In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. In the US, the German Gymnasium curriculum was used at a number of universities such as the University of Michigan as a model for their undergraduate college programs. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual education of young men, in the Polish educational system the gimnazjum is a middle school for pupils aged 13 to 16. The same applies in the Greek educational system, with the option of Εσπερινό Γυμνάσιο for adults. The gymnasium is a school which prepares the student for higher education at a university. They are thus meant for the more academically minded students, who are sifted out at about the age of 10–13, in addition to the usual curriculum, students of a gymnasium often study Latin and Ancient Greek. Some gymnasiums provide general education, others have a specific focus, today, a number of other areas of specialization exist, such as gymnasiums specializing in economics, technology or domestic sciences.
In some countries, there is a notion of progymnasium, which is equivalent to beginning classes of the full gymnasium, the prefix pro indicates that this curriculum precedes normal gymnasium studies. The term was derived from the classical Greek word gymnasion, which was applied to an exercising ground in ancient Athens. Here teachers gathered and gave instruction between the hours devoted to exercises and sports, and thus the term became associated with. This use of the term did not prevail among the Romans, but was revived during the Renaissance in Italy, in 1538, Johannes Sturm founded at Strasbourg the school which became the model of the modern German gymnasium. In 1812, a Prussian regulation ordered that all schools which had the right to send their students to the university should bear the name of gymnasia, by the 20th century, this practice was followed in almost the entire Austrian-Hungarian and Russian Empires. In the modern era, many countries which have gymnasiums were once part of three empires.
In Albania a gymnasium education takes three years following a compulsory nine-year elementary education and ending with an aptitude test called Matura Shtetërore. The final test is standardized at the level and serves as an entrance qualification for universities. There are both public and private schools in these countries. Therefore, gymnasiums often base their admittance criteria on an entrance exam, in Austria the Gymnasium has two stages, from the age of 11 to 14, and from 15 to 18, concluding with Matura. The Humanistisches Gymnasium focuses on Ancient Greek and Latin, the Neusprachliches Gymnasium puts its focus on actively spoken languages
A collegiate institute is a school either of secondary education or higher education. The definition varies regionally, and has been largely unused outside of Canada since the early 20th century, in Canada, collegiate institute has a specific meaning. In 1871, the province of Ontario set up two parallel secondary education systems, at this time Galt Collegiate Institute was the first, and one of only six schools in Ontario to have the name and privileges of being called a Collegiate Institute. Collegiate institutes offered arts and humanities education, including Greek and Latin, high schools offered vocational and science programs for those planning to enter the workforce upon graduation. This system was adopted by other provinces including Manitoba, Alberta. It was quite quickly realized that this division did not work very well, over time, high schools responded to students needs and increasingly offered the arts courses that were essential for the workforce. At the same time, as universities began teaching science and engineering, within a decade, the distinctions between the two systems were greatly blurred, and eventually the two systems were merged in to a single secondary school system.
Most new Ontario schools were on named either high schools or secondary schools. In most cities, the oldest and most established high schools are known as collegiate institutes. Most cities in Ontario have a collegiate institute near the centre, in some cases, a more academic focus has been retained, and collegiate institutes are thus sometimes regarded as better than standard high schools. In the case of Marc Garneau Collegiate Institute, Macleans magazine ranked it as the top school in Canada due to its TOPS Program. Almost every high school in the city of Toronto is a collegiate institute, contrasting the city, secondary schools in suburban Greater Toronto use a variety of titles. In western Canada, far fewer schools are known as collegiate institutes, outside of Saskatoon, some remain such as Lethbridge Collegiate Institute in Lethbridge and Mennonite Brethren Collegiate Institute in Winnipeg, Manitoba. In the United States, the term has fallen into disuse. Collegiate institutes in the United States were, for the most part, but the definition of a college in the U. S. differs from that of other countries, and has been primarily based on the liberal arts college model of higher education
Winkfield is a village and civil parish in the Bracknell Forest unitary authority of Berkshire, England. According to the 2011 census, the parish had a population of 14,998, the parish used to be slightly larger – additionally covering what is now Bullbrook, Crown Wood and Harmans Water – and is said to have been one of the largest in England. Winkfields New Lodge was the home of HRH Princess Sophia of Gloucester, between March 1942 and the end of World War II in June 1945 Foliejon Park in Winkfield was the residence of Haakon VII of Norway and his son, Crown Prince Olav. At the west end of the stands the Church of England church of St Marys. In the early 1960s, the United Kingdom aided a Canadian satellite mission Alouette 1 by providing the use of a station at Winkfield. Winkfield has a King Georges Field in memorial to King George V. Winkfield Row has an independent preparatory school called Lambrook. Media related to Winkfield at Wikimedia Commons
Westminster Cathedral, or the Metropolitan Cathedral of the Precious Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ, in London is the mother church of the Catholic Church in England and Wales. The site on which the stands in the City of Westminster was purchased by the Diocese of Westminster in 1885. Westminster Cathedral is the largest Catholic church in England and Wales, the land was acquired in 1884 by Wisemans successor, Cardinal Manning, having previously been occupied by the second Tothill Fields Bridewell prison. The cathedral opened in 1903, a year after Bentleys death, one of the first public services in the cathedral was Cardinal Vaughans requiem, the cardinal died on 19 June 1903. For reasons of economy, the decoration of the interior had hardly been started, under the laws of the Catholic Church at the time, no place of worship could be consecrated unless free from debt and having its fabric completed. The consecration ceremony took place on 28 June 1910, although the interior was never finished, in 1977, as part of her Silver Jubilee celebrations, Queen Elizabeth II visited the cathedral.
Although there was no religious service it was symbolic as the first visit of a reigning monarch of the United Kingdom to a Catholic church in the nation since the Reformation. On 28 May 1982, the first day of his pastoral visit to the United Kingdom. On 18 September 2010, on the day of his four-day state visit to the United Kingdom. In January 2011 the cathedral was the venue for the reception and ordination of three former Anglican bishops into the newly formed Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham, unlike in a Gothic cathedral, at Westminster they are limited to the interior. The main piers and transverse arches that support the domes divide the nave into three bays, each about 395 square metres, the domes rest on the arches at a height of 27 metres from the floor, the total internal height being 34 metres. In selecting the type of dome, of shallow concavity, for the main roofing, weight. The domes and pendentures are formed of concrete, and as extraneous roofs of timber were dispensed with, the concrete flat roofing around the domes is covered with asphalt.
The sanctuary is essentially Byzantine in its system of construction, the extensions that open out on all sides make the corona of the dome seem independent of support. The eastern termination of the cathedral suggests the Romanesque, or Lombardic style of Northern Italy, the large buttresses resist the pressure of a vault 14. 5-metre in span. Although the cruciform plan is not very noticeable inside the building and these with their twin gables, slated roofs, and square turrets with pyramidal stone cappings suggest a Norman prototype in striking contrast to the rest of the design. The main structural parts of the building are of brick and concrete, following Byzantine tradition, the interior was designed with a view to the application of marble and mosaic. Throughout the exterior, the introduction of white stone bands in connection with the red brickwork produces an impression quite foreign to the British eye
A secondary school is both an organization that delivers level 2 junior secondary education or level 3 secondary education phases of the ISCED scale, and the building where this takes place. Level 2 junior secondary education is considered to be the second, Secondary schools typically follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages 11 and 16, the systems and terminology remain unique to each country. School building design does not happen in isolation, schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration. The number of rooms required can be determined from the roll of the school. A general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55m2, or more generously 62m2, a general art room for 30 students needs to be 83m2, but 104 m2 for 3D textile work. A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m2, examples are given on how this can be configured for a 1,200 place secondary.
The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of, The students, the teachers, the support staff, the adminstrators. It has to should meet health requirements, minimal functional requirements- such as classrooms and showers, textbooks, Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools. These enable environmental modelling and establish building costs. Future plans are audited to ensure that standards are not exceeded. The UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014 and it said the floor area should be 1050m² +6. 3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m², a secondary school, locally may be called high school, junior high school, senior high school. Sweden, gymnasium Switzerland, secondary school, collège or lycée Taiwan, Junior High School, Senior High School, Vocational High School, Military School, in Nigeria, secondary school starts from JSS1 until SSS3.
Most students start at the age of 10 or 11 and finish at 16 or 17, Students are required to sit for the West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination. To progress to university students must obtain at least a credit in Maths, English, in Somalia, secondary school starts from 9th grade until 12th. Students start it when they are around 14 to 15 years of age, Students are required to study Somali and Arabic, with the option of either English or Italian depending on the type of school. Religion, physics, physical education, art, when secondary school has been completed, students are sent to national training camp before going to either college, or military training. In South Africa, high school begins at grade 8, Students study for five years, at the end of which they write a Matriculation examination
Higher education, post-secondary education, or third level education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. Tertiary education at non-degree level is referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education. The right of access to education is mentioned in a number of international human rights instruments. In Europe, Article 2 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950, in the days when few pupils progressed beyond primary education, the term higher education was often used to refer to secondary education, which can create some confusion. Higher education includes teaching, exacting applied work, within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level, and beyond that, graduate-level. The latter level of education is referred to as graduate school. Higher education is important to national economies, both as an industry, in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy.
College educated workers have commanded a measurable wage premium and are less likely to become unemployed than less educated workers. However, the admission of so many students of average ability to higher education inevitably requires a decline in academic standards. There is some question as to whether advanced mathematical skills or talent are in fact necessary for such as history, philosophy. In contrast, the higher education and training that takes place at vocational universities and schools usually concentrates on practical applications. Requirements for admission to such high-level graduate programs is extremely competitive, in the United States, there are large differences in wages and employment associated with different degrees. Medical doctors and lawyers are generally the highest paid workers, and have among the lowest unemployment rates and it may encompass using insights to conceive and scale an appropriate solution to a problem or objective. Engineering disciplines include, biological, chemical, electrical, examples are painting and drawing, etc.
Higher educational institutions in these arts include Film schools and Art schools, Higher vocational education and training takes place at the non-university tertiary level. Such education combines teaching of practical skills and theoretical expertise. Higher education differs from other forms of education such as that offered by institutions of vocational education. Higher vocational education might be contrasted with education in a broader scientific field
They may be privately operated or government run, and one option is to subsidize the costs. In 1779, Johann Friedrich Oberlin and Louise Scheppler founded in Strassbourg an early establishment for caring for, at about the same time, in 1780, similar infant establishments were established in Bavaria In 1802, Pauline zur Lippe established a preschool center in Detmold. In 1816, Robert Owen, a philosopher and pedagogue, opened the first British and probably globally the first infant school in New Lanark, Scotland. In conjunction with his venture for cooperative mills Owen wanted the children to be given a moral education so that they would be fit for work. His system was successful in producing obedient children with basic literacy and numeracy, samuel Wilderspin opened his first infant school in London in 1819, and went on to establish hundreds more. He published many works on the subject, and his became the model for infant schools throughout England. Play was an important part of Wilderspins system of education and he is credited with inventing the playground.
In 1823, Wilderspin published On the Importance of Educating the Infant Poor and he began working for the Infant School Society the next year, informing others about his views. He wrote The Infant System, for developing the physical, intellectual, in 1836 she established an institute for the foundation of preschool centers. The idea became popular among the nobility and the class and was copied throughout the Hungarian kingdom. Women trained by Fröbel opened Kindergartens throughout Europe and around the World, the first kindergarten in the United States was founded in Watertown, Wisconsin in 1856 and was conducted in German. Louis in 1873 by Susan Blow, the countrys first public-school kindergartens were established in Berlin, Ontario in 1882 at Central School. In 1885, the Toronto Normal School opened a department for Kindergarten teaching, Head Start was the first publicly funded preschool program in the US, created in 1965 by President Johnson for low-income families—only 10% of children were enrolled in preschool.
Due to large demand, various states subsidized preschool for low-income families in the 1980s, the most important years of learning begin at birth. During these early years, humans are capable of absorbing more information than on, the brain grows most rapidly in the early years. High quality teachers and preschools can have an effect on improving outcomes for disadvantaged students. The areas of development that preschool education covers varies, the following main themes are typically offered. Curriculum is designed for differing ages, for example, counting to 10 is generally after the age of four
In the case of secondary education, these schools differ from academic high schools which usually prepare students who aim to pursue tertiary education, rather than enter directly into the workforce. Vocational schools were called technical colleges in Australia, and there were more than 20 schools specializing in vocational educational training, only four technical colleges remain, and these are now referred to as trade colleges. At these colleges, students complete a modified year 12 certificate, in Queensland, students can undertake VET at private and public high schools instead of studying for their overall position, which is a tertiary entrance score. However these students usually undertake more limited vocational education of one day per week whereas in the colleges the training is longer. Vocational schools are called colleges in Canada. However, a college may refer to an institution that offers part of a university degree, in Ontario, secondary schools were separated into three streams, technical schools, commercial or business schools, and collegiates.
In Ontario, the Ministry of Training and Universities have divided postsecondary education into universities, community colleges, in the Province of Quebec, there are some vocational programs offered at institutions called CEGEPs, but these too may function as an introduction to university. Generally, students complete two years at a CEGEP directly out of school, and complete three years at a university, to earn an undergraduate degree. In Central and Eastern Europe, an education is represented in forms of vocational technical schools often abbreviated as PTU. Vocational school Vocational school or Vocational college is considered a post-secondary education type school, in Ukraine, the term is used mostly for sports schools sometimes interchangeably with the term college. Such college could be an entity or a branch of bigger university. Successful graduates receive a specialist degree and it could be compared to a trade high school. In the 1920-30s, such PTUs were called schools of factory and plant apprenticeship, sometime after 1959, the name PTU was established, with the reorganization of the Soviet educational system these vocational schools renamed into lyceums.
There were several types of PTUs such as middle city PTU, technicum Technical college is becoming an obsolete term for a college in different parts of Central and Eastern Europe. Technicums provided a level of vocational education. Aside of technicums and PTU there were vocational schools provided a middle level of vocational education. In 1920-30s Ukraine, technicums were a vocational institutes, Institute Institutes were considered a higher level of education, unlike universities, they were more oriented to a particular trade. With the reorganization of the Soviet education system, most institutes have been renamed as technical universities, the Finnish system is divided between vocational and academic paths
Winchester College is an independent boarding school for boys in the British public school tradition, situated in Winchester, Hampshire. It has existed in its present location for over 600 years and it is the oldest of the original seven English public schools defined by the Clarendon Commission and regulated by the Public Schools Act 1868. It is sometimes referred to by pupils, former pupils and others as Win, the upper-class lifestyle magazine Tatler named the school as its Public School of the Year in 2010. Winchester College was founded in 1382 by William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and it was founded in conjunction with New College, for which it was designed to act as a feeder, the buildings of both colleges were designed by master mason William Wynford. In addition to the 70 scholars and 16 Quiristers, the provided for ten noble Commoners. These Commoners were paying guests of the Headmaster or Second Master in his apartments in College. In the 1860s New Commoners was closed and converted to classrooms, at the same time two more houses were acquired and added to the Houses category, a tenth was acquired in 1905 and allotted to Commoners.
There are therefore now ten houses in addition to College, which continues to occupy the original 14th-century buildings, from the late 1970s there has been a continual process of extension to and upgrading of College Chambers. The Scholars live in the buildings, known as College. College is not usually referred to as a house, hence the terms housemaster of College and College house are not generally used, the housemaster of College is now known as the Master in College, though these duties formerly belonged to the Second Master. Within the school, College refers only to the body of scholars, Winchester College, every pupil at Winchester, apart from the Scholars, lives in a boarding house, chosen or allocated when applying to Winchester. It is here that he studies and sleeps, each house is presided over by a housemaster and a number of house tutors. Houses compete in competitions, mostly in sporting competitions. Each house has a name, usually based on the family name of the first housemaster.
Each house has a name, which is more frequently used in speech. Each house has a letter assigned to it, in the order of their founding, to act as an abbreviation, especially on laundry tags. A member of a house is described by the name of the house with -ite suffixed, as a Furleyite, a Toyeite. The houses have been ordered by their year of founding, College does not have an informal name, although the abbreviation Coll is sometimes used, especially on written work
Public school (United Kingdom)
A public school in England and Wales is an older, student selective and expensive fee-paying independent secondary school which caters primarily for children aged between 11 or 13 and 18. The term public should not be misunderstood to mean that these are public sector schools, public schools were all-male boarding schools, although most now allow day pupils, and many have become either partially or fully co-educational. The origins of schools in the UK were primarily religious until 1640 and it was intended that by-products of this would be the publication of universal books and the setting up of schools for boys and girls. Henceforth each of these schools was to be managed by a board of governors, Public schools have had a strong association with the ruling classes. Historically they educated the sons of the English upper and upper-middle classes, the sons of officers and senior administrators of the British Empire were educated in England while their parents were on overseas postings. In 2010, over half of Cabinet Ministers had been educated at public schools, in 2014, annual fees at Canford School and Eton College were more than £33,000 for boarders.
The name dates back to the time when schools founded for local children went public and it is used to describe the some 230 girls senior schools belonging to the Girls Schools Association. Until the late medieval period most schools were controlled by the church and had specific entrance criteria, others were restricted to the sons of members of guilds, trades or livery companies. The need for professional trades in an increasingly secularised society required schools for the sons of the gentry that were independent from ecclesiastical authority, from the 16th century onward, boys boarding schools were founded or endowed for public use. Traditionally, most of public schools were all boys and full boarding. Separate preparatory schools for younger boys developed from the 1830s, with entry to the schools becoming limited to boys of at least 12 or 13 years old. The first of these was Windlesham House School, established with support from Thomas Arnold, many of the schools, including Rugby School, Harrow School and the Perse School fell into decline during the 18th century and nearly closed in the early 19th century.
Protests in the local newspaper forced governors of the Perse School to keep it open, a Royal Commission, the Clarendon Commission, investigated nine of the more established schools, including seven boarding schools and two day schools. St Pauls School and the Merchant Taylors School claimed successfully that their constitutions made them private schools, in 1887 the Divisional Court and the Court of Appeal determined that the City of London School was a public school. In the first year only 12 headmasters attended, but in the following year 34 did, the Headmasters Conference has since grown steadily to over 200 schools. The Public Schools Yearbook was published for the first time in 1889, listing 30 schools, mostly boarding schools except for St Pauls School, some academically successful grammar schools were added in editions. The 1902 edition included all schools whose principals qualified for membership of the Headmasters Conference, the Fleming Report defined a public school as a member of the Governing Bodies Association or the Headmasters Conference.
Based on the recommendations of this report, the Education Act 1944 offered a new status to endowed grammar schools receiving a grant from central government