François Legault is a Canadian politician and businessman serving as the 32nd and current premier of Quebec since 2018. He has been Leader of the Coalition Avenir Québec party since its foundation in 2011. Prior to becoming a politician, he was the co-founder of Air Transat, he was a member of the National Assembly of Quebec from 1998 to 2009, serving in the government of Quebec as Minister of Education from 1998 to 2002 and as Minister of Health from 2002 to 2003. As a member of the Parti Québécois, he was first elected in the 1998 Quebec election in the riding of Rousseau in the Lanaudière region, he was re-elected in 2003, 2007 and 2008 but resigned his seat on June 25, 2009. He returned to the legislature at the 2012 Quebec provincial election as the MNA for L'Assomption, a suburb of Montreal, he was reelected in 2018 election. Legault is the first Premier since 1970, when Jean-Jacques Bertrand of the now-defunct Union Nationale party was in office, to not hail from either the Quebec Liberal Party or the Parti Québécois.
François Legault was born May 26, 1957 at the Lachine Hospital and grew up in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec. His father, Lucien Legault, was a postmaster, his mother, Pauline Schetagne, a housewife who worked as a cashier at the local A&P grocery store to help with the monthly bills, he has master's degree in business administration from the HEC Montréal. He became a Chartered Accountant. Legault worked as an administrator for Provigo, an auditor for Ernst & Young until 1984. In 1985, Legault became the director of finance and administration at Nationair Canada and marketing director at Québécair, he co-founded Air Transat in 1986 after being the director of marketing at Quebecair. He was the Chief Executive Officer of that company until 1997. Air Transat became one of the largest airline companies in Canada offering charter flights. From 1995 to 1998, Legault sat including Provigo Inc.. Culinar, Technilab Inc. and Bestar Inc. as well as the Marc-Aurèle Fortin private museum. After his 1998 election, Legault was appointed by Lucien Bouchard as Minister for Industry and Commerce.
He was named the Minister of Education. When Bouchard resigned, it was said that Legault would support Pauline Marois against Bernard Landry, he clarified his position as being in favour of Landry's candidacy. Landry appointed Legault as Minister of Education and as Minister of Health and Social Services, he was re-elected in 2003. He remained on the PQ front bench as the critic for economic development and finances. Legault endorsed Richard Legendre in the 2005 PQ leadership election, won by André Boisclair. After his re-election in 2007, he was renamed the PQ critic for economic development and finances. Legault was re-elected in the 2008 elections but announced on June 25, 2009 that would retire from politics, he was seen by some political analysts at the time as a potential contender in a future leadership election. Though some of the members from the Liberals thought he could replace Jean Charest premier. In February 2011, Legault co-founded with Charles Sirois a new political movement called the "Coalition pour l'avenir du Québec".
In November 2011 it became an official party under the name Coalition Avenir Québec. The CAQ aims to bring together like-minded voters in a single party regardless of their views on Quebec nationalism, Quebec federalism and Quebec autonomism. Legault had spent his entire political career prior to 2011 as a sovereigntist, but has promised that a CAQ government will never hold a referendum on sovereignty, he now believes Quebec belongs within Canada, but has vowed that a CAQ government would "explore all options" to defend Quebec's interests and demand greater power. The party finished third in the 2012 general election, winning 27.05 % of the vote. In the 2014 general election, the CAQ finished third again, but increased their seat count to 22. In the 2018 general election on October 1, Legault led the CAQ to a gain of 53 seats for a total of 74, vaulting the CAQ from third place to a majority of 11 and becoming the Premier of Quebec, he is the first premier in 52 years, not either a Liberal or Péquiste.
On October 18, 2018, Legault was sworn in as Premier of Quebec, marking the end of nearly 50 years of Liberal and Parti Quebecois rule in the province. He announced new members to the province's 26-member cabinet. Having run on the platform during the 2018 election, on March 28, 2019, the Quebec government has tabled its long-awaited secularism bill. Bill 21, entitled "An Act respecting the laicity of the State," the bill, if made law, would ban public workers in positions of authority from wearing religious symbols; such as Any public employee who carries a weapon, including: police officers, courthouse constables, prison guards and wildlife officers, Crown prosecutors, government lawyers and judges and School principals, vice-principals and teachers The government has said they will use the Notwithstanding clause so it doesn't get blocked by the courts. Legault has 2 children, he was raised in the Montreal suburb of Ste. Anne de Bellevue. Legault has been a Fellow of the Ordre des comptables agréés du Québec since 2000.
"Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec
Constitution Act, 1867
The Constitution Act, 1867 is a major part of Canada's Constitution. The Act created a federal dominion and defines much of the operation of the Government of Canada, including its federal structure, the House of Commons, the Senate, the justice system, the taxation system; the British North America Acts, including this Act, were renamed in 1982 with the patriation of the Constitution. Amendments were made at this time: section 92A was added, giving provinces greater control over non-renewable natural resources; the Act begins with a preamble declaring that the three provinces New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada have requested to form "one Dominion...with a Constitution similar in Principle to that of the United Kingdom". This description of the Constitution has proven important in its interpretation; as Peter Hogg wrote in Constitutional Law of Canada, some have argued that, since the United Kingdom had some freedom of expression in 1867, the preamble extended this right to Canada before the enactment of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982.
In New Brunswick Broadcasting Co. v. Nova Scotia, the leading Canadian case on parliamentary privilege, the Supreme Court of Canada grounded its 1993 decision on the preamble. Moreover, since the UK had a tradition of judicial independence, the Supreme Court ruled in the Provincial Judges Reference of 1997 that the preamble shows judicial independence in Canada is constitutionally guaranteed. Political scientist Rand Dyck has criticized the preamble, saying it is "seriously out of date", he claims the Act "lacks an inspirational introduction". The preamble to the Act is not the Constitution of Canada's only preamble; the Charter has a preamble. Part I consists of just two sections. Section 1 gives the short title of the law as Constitution Act, 1867. Section 2 indicates that all references to the Queen apply to all her heirs and successors; the Act establishes the Dominion of Canada by uniting the North American British "Provinces" of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia. Section 3 establishes that the union would take effect within six months of passage of the Act and Section 4 confirms "Canada" as the name of the country.
Section 5 lists the four provinces of the new federation. These are formed by dividing the former Province of Canada into two: its two subdivisions, Canada West and Canada East, renamed Ontario and Quebec become full provinces in Section 6. Section 7 confirms that the boundaries of New Brunswick are not changed, and Section 8 provides. Section 9 confirms that all executive powers remain with the Queen, as represented by the Governor General or an administrator of the government, as stated in Section 10. Section 11 creates the Queen's Privy Council for Canada. Section 12 states that the executive branches of the Provinces continue to exist and their power is exercised through the Lieutenant Governors, that the powers exercised by the federal government must be exercised through the Governor General, either with the advice of the privy council or alone. Section 13 defines the Governor General in Council as the Governor General acting with the advice of the Privy Council. Section 14 allows the Governor General to appoint deputies to exercise his powers in various parts of Canada.
The Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces in Canada continues with the Queen under Section 15. Section 16 declares Ottawa the capital of the new federation; the Parliament of Canada comprises the Queen and two chambers, as created by section 17. Section 18 defines its powers and privileges as being no greater than those of the British parliament. Section 19 states that Parliament's first session must begin six months after the passage of the Act and Section 20 holds that Parliament must hold a legislative session at least once every twelve months; the Senate has 105 Senators, most of whom represent one of four equal divisions: Ontario, the Maritime Provinces and the Western Provinces. Section 23 lays out the qualifications to become a Senator. Senators are appointed by the Governor General under Section 24, the first group of senators was proclaimed under section 25. Section 26 allows The Crown to add four or eight Senators at a time to the Senate, divided among the divisions, but according to section 27 no more senators can be appointed until, by death or retirement, the number of senators drops below the regular limit of 24 per division.
The maximum number of senators was set at 113, in Section 28. Senators are appointed for life, under Section 29, though they can resign under Section 30 and can be removed under the terms of section 31, in which case the vacancy can be filled by the Governor General. Section 33 gives the Senate the power to rule on its own disputes over vacancy; the Speaker of the Senate is appointed and dismissed by Governor General under Section 34. Quorum for the Senate is set at 15 senators by Section 35, voting procedures are set by Section 36; the composition of the Commons, under Section 37, consists of 30
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Monarchy in Quebec
By the arrangements of the Canadian federation, Canada's monarchy operates in Quebec as the core of the province's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy and constitution. As such, the Crown within Quebec's jurisdiction is referred to as the Crown in Right of Quebec, His/Her Majesty in Right of Quebec, or the Queen in Right of Quebec; the Constitution Act, 1867, leaves many royal duties in Quebec assigned to the sovereign's viceroy, the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, whose direct participation in governance is limited by the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy. The role of the Crown is both practical, it is thus the foundation of the executive and judicial branches of the province's government. The Canadian monarch—since 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II—is represented and her duties carried out by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, whose direct participation in governance is limited by the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy, with most related powers entrusted for exercise by the elected parliamentarians, the ministers of the Crown drawn from amongst them, the judges and justices of the peace.
The Crown today functions as a guarantor of continuous and stable governance and a nonpartisan safeguard against the abuse of power. This arrangement began with the 1867 British North America Act and continued an unbroken line of monarchical government extending back to the early 16th century, making Quebec the oldest continuously monarchical territory in North America. However, though Quebec has a separate government headed by the Queen, as a province, Quebec is not itself a kingdom. A viceregal suite in the André-Laurendeau building in Quebec City is used both as an office and official event location by the lieutenant governor, the sovereign, other members of the Canadian Royal Family; the viceroy resides in a separate home provided by the provincial Crown and the Queen and her relations reside at a hotel when in Quebec. Those in the Royal Family perform ceremonial duties when on a tour of the province. Monuments around Quebec mark some of those visits, while others honour a royal event. Further, Quebec's monarchical status is illustrated by royal names applied regions, communities and buildings, many of which may have a specific history with a member or members of the Royal Family.
Gifts are sometimes offered from the people of Quebec to a royal person to mark a visit or an important milestone. Associations exist between the Crown and many private organizations within the province. Examples include the Royal Montreal Curling Club, under the patronage of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, received its royal designation from King George V in 1924, McGill University, constituted as the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning through royal charter by King George III in 1801, before being reconstituted as a university by George IV in 1827; the main symbol of the monarchy is the sovereign herself, her image thus being used to signify government authority. A royal cypher or crown may illustrate the monarchy as the locus of authority, without referring to any specific monarch. Further, though neither the monarch nor her viceroy form a part of the constitutions of Quebec's honours, the latter do stem from the Crown as the fount of honour. Quebec lawyers may be appointed Queen's Counsel.
Advocates of independence or sovereignty for Quebec are hostile to the Crown in Quebec, regarding it not as a distinct and essential part of the province's national structure—"the last bulwark of democracy," as former Liberal Quebec premier Daniel Johnson, Jr. put it—but as a federal institution involved in Quebec affairs. Most of those in the sovereignty movement do not recognise the Canadian monarchy, referring to it instead still as the "British monarchy" or "English Crown"; some sovereignists ask that Canada's royals apologise for acts such as the Acadian Great Upheaval in the mid 18th century and the patriation of the Canadian constitution in 1982. In 2009, the Société St-Jean Baptiste's Montreal chapter asked Prince Charles to apologise for what it said was the Royal Family's role in the "cultural genocide of francophones in North America over the last 400 years"; the province's sovereigntist political party, the Parti Québécois, has pushed for reforms: at a constitutional conference held in Ottawa in February 1968, delegates from Quebec indicated that a provincial president might suit the province better than the Queen and a lieutenant governor, but t
Prime Minister of Canada
The Prime Minister of Canada is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, Canada's head of government. The current, 23rd, Prime Minister of Canada is the Liberal Party's Justin Trudeau, following the 2015 Canadian federal election. Canadian prime ministers are styled as The Right Honourable, a privilege maintained for life; the Prime Minister of Canada is in charge of the Prime Minister's Office. The Prime Minister chooses the ministers that make up the Cabinet; the two groups, with the authority of the Parliament of Canada, manage the Government of Canada and the Canadian Armed Forces. The Cabinet and the Prime Minister appoint members of the Senate of Canada, the judges of the Supreme Court of Canada and federal courts, the leaders and boards, as required under law, of various Crown Corporations, selects the Governor General of Canada. Under the Canadian constitution, all of the power to exercise these activities is vested in the Monarchy of Canada, but in practice the Canadian monarch or their representative, the Governor General of Canada approves them and their role is ceremonial, their powers are only exercised under the advice of the Prime Minister.
Not outlined in any constitutional document, the office exists only as per long-established convention that stipulates the monarch's representative, the governor general, must select as prime minister the person most to command the confidence of the elected House of Commons. The position of prime minister is not outlined in any Canadian constitutional document and is mentioned only in passing in the Constitution Act, 1982, the Letters Patent, 1947 issued by King George VI; the office and its functions are instead governed by constitutional conventions and modelled on the same office in the United Kingdom. The prime minister, along with the other ministers in cabinet, is appointed by the governor general on behalf of the monarch. However, by the conventions of responsible government, designed to maintain administrative stability, the governor general will call to form a government the individual most to receive the support, or confidence, of a majority of the directly elected members of the House of Commons.
While there is no legal requirement for the prime minister to be a member of parliament, for practical and political reasons the prime minister is expected to win a seat promptly. However, in rare circumstances individuals who are not sitting members of the House of Commons have been appointed to the position of prime minister. Two former prime ministers—Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott and Sir Mackenzie Bowell—served in the 1890s while members of the Senate. Both, in their roles as Government Leader in the Senate, succeeded prime ministers who had died in office—John A. Macdonald in 1891 and John Sparrow David Thompson in 1894; that convention has since evolved toward the appointment of an interim leader from the commons in such a scenario. Prime ministers who are not Members of Parliament upon their appointment have since been expected to seek election to the commons as soon as possible. For example, William Lyon Mackenzie King, after losing his seat in the 1925 federal election "governed from the hallway" before winning a by-election a few weeks later.
John Turner replaced Pierre Trudeau as leader of the Liberal Party in 1984 and subsequently was appointed prime minister while not holding a seat in the House of Commons. Turner was the last serving prime minister to not hold a commons seat. Should a serving prime minister today lose his or her seat in the legislature, or should a new prime minister be appointed without holding a seat, the typical process that follows is that a junior member in the governing political party will resign to allow the prime minister to run in the resulting by-election. A safe seat is chosen. However, if the governing party selects a new leader shortly before an election is due, that new leader is not a member of the legislature, he or she will await the upcoming election before running for a seat in parliament. In a poll conducted by Ipsos-Reid following the first prorogation of the 40th parliament on December 4, 2008, it was found that 51% of the sample group thought the prime minister was directly elected by Canadians.
The Canadian prime minister serves at Her Majesty's pleasure, meaning the post does not have a fixed term. Once appointed and sworn in by the governor general, the prime minister remains in office until he or she resigns, is dismissed, or dies; the lifespan of parliament was limited by the constitution to five years, though the governor general may still, on the advice of the prime minister, dissolve parliament and issue the writs of election prior to the date mandated by the Canada Elections Act. As of 2007, with an amendment to the Elections Act, Section 56.1 was changed
2018 Quebec general election
The 42nd Quebec general election was held on October 1, 2018, to elect members to the National Assembly of Quebec. The election saw a landslide victory for the Coalition Avenir Québec led by François Legault won 74 of 125 seats, giving the party a majority and unseating the Quebec Liberal Party; the Liberals became the Official Opposition with 31 seats. This election was the first won by the CAQ, the third party in the legislature, it was the first since 1966, won by a party other than the Liberals or Parti Québécois. In Quebec the Liberal Party had held power since 2003, save for a period of less than two years in 2012. Under the province's fixed election date law, passed in 2013, "the general election following the end of a Legislature shall be held on the first Monday of October of the fourth calendar year following the year that includes the last day of the previous Legislature", setting the date for October 1, 2018. However, the Chief Electoral Officer could have changed the election date in the event of a natural disaster.
Furthermore, the Lieutenant Governor could have called an election sooner should the Premier have requested one, or in the event the government had been dissolved by a motion of no confidence. The CAQ won a decisive victory with 74 seats; the Liberals won 31 seats, Québec solidaire won 10 seats, the Parti Québécois won only 10 seats. The CAQ formed government for the first time by dominating its traditional heartlands of Capitale-Nationale, Chaudière-Appalaches and Centre-du-Québec, while winning sweeps or near-sweeps in Mauricie, Lanaudière, Montérégie the Laurentides and northern Quebec; the Parti Québécois lost its official status as a political party in the Quebec National Assembly, for having won less than 12 seats. It was the PQ's worst showing in a provincial election in 45 years. For the second election in a row, its leader was unseated in his own riding. According to a postmortem by The Globe and Mail, the PQ was so decisively beaten that there were questions about whether it could survive.
Echoing this, Christian Bourque of Montreal-based pollster Léger Marketing told The Guardian that he believed the PQ was finished in its present form, would have to merge with another sovereigntist party to avoid fading into irrelevance. The election was viewed as the Liberals' worst defeat since the 1976 election, this was the first election in which Québec Solidaire garnered seats outside Montreal; the CAQ won 37.4 percent of the popular vote, a smaller vote share than the Liberals' 41 percent in 2014. However, their heavy concentration of support in the regions they dominated was enough to garner them a strong majority government. Quebec elections have seen large disparities between the raw vote and the actual seat count. Following the elections, both Jean-François Lisée and Philippe Couillard resigned; as of September 5, 2018, a total of 45 MNAs elected in 2014 will not run in the 2018 election, of whom 12 resigned from the National Assembly, one died in office and 32 announced that they will not seek re-election including one who got fired.
The latter comprise the following: At the end of his term, Dean of the National Assembly, will have served for 41 years and 10 months, representing Abitibi-Ouest for 11 terms. This table lists the names of the registered candidates as they appear on the official list published by the Chief Electoral Officer; the symbol ‡ indicates incumbent members not running for re-election. Abbreviations used in the table: Auto.: Équipe autonomiste. BP: Bloc pot. CAP: Citoyens au pouvoir du Québec. CAQ: Coalition avenir Québec - L'équipe François Legault. CINQ: Changement intégrité pour notre Québec. Conservative or Cons.: Conservative Party of Québec. Cul.: Parti culinaire du Québec. Green: Green Party of Québec. Ind.: Independent candidate. Liberal: Quebec Liberal Party. Marxist–Leninist or ML: Parti marxiste-léniniste du Québec. NDP: Nouveau Parti démocratique du Québec. Nul: Parti nul. PL: Parti libre. PQ: Parti québécois. Prov.: Alliance provinciale du Québec. P51: Parti 51. QS: Québec solidaire. VP: Voie du peuple.
In this list, electoral districts are grouped by administrative region and regions are listed in the order of their administrative number. Maps of the regions and the districts they include can be consulted at Élections Quebec. 41st Quebec Legislature Politics of Quebec Timeline of Quebec history List of political parties in Quebec Web site of Quebec's Chief Electoral Officer