Orosh is a small village in Mirditë within the county of Lezhë in the northwest of the Republic of Albania. Geographically, it is located inside the mountainous region of northern Albania in the Valley of Fan; the seat of the former municipality was the town of Reps. The former Orosh Abbey was located in the municipality. Terenzio Tocci gathered the Mirdita chieftains on April 26, 1911 in Orosh, proclaimed the independence of Albania, raised the flag of Albania and established the provisional government. Prênk Bibë Doda Kapidan Marka Gjoni Gjon Markagjoni
Bel canto —with several similar constructions —is a term with several meanings that relate to Italian singing. The phrase was not associated with a "school" of singing until the middle of the 19th century, when writers in the early 1860s used it nostalgically to describe a manner of singing that had begun to wane around 1830. Nonetheless, "neither musical nor general dictionaries saw fit to attempt definition until after 1900"; the term remains vague and ambiguous in the 21st century and is used to evoke a lost singing tradition. As understood today, the term bel canto refers to the Italian-originated vocal style that prevailed throughout most of Europe during the 18th century and early 19th centuries. Late 19th- and 20th-century sources "would lead us to believe that bel canto was restricted to beauty and evenness of tone, legato phrasing, skill in executing florid passages, but contemporary documents describe a multifaceted manner of performance far beyond these confines." The main features of the bel canto style were: prosodic singing matching register and tonal quality of the voice to the emotional content of the words a articulated manner of phrasing based on the insertion of grammatical and rhetorical pauses a delivery varied by several types of legato and staccato a liberal application of more than one type of portamento messa di voce as the principal source of expression frequent alteration of tempo through rhythmic rubato and the quickening and slowing of the overall time the introduction of a wide variety of graces and divisions into both arias and recitatives gesture as a powerful tool for enhancing the effect of the vocal delivery vibrato reserved for heightening the expression of certain words and for gracing longer notes.
The Harvard Dictionary of Music by Willi Apel says that bel canto denotes "the Italian vocal technique of the 18th century, with its emphasis on beauty of sound and brilliancy of performance rather than dramatic expression or romantic emotion. In spite of the repeated reactions against bel canto and the frequent exaggeration of its virtuoso element, it must be considered as a artistic technique and the only proper one for Italian opera and for Mozart, its early development is bound up with that of the Italian opera seria." Since the bel canto style flourished in the 18th and early 19th centuries, the music of Handel and his contemporaries, as well as that of Mozart and Rossini, benefits from an application of bel canto principles. Operas received the most dramatic use of the techniques, but the bel canto style applies to oratorio, though in a somewhat less flamboyant way; the da capo arias these works contained provided challenges for singers, as the repeat of the opening section prevented the story line from progressing.
Nonetheless, singers needed to keep the emotional drama moving forward, so they used the principles of bel canto to help them render the repeated material in a new emotional guise. They incorporated embellishments of all sorts, but not every singer was equipped to do this, some writers, notably Domenico Corri himself, suggesting that singing without ornamentation was an acceptable practice. Singers embellished both arias and recitatives, but did so by tailoring their embellishments to the prevailing sentiments of the piece. Two famous 18th-century teachers of the style were Antonio Bernacchi and Nicola Porpora, but many others existed. A number of these teachers were castrati. Singer/author John Potter declares in his book Tenor: History of a Voice that: For much of the 18th century castrati defined the art of singing. In another application, the term bel canto is sometimes attached to Italian operas written by Vincenzo Bellini and Gaetano Donizetti; these composers wrote bravura works for the stage during what musicologists sometimes call the "bel canto era".
But the style of singing had started to change around 1830, Michael Balfe writing of the new method of teaching, required for the music of Bellini and Donizetti, so the operas of Bellini and Donizetti were the vehicles for a new era of singing. The last important opera role for a castrato was written in 1824 by Giacomo Meyerbeer; the phrase "bel canto" was not used until the latter part of the 19th century, when it was set in opposition to the development of a weightier, more powerful style of speech-inflected singing associated with German opera and, above all, Richard Wagner's revolutionary music dramas. Wagner decried the Italian singing model, alleging that it was concerned with "whether that G or A will come out roundly", he advocated a new, Germanic school of singing that would draw "the spiritually energetic and profoundly passionate into the orbit of its matchless Expression."French musicians and composers never embraced the more florid extremes of the 18th-century Italian bel canto style.
They disliked the castrato v
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Albania the Republic of Albania, is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea. It shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, Greece to the south and a maritime border with Italy to the west. Geographically, the country displays varied climatic, geological and morphological conditions, defined in an area of 28,748 km2, it possesses remarkable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg and Ceraunian Mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea along the Mediterranean Sea. The area of Albania was populated by various Illyrian and Ancient Greek tribes as well as several Greek colonies established in the Illyrian coast; the area was annexed in the 3rd century by Romans and became an integral part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia and Illyricum. The autonomous Principality of Arbër emerged in 1190, established by archon Progon in the Krujë, within the Byzantine Empire.
In the late thirteenth century, Charles of Anjou conquered Albanian territories from the Byzantines and established the medieval Kingdom of Albania, which at its maximal extension was extending from Durrës along the coast to Butrint in the south. In the mid-fifteenth century, it was conquered by the Ottomans; the modern nation state of Albania emerged in 1912 following the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars. The modern Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, a Communist state titled the People's Socialist Republic of Albania was founded under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour; the country experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the fourth Republic of Albania was established.
Politically, the country is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the tertiary sector followed by the secondary and primary sector. It went through a process of transition, following the end of communism in 1990, from a centralized to a market-based economy, it provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. The country is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, COE, OSCE and OIC, it is an official candidate for membership in the European Union. In addition it is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Union for the Mediterranean; the term Albania is the medieval Latin name of the country. It may be derived from the Illyrian tribe of Albani recorded by Ptolemy, the geographer and astronomer from Alexandria, who drafted a map in 150 AD, which shows the city of Albanopolis located northeast of the city of Durrës.
The term may have a continuation in the name of a medieval settlement called Albanon or Arbanon, although it is not certain that this was the same place. In his history written in the 10th century, the Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates was the first to refer to Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople in 1043 and to the Arbanitai as subjects of the Duke of Dyrrachium. During the Middle Ages, the Albanians called their country Arbëri or Arbëni and referred to themselves as Arbëreshë or Arbëneshë. Nowadays, Albanians call their country Shqipëria; as early as the 17th century the placename Shqipëria and the ethnic demonym Shqiptarë replaced Arbëria and Arbëresh. The two terms are popularly interpreted as "Land of the Eagles" and "Children of the Eagles"; the first traces of human presence in Albania, dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic eras, were found in the village of Xarrë close to Sarandë and Dajti near Tiranë. The objects found in a cave near Xarrë include flint and jasper objects and fossilized animal bones, while those found at Mount Dajt comprise bone and stone tools similar to those of the Aurignacian culture.
The Paleolithic finds of Albania show great similarities with objects of the same era found at Crvena Stijena in Montenegro and north-western Greece. Several Bronze Age artefacts from tumulus burials have been unearthed in central and southern Albania that show close connection with sites in south-western Macedonia and Lefkada, Greece. Archaeologists have come to the conclusion that these regions were inhabited from the middle of the third millennium BC by Indo-European people who spoke a Proto-Greek language. A part of this population moved to Mycenae around 1600 BC and founded the Mycenaean civilisation there. In ancient times, the territory of modern Albania was inhabited by a number of Illyrian tribes; the Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as'Illyrians', it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves. The name Illyrians seems to be the name applied to a specific Illyrian tribe, the first to come in contact with the ancient Greeks during the Bronze Age, causing the name Illyrians to be applied pars pro toto to all people of similar language and customs.
The territory known as Illyria corresponded to the area east of the Adriatic sea, extending in the south to the mouth of the Vjosë river. The first accou
Shkodër or Shkodra known as Scutari or Scodra, is a city in the Republic of Albania. It is the capital of the surrounding county of Shkodër, one of 12 constituent counties of the republic; the city is one of the most ancient cities in the Balkans and the fourth most populous city in the country and exerts strong influences in culture, religion and entertainment of northern Albania. Geographically, the city of Shkodër sprawls across the Mbishkodra plain between the freshwater marshlands of Lake Shkodër and the foothills of the Albanian Alps. Like most of the Dinaric Alps, the mountains are dominated by dolomite rocks; the lake, named after the city of Shkodër, is the largest lake in Southern Europe close to the Adriatic Sea. The city is trapped on three sides by the rivers Kir in the east, Drin in the south and Buna in the west; the region that today corresponds to the city territory was founded in the 4th century BC by the ancient Illyrian tribes of the Ardiaei and Labeates. It is evidenced by the inscriptions that were discovered in the Rozafa Castle.
During that time the city was known under the name Scodra. The city has developed on a 130 metres hill, strategically located in the outflow of Lake Shkodër into the Buna; the Romans annexed the city after the third Illyrian War in 168 BC, when Gentius was defeated by the Roman force of Anicius Gallus. In the 3rd century AD, Shkodër became the capital of Praevalitana due to the administrative reform of the Roman emperor Diocletian. With the spread of Christianity in the 4th century, the Archdiocese of Scodra was founded and was assumed in 535 by Byzantine Justinian I. During many different epochs it has retained its status as a major city in the wider region, due to its strategic position close to the Adriatic Sea and the Italian port cities, but with land-routes to other important cities and towns in neighbouring regions; the etymology of the term Shkodër is a subject. The name was first attested in antiquity in the Latin form Scodra, the Ancient Greek Σκόδρα and the Ancient Greek genitive Σκοδρινῶν, discovered on coins from the 2nd century BC.
Although the ultimate origin of the term is uncertain. The further development of the name has been a subject of discussion among linguists over the linguistic provenance of the Albanian people and the Albanian language. While Eqrem Çabej and Shaban Demiraj treat the development from Skodra to modern Shkodra as evidence of regular development within the Albanian language, Matzinger argues that it fails to display certain known phonological changes that would have to have happened if the name had been continually in use in proto-Albanian since pre-Roman times. In modern times, the term was adapted to Italian as Scutari. In Serbo-Croatian, Shkodër is known as Skadar, in Turkish as İşkodra. Shkodër is the largest city in northern Albania, lying near latitude 42° 4' N, longitude 19 ° 31' E. Geologically, Shkodër extends strategically on the Mbishkodra Plain between the marshlands of Lake Shkodër and the foothills of the Albanian Alps, the southernmost continuation of the Dinaric Alps; the northeast is dominated by Mount Maranaj standing at 1,576 metres above the Adriatic.
Hydrologically, the city is trapped on three sides by the rivers Kir in the east, Drin in the south and Buna in the west. Rising From Lake Shkodër, Buna flows into the Adriatic Sea; the river joins the Drin for 2 kilometres southwest of the city. In the east, Shkodër is bordered by Kir, which originates from the north flowing into the Drin, that surrounds Shkodër in the south; the location of Shkodër has been of great strategic importance in its history. It has helped the city to its wealth in its history or made it the subject of conflicts between foreign powers. Lake Shkodër forms the frontier of Albania and Montenegro; the lake became the symbol of the consistent economic and social divide of the city. Although, the lake is the largest lake in Southern Europe and an important habitat for various animal and plant species. Further, the Albanian section has been designated as a Nature Reserve. In 1996, it has been recognised as a wetland of international importance by designation under the Ramsar Convention.
River Buna connects the lake with the Adriatic Sea, while the Drin provides a link with Lake Ohrid in the southeast of Albania. It is a cryptodepression, filled by the river Morača and drained into the Adriatic by the 41 km long Buna. According to the Köppen climate classification, Shkodër experiences mediterranean climate, wet enough in July to be a humid subtropical climate, with continental influences; the average yearly temperature varies from 14.5 °C to 16.8 °C. Although, mean monthly temperature ranges between 1.4 °C to 9.8 °C in January and 19.3 °C to 32.4 °C in August. The average yearly precipitation is about 1,700 millimetres, which makes the area one of the wettest in Europe; the earliest signs of human activity in the lands of Shkodër can be traced back to the Bronze Age. The favorable conditions on the fertile plain, around the lake, have brought people here from early antiquity. Artefacts and inscriptions, discovered in the Rozafa Castle, are assumed to be the earliest examples of symbolic behaviour in humans in the city.
Although, it was known under the name Scodra and was inhabited by the Illyrian tribe of the Ardiaei, which ruled over a large territory between modern Albania up to Croatia. Queen Teuta, King Agron, King Gentius, were among the mos
Dhimitër Shuteriqi was an Albanian scholar, literary historian, writer. Dhimitër S. Shuteriqi was born in Elbasan in a intellectual family, his father was Simon Shuteriqi, participant in the Literary Congress of Monastir and Congress of Elbasan, as well as one of the founders of the Shkolla Normale e Elbasanit. Shuteriqi attended the secondary school in Korça, he studied at the University of Grenoble and Lyon in France and taught school in Elbasan in 1942–1943. Shuteriqi began writing in the 1930s and was to become an influential literary historian during the socialist period, he was a member of parliament for many years, president of the Albanian League of Writers and Artists from 1950 to 1973, a member of the Academy of Sciences from 1973. As chairman of the ALWA, he participated in the Albanian Congress of Orthography of 1972 and was one of the signatories. Dhimitër Shuteriqi is remembered for his research in the fields of literature and folklore, in particular for his standard histories and anthologies of Albanian literature.
Among his many works are Shkrimet shqipe në vitet 1332–1850, Tirana 1976, Autorë dhe tekste, Tirana 1977, Historia e letërsisë shqiptare, Tirana 1983. Shuteriqi was author of prose and poetry, his first poetry was named Kosova and was published in the Kosova newspaper of Albanian community of Constanța, Romania, in 1933. He was inspired by Romanticism until 1943 when he switched to Realism, Socialist Realism, his two-volume Çlirimtarët, Tirana 1952 and 1955, the first post-World War II Albanian novel, painted a picture not only of the squalor and sufferings of the peasants before the "liberation" but of the rise of class consciousness among them. It helped set the rather sluggish pace of socialist realism in the 1950s. Kangët e rinisë së parë, Tirana, 1935 Historia e letërsisë shqipe në tre vëllime, Tirana, 1959, OCLC 504188502 Metrika shqipe për shkollat e mesme dhe të nalta, Prishtina, 1968, OCLC 504188538 The lute and the rifle, Tirana, 1965, OCLC 29799716 Mbi krahn' e praruar të paqës. Poem dhe vjersha të tjera, Tirana, 1950, OCLC 504188548 Récits, Tirana, 1969, OCLC 25242468 Antologjia e letërsisë shqipe për shkollat e mesme, Tirana, 1955, OCLC 792785485, Prishtina, 1970, OCLC 42419307 Shkrimet shqipe në vitet 1332–1850, Tirana, 1976, OCLC 4167459 Mësuesit dhe Atit: Poezi dhe prozë shqipe kushtuar emrit të J.
V. Stalinit, Tirana, 1953, OCLC 468906251 Vepra, as editor, author: Andon Zako, Tirana, 1957, OCLC 557917931 Sytë e Simonidës: pluhurat e shenjtëruar, Tirana, 1998, OCLC 41002334 Tekstet shqipe dhe shkrimi i shqipes në vitet 879–1800, Tirana, 2005, ISBN 9789994381708 Këngë në minierë: tregime dhe përshkrime, Tirana, 1968, OCLC 23925590 Naim Frashëri, jeta dhe vepra, Tirana, 1982, OCLC 23767244 Aranitët, Tirana, 2011, ISBN 9789994317295 Marin Beçikemi dhe shkrime të tjera, Tirana, 1987, OCLC 28931320 Le Chant et le fusil. Tirana, 1963, OCLC 32411583 Maratonomaku ynë: tregime, Tirana, 1977, OCLC 18981763 Çlirimtarët, Tirana, 1952, 1955 Ura në Tepelenë, Prishtina, 1979, OCLC 17274535 Autorë dhe tekste, Tirana, 1977, OCLC 15286239 Deshmi parabuzukjane të fjalës shqipe, Tirana, 2010, ISBN 978-99956-10-39-5 Këngë, Tirana, 1961, OCLC 36250360 Petro Korçari, kryearkitekt i Ali Pashë Tepelenës, Tirana, 1978, OCLC 18107084 Shpati i Sipërm: gjurmime rreth kulturës popullore, Tirana, 1987, OCLC 18588537 Gjurmime letrare, Tirana, 1974, OCLC 54162415 Vërshimet e vjeshtës, Tirana, 1984, OCLC 18225289 Nga kënga e popullit, Tirana, 1991, OCLC 40498914 Buka dhe thika: tregime të zgjedhura, Tirana, 2002, ISBN 9789992750094 Si atë ditën e parë: poezi, Tirana, 1984, OCLC 18224377 Rruga e Rinise, Tirana, 1953, OCLC 43138928 Nëpër shekujt letrarë: studime, Tirana, 1973, OCLC 24372993 Moti i madh: përmbledhje shënimesh e dokumentesh për historinë shqiptare të viteve 1379–1479, Tirana, 2006, ISBN 9789992759967 Poezia shqipe: nga origjinat e gjer më sot, Tirana, 1965, OCLC 43143845 Një mal me këngë, Tirana, 1975, OCLC 5733202'Kënga dhe pushka: tregime, Tirana, 1963, OCLC 28785438 Te qafa e botës: tregime, Tirana, 1986, OCLC 17769145 Gurnecka: tregime, Tirana, 1957, OCLC 660244021 Fyelli i Marsiasit, dhe tregime të tjera, Tirana, 1953, OCLC 80732707 Kur rendte hëna nëpër re: tregime, Tirana, 1982, OCLC 15703308
The Mat is a river in north-central Albania. Its overall length is 115 km, while its catchment surface is 2,441 km2, its average discharge is 103 m3/s. The main tributary is Fan, flowing from the northeast, while the Mat flows from the southwest down to the confluence with Fan and towards the Adriatic Sea. Mat originates from the confluence of several streams within the karstic mountains in Martanesh, where it forms deep gorges and canyons. Rising in Martanesh, the Mat heads westwards to the municipality of Mat and northwest through the towns of Klos and Burrel. About 10 km downstream from Burrel, it flows into a large reservoir. After passing through a hydroelectric dam, it flows through another, smaller reservoir and forms a narrow gorge through the mountain range that separates Mat District from the coastal plains, it enters the plains between Zejmen. After a total length of 115 km, the Mat flows into the Adriatic Sea near Fushë-Kuqe, between the towns of Lezhë and Laç. Geography of Albania Central Mountain Range Rivers of Albania