Democratic Alliance, for their pro-business stances, which it claims have sold out the black people of South Africa to capitalism as cheap labour, it promises to tackle corruption, provide quality social housing, provide free primary healthcare and education for all, as well as proposing to expropriate stolen land, nationalise the mining and banking sectors, double welfare grants and the minimum wage, end the proposed toll system for highways. The EFF takes significant inspiration from Thomas Sankara in terms of both ideology. In a May 2014 column, the prominent EFF member Jackie Shandu declared his party a "proudly Sankarist formation"; the EFF has been vocal in its criticism of black business owners and black owners of mining companies in South Africa.
In an address at the Oxford Union in November 2015, Malema spoke out against billionaire mining company owner Patrice Motsepe. Further protests in 2015, the EFF delivered demands that included the socialization of the mining sector and called for more explicit targets for the 26% BEE ownership required by law; the EFF is a vocal proponent of expanding the role of South African state owned enterprises in the country's economy. Malema addressed a crowd in Marikana, Rustenburg in the platinum mining area, blaming mining companies and calling out platinum mining company Lonmin in particular, for poverty in the region; the party supports the re-introduction of the death penalty. In 2016, after local elections in South Africa, the EFF has suggested that they will back the Democratic Alliance in hung-metro areas, but would not be entering into a coalition with any political party in South Africa; the EFF was the only parliamentary party. High-profile members of the Central Command Team include Floyd Shivambu, Fana Mokoena and Mbuyiseni Ndlozi.
Controversial businessman Kenny Kunene joined the Central Command Team in July 2013 before resigning from the Central Command Team on 20 August 2013 and from the organisation on 26 August 2013. On 4 November 2013, it was announced that Dali Mpofu had left the African National Congress after 33 years of membership and joined the EFF. Ringo Madlingozi appeared in the parliamentary candidate list for 2019 elections, thus ending the speculation of whether he was a member or not Musician and actress Ntando Duma publicly pledged alligiance to EFF in February 2019. According to a November 2013 Ipsos survey, the party's supporters are younger than average, with 49% being younger than 24, overwhelmingly black and male, with women representing only 33% of the support base. A disproportionate number of supporters live in Malema's home province of Limpopo, while only 1% live in KwaZulu-Natal, a more populous province; the party was expected to make an impact in the 2014 general election, taking between 4 per cent and 8 per cent of the national vote.
This was enough for the party to hold the balance of power in provinces where the governing African National Congress was in danger of losing its absolute majority. In fact, the ANC retained its absolute majority, but the EFF moved into third place, surging past the shrinking Inkatha Freedom Party, with a 6.35% share of the vote to the IFP's 2.40%. On 6 August 2015 the EFF announced that it has secured a Constitutional court case for its Jacob Zuma campaign of "#PayBackTheMoney"; the case was heard on the 9 February 2016. The Judgement was released by Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng; the judgement stated that The President has violated the Constitution of South Africa, along with the Speaker of the National Assembly Baleka Mbete. The President was given 60 days to fulfill the requirements of the Public Protector Thuli Madonsela. On 27 February 2018 the EFF tabled a motion in The National Assembly to amend the Constitution so as to allow for the expropriation of land without compensation; the motion, brought by the EFF leader Julius Malema, was adopted with a vote of 241 in support, 83 against.
The only parties who did not support the motion were the Democratic Alliance, Freedom Front Plus and the ACDP. Land Expropriation is one of the EFF's Seven cardinal pillars. In 2018, the student wing of the EFF, the EFF Student Command won many universities across the country; the red berets defeated the ANC-aligned South African Students Congress at the Durban University of Technology, the University of Zululand and Mangosuthu Univers
Alan Richard Winde is a South African politician and businessman. He is the Western Cape Provincial Minister of Community Safety, he is a Member of the Western Cape Provincial Parliament. He served as Western Cape Provincial Minister of Finance, Economic Development and Tourism and Western Cape Provincial Minister of Economic Opportunities, he is a member of the Democratic Alliance and the party's Western Cape Premier candidate for the 2019 elections. Winde is an businessman, who has established many small businesses, he has worked for and managed many noteworthy companies. Before serving in the Western Cape Provincial Parliament, he was a municipal and district councillor. Elected in 1999, he has held various leadership positions in the Democratic Alliance provincial parliament caucus. In May 2009, he was appointed by Premier Helen Zille to hold the position of Provincial Minister of Finance, Economic Development and Tourism, he was appointed to the position of Provincial Minister of Economic Opportunities in May 2014.
In September 2018, the Democratic Alliance selected Winde to be the party's premier candidate in the Western Cape. If elected, he would succeed Helen Zille and be the second Western Cape Premier from the Democratic Alliance. In October 2018, Premier Helen Zille announced that Winde would succeed outgoing Provincial Minister of Community Safety, Dan Plato when he steps down to become Mayor of Cape Town. Winde took office on 1 November 2018. Winde was born on 18 March 1965 in the town of Knysna, he matriculated from Knysna High School. He married Tracy Winde in 1993, they have two children named Jason. Winde has experience as an entrepreneur, he has managed many small businesses. He was a director of a tour company and a business broker with Aldes Business Brokers. In 1996, Winde was elected to the South Cape District Council, he had served as a councillor for the Outeniqua Rural Council. Shortly after being elected a councillor, he was approached by the leadership of the Democratic Party to be a candidate for the Western Cape Provincial Parliament.
He was elected in 1999. He was sworn in on 15 June 2009. During his first term, he served as Western Cape Provincial Finance Chairman and Member of the Executive Committee, he was re-elected for a second term in 2004. Before being re-elected in 2009, he served as Chief Whip of the Official Opposition and as Party Spokesperson on Environment and Planning and Deputy Party Spokesperson on Economic Development and Tourism. In May 2009, Premier Helen Zille appointed Winde to the position of Provincial Minister of Finance, Economic Development and Tourism, he was inaugurated on 7 May 2009 by Constitutional Court Judge Yvonne Mokgoro and succeeded Garth Strachan. After the 2014 elections, the position was dissolved and Premier Helen Zille announced that Winde would now hold the title of Provincial Minister of Economic Opportunities, he would now only lead the Provincial Departments of Economic Development and Tourism. The Provincial Finance Department would now be an independent department with its own Provincial Minister.
He was inaugurated on 26 May 2014 by Western Cape Deputy Judge President Jeanette Traverso. In September 2018, Winde was selected by the party's Federal Executive to be the party's Western Cape Premier candidate for the upcoming election. In October 2018, Premier Helen Zille announced that Winde would move to the Provincial Community Safety Department as incumbent Provincial Minister Dan Plato had announced his intention to resign as he was the Democratic Alliance's candidate to replace Patricia de Lille as Mayor of Cape Town. Winde was succeeded by Beverley Schäfer on 1 November 2018, he subsequently took office as Provincial Minister of Community Safety. Winde has served as Acting Premier of the Western Cape on various brief occasions. Most he was sworn in on 5 February 2019, as Premier Helen Zille was on an official visit to Germany, he represented the Western Cape government at the 2019 State of the Nation Address. Winde emerged as the front-runner quite early on in the nomination process.
On 19 September 2018, Democratic Alliance Federal Leader Mmusi Maimane announced Winde as the party's Western Cape Premier candidate to succeed Premier Helen Zille after the 2019 elections. He defeated prominent candidates such as the Provincial Leader of the Democratic Alliance in the Western Cape Bonginkosi Madikizela, Member of Parliament David Maynier. After the announcement, Madikizela offered his full support to Winde's campaign. On 29 September 2018, the Democratic Alliance launched their campaign to retain the Western Cape after the 2019 elections at the Cape Town Stadium; the Western Cape is the only province, governed by the Democratic Alliance. At the event, Mmusi Maimane highlighted the party's achievements while governing the province, such as the province's low unemployment rate and that the party had turned the struggling Provincial Education Department into one of the best functioning departments in South Africa, he has pledged to work with Dan Plato, if elected Premier. After the announcement, Winde embarked on a listening tour and travelled to various communities in the Western Cape.
He has campaigned for local DA candidates in by-elections. For instance, he went to the community of De Doorns to campaign for a DA candidate in a hotly contested by-election; the DA candidate, Luwellyn Willemse, retained ward 3 of the Breede Valley municipality by an increased margin. On 4 January 2019, Winde launched the Democratic Alliance's 2019 provincial voter registration campaign. Winde and other Democratic Alliance members erected party registration posters in Mitchells Plain ah
Provinces of South Africa
South Africa is divided into nine provinces. On the eve of the 1994 general election, South Africa's former homelands known as Bantustans, were reintegrated and the four existing provinces were divided into nine; the twelfth and sixteenth amendments to the constitution changed the borders of seven of the provinces. The Union of South Africa was established in 1910 by combining four British colonies: the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Transvaal Colony and the Orange River Colony; these colonies became the four original provinces of the Union: Cape Province, Transvaal Province, Natal Province and Orange Free State Province. Segregation of the black population started as early as 1913, with ownership of land by the black majority being restricted to certain areas totalling about 13% of the country. From the late 1950s, these areas were consolidated into "homelands" called "bantustans". Four of these homelands were established as quasi-independent nation states of the black population during the apartheid era.
In 1976, the homeland of Transkei was the first to accept independence from South Africa, although this independence was never acknowledged by any other country, three other homelands – Bophuthatswana and Ciskei – followed suit. On 27 April 1994, the date of the first non-racial elections and of the adoption of the Interim Constitution, all of these provinces and homelands were dissolved, nine new provinces were established; the boundaries of these provinces were established in 1993 by a Commission on the Demarcation/Delimitation of Regions created by CODESA, were broadly based on planning regions demarcated by the Development Bank of Southern Africa in the 1980s, amalgamated from existing magisterial districts, with some concessions to political parties that wished to consolidate their power bases, by transferring districts between the proposed provinces. South Africa’s provinces are governed, in different ways, on a national and local level. Nationally, there is the National Council of one of the houses of Parliament.
There is the provincial government and, below that, the administration of district and metropolitan municipalities. South Africa has two houses of parliament: the National Assembly, the National Council of Provinces; the second exists to ensure that the interests of each province are protected in the laws passed by the National Assembly. Each one of South Africa’s nine provinces sends 10 representatives to the National Council of Provinces. Six of these are permanent members of the council, four are special delegates; each province is governed by a unicameral legislature. The size of the legislature is proportional to population, ranging from 30 members in the Northern Cape to 80 in KwaZulu-Natal; the legislatures are elected every five years by a system of party-list proportional representation. The provincial legislature elects, from amongst its members, a Premier, the head of the executive; the Premier chooses an Executive Council consisting of between five and ten members of the legislature, the cabinet of the provincial government.
The Members of the Executive Council are the provincial equivalent of ministers. The powers of the provincial government are limited to specific topics listed in the national constitution. On some of these topics – for example, education and public housing – the province's powers are shared with the national government, which can establish uniform standards and frameworks for the provincial governments to follow; the provinces do not have their own court systems, as the administration of justice is the responsibility of the national government. Footnotes: † These statistics do not include the Prince Edward Islands, which are South African territories in the sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean but part of the Western Cape for legal and electoral purposes. ‡ Pietermaritzburg and Ulundi were joint capitals of KwaZulu-Natal from 1994 to 2004. Footnotes: † States for which the homeland was quasi-independent. Elections in South Africa Prince Edward Islands Proposals for South Africa to annex Lesotho Walvis Bay ISO 3166-2:ZA
Politics of South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary representative democratic republic. The President of South Africa serves both as head of government; the President is elected by the National Assembly and must retain the confidence of the Assembly in order to remain in office. South Africans elect provincial legislatures which govern each of the country's nine provinces. Since the end of apartheid in 1994 the African National Congress has dominated South Africa's politics; the ANC is the ruling party in the national legislature, as well as in eight of the nine provinces. The ANC received 62.15% of the vote during the 2014 general election. It had received 62.9% of the popular vote in the 2011 municipal election. The main challenger to the ANC's rule is the Democratic Alliance, led by Mmusi Maimane, which received 22.23% of the vote in the 2014 election. Other major political parties represented in Parliament include the Economic Freedom Fighters and the Inkatha Freedom Party, which represents Zulu voters.
The dominant New National Party, which both introduced and ended apartheid through its predecessor the National Party, disbanded in 2005 to merge with the ANC. Jacob Zuma served as President of South Africa since May 9, 2009 until his resignation in February 2018. Zuma was replaced by Cyril Ramaphosa; the country's next general election will be held in 2019. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated South Africa as "flawed democracy" in 2016. South Africa is a parliamentary representative democratic republic, wherein the President of South Africa, elected by parliament, is the head of government, of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of Parliament, the Council of Provinces and the National Assembly; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. Government is three-tiered, with representatives elected at the national and local levels. Following the 1994 elections, South Africa was governed under an interim constitution.
This constitution required the Constituent Assembly to draft and approve a permanent constitution by 9 May 1996. The Government of National Unity established under the interim constitution ostensibly remained in effect until the 1999 national elections; the parties comprising the GNU – the African National Congress, the National Party, the Inkatha Freedom Party – shared executive power. On 30 June 1996, the NP withdrew from the GNU to become part of the opposition. Under the Constitution, the President is both head of head of government. General elections take place every 5 years; the first multi-racial democratic election was held in 1994, the second in 1999, the third in 2004, the fourth in 2009, the most recent in 2014. Until 2008, elected officials were allowed to change political party, while retaining their seats, during set windows which occurred twice each electoral term, due to controversial floor crossing legislative amendments made in 2002; the last two floor crossing windows occurred in 2005 and in 2007.
After the 2009 elections, the ANC lost its two-thirds majority in the national legislature which had allowed it to unilaterally alter the constitution. The Congress of South African Trade Unions and the South African Communist Party are in a formal alliance with the ruling ANC, thus do not stand separately for election. Notes: The constitution's bill of rights provides extensive guarantees, including equality before the law and prohibitions against discrimination; the legal rights of criminal suspects are enumerated. It includes wide guarantees of access of food, education, health care, social security; the constitution provides for an independent and impartial judiciary, and, in practice, these provisions are respected. Citizens' entitlements to a safe environment, housing and health care are included in the bill of rights, are known as secondary constitutional rights. In 2003 the constitutional secondary rights were used by the HIV/AIDS activist group the Treatment Action Campaign as a means of forcing the government to change its health policy.
Violent crime, including violence against women and children, organised criminal activity are at high levels and are a grave concern. As a result, vigilante action and mob justice sometimes occur; some members of the police are accused of abusing suspects in custody. In April 1997, the government established an Independent Complaints Directorate to investigate deaths in police custody and deaths resulting from police action; some discrimination against women continues, discrimination against those living with HIV/AIDS is becoming serious. There has been growing political repression. Many leaders of former bantustans or homelands have had a role in South African politics since their abolition. Mangosuthu Buthelezi was chief minister of his Kwa-Zulu homeland from 1976 until 1994. In post-apartheid South Africa he has served as President of the Inkatha Freedom Party, he was a Minister in President Mandela's cabinet. He acted as President of the country when President Nelson Mandela was out of the country.
Bantubonke Holomisa, a general in the homeland of Transkei from 1987, has served as the president of the United Democratic Mov
Premier of the Western Cape
The Premier of the Western Cape is the head of government of the Western Cape province of South Africa. The current Premier of the Western Cape is Helen Zille, a member of the Democratic Alliance, inauguarated on 6 May 2009, she can not seek reelection to a third consecutive term. Her successor will be chosen after the 2019 general election. Politics of the Western Cape Premier President of South Africa Politics of South Africa Official website
President of South Africa
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa. From 1961 to 1994, the head of state was called the State President; the President is elected by the National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, is the leader of the largest party, the African National Congress since the first non-racial elections were held on 27 April 1994. The Constitution limits the president's time in office to two five-year terms; the first president to be elected under the new constitution was Nelson Mandela. The incumbent is Cyril Ramaphosa, elected by the National Assembly on 15 February 2018 following the resignation of Jacob Zuma. Under the interim constitution, there was a Government of National Unity, in which a Member of Parliament from the largest opposition party was entitled to a position as Deputy President. Along with Thabo Mbeki, the last State President, F. W. de Klerk served as Deputy President, in his capacity as the leader of the National Party, the second-largest party in the new Parliament.
But De Klerk resigned and went into opposition with his party. A voluntary coalition government continues to exist under the new constitution, although there have been no appointments of opposition politicians to the post of Deputy President; the President is required to be a member of the National Assembly at the time of his election. Upon his election, he resigns his seat for the duration of his term; the President may be removed either by a motion of an impeachment trial. The office of the President, the roles that come with it, were established by Chapter Five of the Constitution of South Africa, formed by a Constituent Assembly upon the dissolution of apartheid as state policy. A number of manifestations of the office have existed. Aspects of these offices exist within the presidency today; the executive leadership of the British colonies of Natal and of the Cape of Good Hope were invested in their Governors was invested in the Presidents of the Boer republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
Alternating sovereignty as a result of wars culminated in the Vereeniging Treaty signed in which concluded the South African War. The Union of South Africa, a British Dominion, was established on 31 May 1910 with the British monarch as titular head of state, represented by a viceroy, the Governor-General. Upon the declaration of the Republic of South Africa on 31 May 1961, the office of State President was created, it was a ceremonial post, but became an executive post in 1984 when a new constitution abolished the post of Prime Minister and transferred its powers to the State President. South Africa has a distinctive system for the election of its president. Unlike other former British colonies and dominions who have adopted a parliamentary republican form of government and those that follow the Westminster system, South Africa's President is both head of state and head of government and Commander-in-Chief of the South African National Defence Force. Contrary to presidential systems around the world, the President of South Africa is elected by the Parliament of South Africa rather than by the people directly.
He is thus answerable to it in theory and able to influence legislation in practice as head of the majority party. The President is elected at the first sitting of Parliament after an election, whenever a vacancy arises; the President is elected by the National Assembly, the lower house of parliament, from among its members. The chief justice must oversee the election. Once elected, a person is no longer a member of the National Assembly, they must be sworn in as President within five days of the election. Should a vacancy arise, the date of a new election must be set by the chief justice, but not more than 30 days after the vacancy occurs; the Constitution has thus prescribed a system combining both parliamentary and presidential systems in a unique manner. Only Botswana and a few other countries use a similar system. Between 1996 and 2003 Israel combined the two systems in an opposite way, with an elected prime minister. Although the presidency is the key institution, it is hedged about with numerous checks and balances that prevent its total dominance over the government, as was the case in many African countries.
The presidential term is five years, with a limit of two terms. Thus the electoral system attempts to prevent the accumulation of power in the president as was during Apartheid or in many other African countries. According to chapter five of the constitution, the President can only exercise the powers of his or her office while within the Republic of South Africa. Should the president be outside of the country, or unable to fulfil the duties of the office, they may appoint an acting president; the presidential vacancy should be filled first by the Deputy President cabinet minister selected by the President a cabinet minister selected by the cabinet, by the Speaker of the National Assembly. The President is the head of state, head of government and commander-in-chief of the South African National Defence Force; the rights and remuneration of the President are enumerated in Chapter V of the Constitution of South Africa and subsequent amendments and laws passed by the Parliament of South Africa.
The executive powers of the Republic are vested in the President. He appoints various officials to positions listed in the Constitution however the most significant are the ministers and justices of the Supreme Court of Appeal and the Constitutional Court. Through the Cabinet, the President implements and enforces the constitution and laws and enforces his