Silba is an island in Croatia with an area of 15 km2, northern Dalmatia, south-east of Lošinj, between the islands of Premuda and Olib. It has a Mediterranean climate with 2570 hours a year of sunshine. Most summer days are hot and clear with light westerly Maestral wind cooling the island in the afternoons. Silba has an area 15 square kilometres in the shape of number 8, with the village of Silba located at the narrowest point in the middle, it takes only around 10 minutes to walk the 600 m from the north-eastern harbour of Mul to the south-western harbour of Žalić. Silba's population is 292, but it varies seasonally. Many have properties on the mainland. There is an influx of tourists during the summer months as tourism is now the main economic activity on the island; the whole island is a pedestrian zone, no traffic is allowed with the exception of vehicles supplying the local businesses. Zadar is Silba's mainland administrative center; the island coves. The main public beach Sutorišće, located close to the harbour of Mul, has clear shallow waters with sandy bottom.
On Žalić, there are a number of a pier. Ships carrying passenger and commercial traffic dock here. There are a number of coves outside the village. On the southern side of the island, at walking distances of about 30–45 minutes, are: Vele Stene, the only point on the island where the shores are steep and rocky. Port Sv. Ante, favoured with yachtsmen because it is protected from major winds. One can view a small chapel on the side of the bay. Dobre Vode, a beach with shallow sandy bottom. Nozdre, a big cove with characteristic flat rock formations cut out by the sea. On the north side of the village is the highest point on Varh; the northern shore is less accessible than the southern due to rocky shores, there is a path leading north out of the village to the small port of Papranica. Further on along the path, about an hours walk from the main village, is a cove Pernastica, considered one of the nicest coves on the island, it has a long shallow sandy bottom. Silba's most popular landmark is Toreta, a sleek tower with a spiral staircase from which there is a wonderful view of the surrounding islands.
It is in the centre of the village right on Veli Put - Silba's High Street. The village has several cafés, four restaurants, a number of shops, post office and a local GP. From any point in the village it takes only around 10 min or less to walk to the nearest beach; the old name for this island is Selbo. It's supposed to come from the Latin word "Silva", meaning "forest"; the island Silba is mentioned in historical records in the 9th century. In 827, it belonged to the Zadar county. In 1073, in the last year of Petar Krešimir's reign at the request of his sister Cika, the first nun of St. Maria in Zadar, the county donated the island to the monastery St. Maria, at the ceremony of sacrament of their church; the island fell into the hands of the Venetian authorities, which sold it to captain Fani Soppe for 12,350 ducats. It is not known how it came into the ownership of Venetian family Morosini. Silba was held by family Morosini until the first quarter of 19th century; as it was too far to govern and receive tax on yield in nature they agreed with inhabitants of Silba in 1770 to receive each year 2000 Venetian lira in rent.
Silbans called this rent četvrtina, as it amounted to quarter of the land's yields, what serfs elsewhere gave to their masters. In 1838, for 28,500 Austrian lira, family Morosini sold the island to Marko Ragusin from Veli Lošinj, who returned wealthy from United States; as Silbans paid rent to previous owner in currency, they assumed they will do the same to the new landowner, but since he lived in Lošinj, near to Silba, he refused and demanded a quarter of land's yield in crop. A lawsuit ensued which lasted for 13 years when Ragusin decided to sell the island to these same inhabitants who bought it, each paying proportionally to the size of their plot, in total 5,025 bavarian thalers. On 19 March 1852 ownership of the island by inhabitants was registered, it became day of St. Joseph. In the 18th century Silba had a fleet 38 sailing boats with three masts called Manzere of 220 Mt and 60 sailing boats two masts called Kastrere of 63 Mt; the fleet was destroyed by the French at the beginning of the 19th century.
The economic benefits to the island from sailing boats led to general well being on the island. Old local saying says: "Silba zlatom siva, i u njoj se raj uživa", that is: "Silba shines with gold, on it heavenly enjoyment". In the olden days there was a custom of "village king" elections; the king would get elected on St. Stephen's Day and his rule would last until Three Kings. During his twelve-day rule, he would preside, with crown on his head, surrounded by twelve councillors, over village gatherings and dealt justice, his task was to name the village head and members of village guards. He would give verdict on disputes that have accumulated during the year; this custom died out in the first quarter of the 19th century. The king's crown still exists in the treasury of the parish church. In 1943 Silba was the scene of a naval action during the Adriatic Campaign of World War II. Silba Tourist Office Silba Tourist Office - old site Silba Online Silba - information & photos (in Croatian
Underwater diving, as a human activity, is the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment. Immersion in water and exposure to high ambient pressure have physiological effects that limit the depths and duration possible in ambient pressure diving. Humans are not physiologically and anatomically well adapted to the environmental conditions of diving, various equipment has been developed to extend the depth and duration of human dives, allow different types of work to be done. In ambient pressure diving, the diver is directly exposed to the pressure of the surrounding water; the ambient pressure diver may dive on breath-hold, or use breathing apparatus for scuba diving or surface-supplied diving, the saturation diving technique reduces the risk of decompression sickness after long-duration deep dives. Atmospheric diving suits may be used to isolate the diver from high ambient pressure. Crewed submersibles can extend depth range, remotely controlled or robotic machines can reduce risk to humans.
The environment exposes the diver to a wide range of hazards, though the risks are controlled by appropriate diving skills, types of equipment and breathing gases used depending on the mode and purpose of diving, it remains a dangerous activity. Diving activities are restricted to maximum depths of about 40 metres for recreational scuba diving, 530 metres for commercial saturation diving, 610 metres wearing atmospheric suits. Diving is restricted to conditions which are not excessively hazardous, though the level of risk acceptable can vary. Recreational diving is a popular leisure activity. Technical diving is a form of recreational diving under challenging conditions. Professional diving involves working underwater. Public safety diving is the underwater work done by law enforcement, fire rescue, underwater search and recovery dive teams. Military diving includes clearance diving and ships husbandry. Deep sea diving is underwater diving with surface-supplied equipment, refers to the use of standard diving dress with the traditional copper helmet.
Hard hat diving is any form of diving with a helmet, including the standard copper helmet, other forms of free-flow and lightweight demand helmets. The history of breath-hold diving goes back at least to classical times, there is evidence of prehistoric hunting and gathering of seafoods that may have involved underwater swimming. Technical advances allowing the provision of breathing gas to a diver underwater at ambient pressure are recent, self-contained breathing systems developed at an accelerated rate following the Second World War. Immersion in water and exposure to cold water and high pressure have physiological effects on the diver which limit the depths and duration possible in ambient pressure diving. Breath-hold endurance is a severe limitation, breathing at high ambient pressure adds further complications, both directly and indirectly. Technological solutions have been developed which can extend depth and duration of human ambient pressure dives, allow useful work to be done underwater.
Immersion of the human body in water affects the circulation, renal system, fluid balance, breathing, because the external hydrostatic pressure of the water provides support against the internal hydrostatic pressure of the blood. This causes a blood shift from the extravascular tissues of the limbs into the chest cavity, fluid losses known as immersion diuresis compensate for the blood shift in hydrated subjects soon after immersion. Hydrostatic pressure on the body from head-out immersion causes negative pressure breathing which contributes to the blood shift; the blood shift causes cardiac workload. Stroke volume is not affected by immersion or variation in ambient pressure, but slowed heartbeat reduces the overall cardiac output because of the diving reflex in breath-hold diving. Lung volume decreases in the upright position, owing to cranial displacement of the abdomen from hydrostatic pressure, resistance to air flow in the airways increases because of the decrease in lung volume. There appears to be a connection between pulmonary edema and increased pulmonary blood flow and pressure, which results in capillary engorgement.
This may occur during higher intensity exercise while submerged. Cold shock response is the physiological response of organisms to sudden cold cold water, is a common cause of death from immersion in cold water, such as by falling through thin ice; the immediate shock of the cold causes involuntary inhalation, which if underwater can result in drowning. The cold water can cause heart attack due to vasoconstriction. A person who survives the initial minute after falling into cold water can survive for at least thirty minutes provided they do not drown; the ability to stay afloat declines after about ten minutes as the chilled muscles lose strength and co-ordination. The diving reflex is a response to immersion, it optimises respiration by preferentially distributing oxygen stores to the heart and brain, which allows extended periods underwater. It is exhibited in aquatic mammals, exists in other mammals, including humans. Diving birds, such as penguins, have a similar diving reflex; the diving reflex is trigger
Zadar County is a county in Croatia, it encompasses northern Dalmatia and southeastern Lika. Its center is the city of Zadar. According to the 2011 census, Zadar County has population of 170,017, accounting for 4.0% of the total Croatia's population. Croats make up the majority with 92.57% of the population, while Serbs, Bosniaks and Italians form the remainder. Among the largest towns in the county of Zadar are: Zadar, Bibinje, Nin and Pag; the county of Zadar includes the islands of Dugi otok, Ugljan, Pašman, Lavdara, Zverinac and most of Pag, as well as a number of other, smaller islands. It features the Paklenica national park; the county's area is 7,854 km2, 3,646 km2 is land, which accounts for 6.4% of the territory of Croatia. The sea area of the County is 3,632 km2 and the insular area is 580 km2, with more than 300 smaller and larger islands; the length of its coastline is 1,300 km. The County of Zadar plays a leading role in road and railway traffic links between northern and southern Croatia.
The main road along the Adriatic Sea passes through the county, as does the new Zagreb-Dubrovnik highway, completed as far as Split in 2005. The Zagreb-Knin-Split railway line with branch-lines to Zadar and Šibenik pass through the County. Maritime traffic is carried by the coastal route of the Adriatic Sea, by the Zadar-Ancona international car ferry route, the shortest link between Central Europe and Italy, via Zagreb and Zadar to Rome and southward. Another route by which intensive traffic is carried is Zadar - Maslenica Bridge - St. Rok Tunnel - Zagreb; the Zadar Airport has been reconstructed and modernised. With runway improvements still to be undertaken it will have the capacity to handle jumbo-jets. There is a frequent maritime passenger port in the town of Zadar and the cargo maritime port in the Gazenica area whose current manipulative capacity amounts to one million tonnes per year. A construction of a wharf would raise this significantly; the port's manipulative and warehouse capacities are used only in part.
The Ravni Kotari area constitutes the greater part of the County's inland, containing most of the cultivated farmland and towns having industry, crafts and traffic development potential. Tourism is one of the County's most important industries, owing to its geographical position, mild climate, indented coast, clear sea, numerous bays and beaches on 1,300 km of the sea coast and islands. Tourist amenities of the Zadar County are the areas of outstanding natural beauty: the Velebit, Telaščica and Paklenica and adjacent Krka and Kornati national parks in the south and the Plitvice Lakes national park in the north. Zadar County is divided into: See organization of Croatian counties; as of 2014, the Župan is Stipe Zrilić of the Croatian Democratic Union, the county assembly's 42 representatives are affiliated as follows: Croatian Democratic Union: 15 Social Democratic Party of Croatia: 8 Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starčević: 5 Akcija mladih: 3 Lista grupe birača: 2 Croatian Party of Pensioners: 2 Croatian Peasants Party: 1 Croatian Social Liberal Party: 1 Croatian Party of Rights: 1 Democratic Party of Pensioners: 1 Croatian Pure Party of Rights: 1 Croatian Labourists – Labour Party: 1 Independent: 1 Official site of Zadar County Zadar tourist information Zadar Maps - Info Zadar
Mljet is the southernmost and easternmost of the larger Adriatic islands of the Dalmatia region of Croatia. The National Park includes the western part of the island, Veliko jezero, Malo jezero, Soline Bay and a sea belt 500 m wide from the most prominent cape of Mljet covering an area of 54 km2; the central parts of the park are Veliko jezero with the Isle of St. Mary, Malo jezero and the villages of Goveđari, Polače and Pomena. According to the 2011 census, Mljet has population of 1,088. Ethnic Croats make up 97.93% of the population. Mljet was discovered by ancient Greco-Roman geographers, who wrote the first records and descriptions; the island was first described by Scylax of Caryanda in the 6th century BC. In both texts, it is supported by Apollonius of Rhodes. Agathemerus and Pliny the Elder call the island Melita. Agesilaus of Anaxarba in Cilicia, the father of Oppian, was banished to Mljet by the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus. Mljet is mentioned around 950 by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos in his Of Ruling an Empire as one of the islands held by the Narentines.
The island was a controversy of ownership between them and Zachlumia until the stronger unifications of the Serbian realm in the 12th century. Ancient Greeks called the island "Melita" or "honey" which over the centuries evolved to become the Slavic name, Mljet. Mljet has been regarded as the "Melita" on which Saint Paul was shipwrecked, this view being first expounded in the 10th century, by Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus. Saint Paul's shipwreck is placed on the Mediterranean island of Malta. Mljet and Malta had the same name in the Greek and Roman sources. A harbour named; the Benedictines from Pulsano in Apulia became the feudal lords of the island in 1151, having come from Monte Gargano in Italy. They came ashore in the Sutmiholjska cove and in 1187–1198 the Serbian Prince Desa of the House of Vojislavljević built and donated to them the Church and Monastery of Saint Mary on the islet in the Big Lake towards the north-west end of the island. Pope Innocent III issued a document consecrating the church in 1198.
The Benedictines renounced their rule over Mljet in 1345. The island got a municipality in Babino Polje, it was formally annexed by the Republic of Ragusa in 1410. According to the Contract with the Benedictines, the municipality had to pay 300 perpers each year. In the 16th century, the monastery was the center of the Mljet Congregation, gathering all the monasteries of Benedictine monks in the area of the Republic of Ragusa; the first president of the Congregation was Mavro Vetranović, the abbot of the Mljet monastery and the famous poet. Another great poet was abbot there—Ignjat Đurđević in the 18th century; as time went by, the Benedictine monastery on Mljet lost its importance, while the seat of the Mljet Congregation moved to Sveti Jakov near Ragusa. In 1809, during the rule of Napoleon, the Mljet monastery was disbanded; when Austria took over the island, it placed the forestry office in the building. Between the world wars, the building was owned by the Ragusa Bishopric. In 1960 it became a hotel, in 1998 it was returned to the bishopric.
The island has a long history of eco-damage. In order to ease their transport problems, the monks dug a channel to the south coast, from the lake Veliko Jezero, thus turning both fresh-water lakes into seawater-based ones; the second incident involves mongooses. Small Asian mongooses were introduced onto the island in the early 20th century in order to reduce the venomous snake population. Whilst the mongooses completed this task, they disposed of pretty much all the birdlife of the island. To this day, the island is notably short such as sparrows. Mongooses are a hazard for domestic poultry, are known to cause damage in vineyards and orchards. Mljet lies south of the Pelješac peninsula, its length is 37 kilometres. It is of volcanic origin, with numerous chasms and gorges, of which the longest, the Babino Polje, connects the north and south of the island. Port Polače, the principal harbour in the north, is a port of call for tourist ferries. Mljet contains one hotel—The Odisej in the north-west corner of the island.
The northwestern part of the island includes an inland lake as well as a small island within it. It has been a national park since November 12, 1960. Over 84% of the island of 98.01 square kilometres is forest. The island's geological structure consists of limestone and dolomite forming ridges and slopes. A few depressions on the island of Mljet are below sea level and form non-permanent brackish lakes known as blatine or slatine; the climate is Mediterranean. Precipitation averages between 35 and 45 inches annually, with the hills receiving the highest amounts. According to the 2011 census, the settlements of Mljet have the following population: Babino Polje: largest settlement, police station, school Goveđari Babine Kuće Pristanište Soline Pomena Polače
Cres is an Adriatic island in Croatia. It is one of the northern islands in the Kvarner Gulf and can be reached via ferry from Rijeka, the island Krk or from the Istrian peninsula. With an area of 405.78 km2, Cres is the same size as the neighbouring island of Krk, although Krk has for many years been thought the largest of the islands. Cres has a population of 3,079. Cres and the neighbouring island of Lošinj once used to be one island, but were divided by a channel and connected with a bridge at the town of Osor. Cres's only fresh water source is the Lake Vrana. Cres has been inhabited since the Paleolithic time period, its name predates classical antiquity and is derived from Proto-Indo-European *quer-. Although this is one view, another more correct is from classical antiquity, when the town was founded and inhabited by ancient Greeks, called it Chersos. "Chersos" was resounded to "Cresta", from which the modern name "Cres" is derived. Cres was ruled by the Greeks and, since the 1st century B.
C. the Roman Empire. After the fall of the Roman Empire the island was taken over and became a part of the Byzantine Empire, remained this way for centuries. In the 7th century the Croats invaded the islands around it, they returned to the islands in the early 9th century. Around 866 the inhabitants saw the first conflicts with the Republic of Venice; the Venetians took control of Cres and the neighboring islands in the 10th and 11th centuries. However, the Croats regained the islands and the islands went through a change of rulers for centuries, being ruled by Croats and for 400 years the Venetians took control of the islands. After Napoleon's victory over the Venetians, the island went under Austrian rule. After the defeat of Austria by Napoleon in 1809 the islands became part of the French Empire. After the fall of Napoleon, Austria once again took control of the island for 100 years. During this time the economy developed with olive trees and other plants becoming key to the success of the island.
At the end of World War I, with the Treaty of Rapallo signed in 1920, the island was once again handed over to Italy. This lasted until 1947; the island has gone through an agricultural downturn as many residents left the island in search of a better life on the mainland and abroad. This has resulted in many former agricultural areas becoming overgrown with local vegetation. People retirees, have been returning to live on the island. Tourism has become an important industry and the population experiences significant seasonal variation; the island has several villages, all of them connected by a road that runs down the middle of the island. On one side is the ferry from the mainland. Approaching the island from Pula, you will first come to Porozina. A list of the villages with descriptions is below: Porozina – A small village comprising the ferry terminal and a few shops. Beli – This small village, at the end of a long and narrow road, is home to a famed bird species, the endangered Griffon vulture.
Cres Orlec – Another small village at the end of a narrow road home to the endangered vulture. Valun – Visible on the way to Lubenice, this village does not permit cars. A fee is charged for parking. Lubenice – An ancient mountain village with a great view of the sea and neighboring islands. A restaurant and bar operate during the warmer months. Weekly musical concerts take place during the peak tourist season. Belej Stivan – On a side street this small hamlet of 16 people features a private beach, old houses and a church, is on the way to other villages. Merag -with ferry connections. Miholašćica - A small village with a church which shares the same name as the community. Tourism has grown here since the arrival of the Zaglav community nearby. Martinšćica – The home of a large vacation complex, along with beaches and cafes. Osor - A town on the "border" between two islands. Founded by the Romans who dug the channel thus dividing what was known as the Osor island into Cres and Lošinj. A major port and commercial centre started to fade with coming of larger ships that could not pass the narrow channel or dock in the shallow port.
Pernat – The westernmost village on Cape Pernat. A quaint and rustic village forming a gateway to numerous walking secluded beaches. Podol – Between Lubenice and Valun. A tiny hamlet that resembles a large farmhouse, its key feature is the mulberry tree located in the middle of the road. Punta Kriza – The southernmost part of Cres. FKK resort is here. Vidovici – A short distance uphill from Martinšćica. A village with an extraordinary view of the Istrian Peninsula and numerous islands including Zeča, Lošinj and Unije forming part of the archipelago. A restaurant operates in the evenings during the warmer months. Cres has its own fresh water lake, highly guarded and illegal to swim or fish in, it supplies water to neighboring Lošinj as well. It is one of the deepest fresh water lakes in Eastern Europe, going down 76 meters at its deepest point. Cres is home to many different types of nonvenomous snakes, including Elaphe quatuorlineata, Zamenis longissi
Counties of Croatia
The counties of Croatia are the primary administrative subdivisions of the Republic of Croatia. Since they were re-established in 1992, Croatia has been divided into 20 counties and the capital city of Zagreb, which has the authority and legal status of both a county and a city; as of 2015, the counties are subdivided into 428 municipalities. County assembly is a deliberative body in each county. Assembly members are elected for a four-year term by popular vote in local elections; the executive branch of each county's government is headed by a county prefect, except that a mayor heads the city of Zagreb's executive branch. Croatia's county prefects, mayor of Zagreb are elected for a four-year term by a majority of votes cast within applicable local government units, with a runoff election if no candidate achieves a majority in the first round of voting. County prefects can be recalled by a referendum. County administrative bodies are administrative departments and services which are established for the performance of works in the self-governing domain of the county, as well as for the performance of works of state administration transferred to the county.
Administrative departments and services are managed by heads nominated by the county prefect on the basis of a public competition. In each county exists a State Administration Office which performs the tasks of the central government. Head of State Administration Office, a university graduate in law, is appointed by the Croatian Government; these offices are not subordinate to the county assembly or county prefect, but rather the direct presence of the state. The counties are funded by the central government, as well as from county-owned businesses, county taxes and county fees. County taxes include a five percent inheritance and gift tax, a motor vehicle tax, a vessel tax and an arcade game machine tax; the counties are tasked with performing general public administration services and secondary education, government funded healthcare, social welfare, administration pertaining to agriculture, hunting, mining and construction, other services to the economy at the county level, as well as road transport infrastructure management and issuing of building and location permits and other document in relation to construction in the county area excluding the area of the big city and the county seat city.
The Croatian County Association was set up in 2003 as a framework for inter-county cooperation. The Croatian term županija was applied to territory controlled by a župan. Since the 12th century, the counties have been referred to by the Latin term comitatus. Croatia was first subdivided into counties in the Middle Ages. Counties were first introduced in Croatia during the House of Trpimirović's rule; the exact number and borders of these early counties are difficult to determine accurately. The following eleven are listed as the oldest counties of Croatia, dating back to the 10th century: Livno Cetina Imotski Pliva Pset or Pesenta Primorje or Klis Bribir Nona Knin Sidraga Nina or Luka The ban ruled over an additional three župas Krbava and Gacka to the West, approximatelly today's Lika-Senj County territory. In the same period, the counties in Pannonian Croatia are poorly documented, it is thought that the Pannonian counties were directly subject to the Croatian monarchy, unlike the southern counties controlled by nobles.
The county number and authority have varied reflecting: changes in the monarchial and noble relative influences. In the 13th and 14th century, the Croatian nobility grew stronger and the counties defined by the king were reduced to a legislative framework, while military and financial power was concentrated in the feudal lords. Other forms of administration that overlapped with county administration in this period included the Roman Catholic Church and the free royal cities, separately the cities of Dalmatia. After Croatia became a crown land of the Habsburg Monarchy in 1527, the importance of counties faded further, but was restored after 1760; the divisions have changed over time, reflecting: territorial losses to Ottoma
Zadar is the oldest continuously-inhabited Croatian city. It is situated at the northwestern part of Ravni Kotari region. Zadar serves of the wider northern Dalmatian region; the city proper covers 25 km2 with a population of 75,082 in 2011, making it the second-largest city of the region of Dalmatia and the fifth-largest city in the country. The area of present-day Zadar traces its earliest evidence of human life from the late Stone Age, while numerous settlements date as early as the Neolithic. Before the Illyrians, an ancient Mediterranean people of a pre-Indo-European culture inhabited the area. Zadar traces its origin to its 9th-century BC founding as a settlement of the Illyrian tribe of Liburnians known as Iader. In 59 BC it was renamed Iadera. In 48 BC it became a Roman colonia. During Roman rule Zadar acquired the characteristics of a traditional Ancient Roman city with a regular road network, a public square, an elevated capitolium with a temple. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and the destruction of Salona by the Avars and Croats in 614, Zadar became the capital of the Byzantine theme of Dalmatia.
In the beginning of the 9th century, Zadar came under Frankish rule, but the Pax Nicephori returned it to the Byzantines in 812. The first Croatian rulers gained brief control over the city in 10th century. In 998 Zadar swore allegiance to Doge Pietro Orseolo II and became a vassal of the Republic of Venice. In 1186 it placed itself under the protection of King of Hungary. In 1202 the Venetians, with the help of Crusaders and sacked Zadar. Hungary regained control over the city in 1358. In 1409 king Ladislaus I sold Zadar to the Venetians; when the Turks conquered the Zadar hinterland at the beginning of the 16th century, the town became an important stronghold, ensuring Venetian trade in the Adriatic, the administrative center of the Venetian territories in Dalmatia and a cultural center. This fostered an environment in which arts and literature could flourish, between the 15th and 17th centuries Zadar came under the influence of the Renaissance, giving rise to many important Italian Renaissance figures like Giorgio da Sebenico, Giorgio Ventura, Andrea Meldolla and Giovanni Francesco Fortunio, who wrote the first Italian grammar book, many famous Croatian writers, such as Petar Zoranić, Brne Krnarutić, Juraj Baraković and Šime Budinić, who wrote in the Croatian language.
After the fall of Venice in 1797 Zadar came under the Austrian rule until 1918, except for the period of short-term French rule, still remaining the capital of Dalmatia. During French rule the first newspaper in the Croatian language, Il Regio Dalmata – Kraglski Dalmatin, was published in Zadar. During the 19th century Zadar functioned as a center of the Croatian movement for cultural and national revival in a context of increasing polarization and politicization of ethnic identities between Croats and Dalmatian Italians. With the 1920 Treaty of Rapallo Zadar was given to the Kingdom of Italy. During World War II, it was witnessed the evacuation of ethnic Italians. Partisans captured the city on 1 November 1944. Today, Zadar is a historical center of Dalmatia, Zadar County's principal political, commercial, industrial and transportation centre. Zadar is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zadar; because of its rich heritage, Zadar is today one of the most popular Croatian tourist destinations, named "entertainment center of the Adriatic" by The Times and "Croatia's new capital of cool" by The Guardian.
In 2016 the Belgian portal Europe's Best Destinations.com named Zadar the "Best European Destination" after a three-week period of online voting involving more than 288,000 votes. UNESCO's World Heritage Site list included the fortified city of Zadar as part of Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar in 2017; the name of the city of Zadar emerged as Iadera and Iader in ancient times, but the origin of the name is older. It was most related to a hydrographical term, coined by an ancient Mediterranean people and their Pre-Indo-European language, they transmitted it to settlers, the Liburnians. The name of the Liburnian settlement was first mentioned by a Greek inscription from Pharos on the island of Hvar in 384 BC, where the citizens of Zadar were noted as Ίαδασινοί. According to the Greek source Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax the city was Ίδασσα a Greek transcription of the original Liburnian expression. During Antiquity the name was recorded in sources in Latin in two forms: Iader in the inscriptions and in the writings of classic writers, Iadera predominantly among the late Antiquity writers, while usual ethnonyms were Iadestines and Iadertines.
The accent was on the first syllable in both Iader and Iadera forms, which influenced the early-Medieval Dalmatian language forms Jadra and Jadertina, where the accent kept its original place. In the Dalmatian language, Jadra was pronounced Zadra, due to the phonetic transformation of Ja- to Za-; that change was reflected in the Croatian name Zadar, developed from masculine Zadъrъ. An ethnonym graphic Jaderani from the legend of Saint Chrysogonus in the 9th century, was identical to the initial old-Slavic form Zadъrane, or Renaissa