Anglican Diocese of Sydney
The Diocese of Sydney is a diocese within the Province of New South Wales of the Anglican Church of Australia. The majority of the diocese is evangelical and low church in tradition, the diocese goes as far as Lithgow in the west and the Hawkesbury River in the north, and it includes much of the New South Wales south coast. It encompasses Australias largest city as well as the city of Wollongong and it is, among the larger Anglican dioceses in the world, though the smallest diocese in the state of New South Wales and one of the smaller dioceses in Australia. At a synod on 6 August 2013, Glenn Davies, an assistant bishop of the diocese, was elected to be the next Archbishop of Sydney and he was installed as archbishop on 23 August. The Anglican ministry has been present in Sydney since its foundation in 1788, an Evangelical cleric, Richard Johnson, was the first chaplain to the new colony of New South Wales and was sponsored by the London Missionary Society. Other chaplains, notably Samuel Marsden and William Cowper, were sent and their positions were unusual as their stipends were paid partly by the colonial government and some received large grants of land from the governor of the colony.
The early chaplains were under the authority of the governor, as per their commissions, in 1825 Thomas Hobbes Scott the former secretary to J. T. The archdeaconry was created as a corporation sole, in his position as archdeacon, Scott was a member of the Legislative Council and had almost complete control of all church matters. The Colonial Office appointed him Kings Visitor to schools and so he became responsible for education throughout the colony. His educational policy was guided by the principle that the church and education were inseparably connected, Scott retired in 1829 and was succeeded by William Grant Broughton. William Grant Broughton succeeded Scott in 1828, the Diocese of Australia was formed by letters patent dated 18 January 1836 and Broughton was enthroned as Bishop of Australia on 5 June 1836. He lost the ex officio position on the Legislative Council and he continued an education policy and established The Kings School, Sydney. The Diocese of Tasmania separated from the Diocese of Australia in 1842, by letters patent of 25 June 1847, the Diocese of Australia was divided into the four separate dioceses of Sydney, Adelaide and Melbourne.
Broughton remained as Bishop of Sydney, he became metropolitan bishop, the Diocese of Sydney has been led by an archbishop since 1897. The diocese initially relied upon priests and bishops who were trained in and had migrated from England and Ireland, Broughton had attempted to found a theological college but it closed in 1849. In 1856, Moore Theological College opened, the theological college for Sydney Anglicans. Since that time it has grown in size and stature, in 2006 it had in excess of 450 students, many of whom end up in ministry outside the ecclesiastical and geographical boundaries of the Sydney diocese. Out of this came the Anglican Church League, a body of Evangelicals who worked in the politics of the diocese to further the Evangelical cause, all bishops and most senior officeholders in the diocese are members of the Anglican Church League
In the Christian churches, Holy Orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest or deacon. Except for Lutherans and some Anglicans, these churches regard ordination as a sacrament, the Anglo-Catholic tradition within Anglicanism identifies more with the Roman Catholic position about the sacramental nature of ordination. Denominations have varied conceptions of Holy Orders, in the Anglican churches and some Lutheran churches the traditional orders of bishop and deacon are bestowed using ordination rites. The extent to which ordination is considered sacramental in these traditions has, many other denominations do not consider ministry as being sacramental in nature and would not think of it in terms of holy orders as such. Historically, the word order designated a civil body or corporation with a hierarchy. The word holy refers to the Church, in context, therefore, a holy order is set apart for ministry in the Church. The Eastern Orthodox Church considers ordination to be a Sacred Mystery, although all other mysteries may be performed by a presbyter, ordination may only be conferred by a bishop, and ordination of a bishop may only be performed by several bishops together.
Cheirotonia always takes place during the Divine Liturgy and it was the mission of the Apostles to go forth into all the world and preach the Gospel, baptizing those who believed in the name of the Holy Trinity. In the Early Church those who presided over congregations were referred to variously as episcopos or presbyteros and this link is believed to continue in unbroken succession to this day. Over time, the ministry of bishops and presbyters or priests came to be distinguished, in Orthodox terminology, priesthood or sacerdotal refers to the ministry of bishops and priests. A bishop is the Teacher of the Faith, the carrier of Sacred Tradition, a bishop is consecrated through the laying on of hands by several bishops. The consecration of a bishop takes place near the beginning of the Liturgy, since a bishop can, in addition to performing the Mystery of the Eucharist, ordain priests and deacons. Customarily, the consecrated bishop ordains a priest and a deacon at the Liturgy during which he is consecrated. A priest may serve only at the pleasure of his bishop, a bishop bestows faculties giving a priest chrism and an antimins, he may withdraw faculties and demand the return of these items.
After the Aër is taken from the candidate to cover the chalice and diskos, the candidate is taken to the southeast corner of the Holy Table and kneels on both knees, resting his forehead on the edge of the Holy Table. Afterwards, the bishop brings the newly ordained priest to stand in the Holy Doors and he clothes the priest in each of his sacerdotal vestments, at each of which the people sing, Worthy. A deacon may not perform any Sacrament and performs no liturgical services on his own but serves only as an assistant to a priest and may not even vest without the blessing of a priest. After being vested as a deacon and given a liturgical fan, the Anglican churches hold their bishops to be in apostolic succession, although there is some difference of opinion with regard to whether ordination is to be regarded as a sacrament
United Methodist Church
The United Methodist Church is a mainline Protestant denomination, and a major part of Methodism. In the 19th century, its main predecessor—the Methodist Church—was a leader in Evangelicalism and it was founded in 1968 in Dallas, United States, by union of the Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church. The UMC traces its roots back to the movement of John. As such, the theological orientation is decidedly Wesleyan. It embraces both liturgical and evangelical elements and it has a connectional polity, a typical feature of a number of Methodist denominations. The United Methodist Church, with at least 12 million members as of 2014, is the largest denomination within the wider Methodist movement of approximately 80 million people across the world. In the United States, the UMC ranks as the largest mainline Protestant denomination, the largest Protestant church after the Southern Baptist Convention, and the third largest Christian denomination. In 2014, its membership was distributed as follows,7.2 million in the United States.
It is a member of the World Council of Churches, the World Methodist Council, the movement which would become The United Methodist Church began in the mid-18th century within the Church of England. A small group of students, including John Wesley, Charles Wesley and George Whitefield and they focused on Bible study, methodical study of scripture and living a holy life. Other students mocked them, saying they were the Holy Club, the so-called Methodists started individual societies or classes for members of the Church of England who wanted to live a more religious life. In 1735, John and Charles Wesley went to America, hoping to teach the gospel to the American Indians in the colony of Georgia, John became vicar of the church in Savannah. His preaching was very legalistic and full of rules. After two years in America, he returned to England dejected and confused, Peter believed a person is saved solely through the grace of God and not by works, and John had many conversations with Peter about this topic.
On May 25,1738, after listening to a reading of Martin Luthers preface to Romans, John finally understood that his works could not save him. For the first time in his life, he felt complete peace, in less than two years, the Holy Club disbanded. John Wesley met with a group of clergy, the ministers retained their membership in the Church of England. Though not always emphasized or appreciated in the Anglican churches of their day, their teaching emphasized salvation by Gods grace, three teachings they saw as the foundation of Christian faith were, People are all by nature dead in sin and consequently, children of wrath
Jerome was a priest, confessor and historian. He was the son of Eusebius, born at Stridon, a village near Emona on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia and he is best known for his translation of most of the Bible into Latin, and his commentaries on the Gospels. His list of writings is extensive, the protégé of Pope Damasus I, who died in December of 384, Jerome was known for his teachings on Christian moral life, especially to those living in cosmopolitan centers such as Rome. In many cases, he focused his attention to the lives of women and this focus stemmed from his close patron relationships with several prominent female ascetics who were members of affluent senatorial families. He is recognised as a Saint and Doctor of the Church by the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Lutheran Church, and his feast day is 30 September. Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus was born at Stridon around 347 A. D and he was of Illyrian ancestry and his native tongue was the Illyrian dialect.
He was not baptized until about 360–366 A. D. when he had gone to Rome with his friend Bonosus to pursue rhetorical and philosophical studies and he studied under the grammarian Aelius Donatus. There Jerome learned Latin and at least some Greek, though not the familiarity with Greek literature he would claim to have acquired as a schoolboy. As a student in Rome, he engaged in the superficial escapades and wanton behaviour of students there, to appease his conscience, he would visit on Sundays the sepulchres of the martyrs and the Apostles in the catacombs. Here and there the light, not entering in through windows, but again, as soon as you found yourself cautiously moving forward, the black night closed around and there came to my mind the line of Vergil, Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrent. Jerome used a quote from Virgil—On all sides round horror spread wide, although initially skeptical of Christianity, he was eventually converted. Next came a stay of at least several months, or possibly years, with Rufinus at Aquileia, some of these accompanied him when he set out about 373 on a journey through Thrace and Asia Minor into northern Syria.
At Antioch, where he stayed the longest, two of his companions died and he himself was seriously ill more than once, during one of these illnesses, he had a vision that led him to lay aside his secular studies and devote himself to God. Seized with a desire for a life of penance, he went for a time to the desert of Chalcis, to the southeast of Antioch, known as the Syrian Thebaid. During this period, he seems to have time for studying and writing. He made his first attempt to learn Hebrew under the guidance of a converted Jew, Jerome translated parts of this Hebrew Gospel into Greek. Returning to Antioch in 378 or 379, he was ordained by Bishop Paulinus, apparently unwillingly, soon afterward, he went to Constantinople to pursue a study of Scripture under Gregory Nazianzen. He seems to have spent two years there and the three he was in Rome again, as secretary to Pope Damasus I and the leading Roman Christians
Epistle to Titus
The Epistle of Paul to Titus, usually referred to simply as Titus, is one of the three Pastoral Epistles traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle and is part of the New Testament. It is addressed to Saint Titus and describes the requirements and duties of elders, some consider it, along with 2 Timothy, to be Pauls final instructions to early church leaders before his final departure. Not mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, Saint Titus was noted in Galatians where Paul wrote of journeying to Jerusalem with Barnabas and he was dispatched to Corinth, where he successfully reconciled the Christian community there with Paul, its founder. Titus was left on the island of Crete to help organize the Church, according to Eusebius of Caesarea in the Ecclesiastical History, he served as the first bishop of Crete and remained there in his old years. He was buried in Cortyna, his head was removed to Venice during the invasion of Crete by the Saracens in 832 and was enshrined in St Marks Basilica, Venice.
Scholars are not unanimous about the authenticity of the pastoral epistles, Titus is usually one of the three Pastoral epistles attributed to Paul. Titus has a close affinity with 1 Timothy, sharing similar phrases and expressions. The author of Titus identifies himself as Paul, a servant of God, according to Eastons Bible Dictionary, The Epistle was probably written about the same time as the First Epistle to Timothy, with which it has many affinities. Scholars who believe Paul wrote Titus date its composition from the circumstance that it was written after Pauls visit to Crete. That visit could not be the one referred to in the Acts of the Apostles 27,7, when Paul was on his voyage to Rome as a prisoner, and where he continued a prisoner for two years. Thus traditional exegesis supposes that after his release Paul sailed from Rome into Asia, passing Crete by the way, and that there he left Titus to set in order the things that were wanting. However, works written under a name would have been very problematic since the early church clearly excluded from the apostolic canon any works they thought to be pseudonymous.
Tertullian wrote that when it was discovered that a church elder had composed a work, The Acts of Paul. The Pastoral epistles are regarded by majority of scholars as being pseudepigraphical, on the basis of the language and content of the pastoral epistles, these scholars today doubt that they were written by Paul and believe that they were written after his death. The early Church did not agree and these scholars date the epistle from the 80s CE up to the end of the 2nd century. One of the peculiarities of the Epistle to Titus is the reference to the Epimenides paradox, One of the Cretans. The statement by a member of a group all members are liars is a famous logic problem. Textual variants in the Epistle to Titus Authorship of the Pauline epistles Faithful saying This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Easton
Deacon is a ministry in Christian Churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. In many traditions the diaconate, the term for an office, is a clerical office. The word deacon is derived from the Greek word diákonos, which is a standard ancient Greek word meaning servant, waiting-man, minister, or messenger. One commonly promulgated speculation as to its etymology is that it literally means through the dust, female deacons are mentioned by Pliny the Younger in a letter to the emperor Trajan dated c. The title deaconess is not found in the Bible, however, a woman, Phoebe, is mentioned at Romans 16, 1–2 as a deacon of the church in Cenchreae. Nothing more specific is said about her duties or authority, the exact relationship between male and female deacons varies. A biblical description of the qualities required of a deacon, and of his household, can be found in 1 Timothy 3, prominent historical figures who played major roles as deacons and went on to higher office include Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Thomas Becket and Reginald Pole.
On June 8, A. D.536 a serving Roman deacon was raised to Pope and his father, Pope Agapetus, had died and the office had been vacant for over a month. The title is used for the president, chairperson, or head of a trades guild in Scotland. The diaconate is one of the orders in the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox. The other major orders are those of bishop and presbyter, the diaconate continued in a vestigial form as a temporary, final step along the course toward ordination to priesthood. In Catholic and Anglican churches, deacons assist priests in their pastoral and administrative duties and they have a distinctive role in the liturgy of the Eastern and Western Churches. In the Eastern Church, deacons have a profound presence in the Divine Liturgy. In the Western Church, Pope St. Today, deacons are granted permission to preach, beginning around the fifth century, there was a gradual decline in the permanent diaconate in the Latin church. It has however remained a part of the Eastern Catholic Churches.
These men are known as permanent deacons in contrast to those continuing their formation, there is no sacramental or canonical difference between the two, however, as there is only one order of deacons. The permanent diaconate formation period in the Roman Catholic Church varies from diocese to diocese as it is determined by the local ordinary, although they are assigned to work in a parish by the diocesan bishop, once assigned, deacons are under the supervision of the parish pastor. Unlike most clerics, permanent deacons who have a profession have no right to receive a salary for their ministry
James, brother of Jesus
James, who died in martyrdom in 62 or 69 AD, was an important figure of the Apostolic Age. Other epithets used to refer to James include James the Just, or a variation of James, Roman Catholic tradition generally holds that this James is to be identified with James, son of Alphaeus, and James the Less. It is agreed by most that he should not be confused with James, according to Eusebius James was named a bishop of Jerusalem by the apostles, the brother of the Lord, to whom the episcopal seat at Jerusalem had been entrusted by the apostles. Ordained by the bishop of Jerusalem. And that James ruled the church of Jerusalem thirty years, James is a principal author of the Apostolic Decree of Acts 15, and the Epistle of James in the New Testament is traditionally attributed to him. Jerome believed that the brothers of the Lord were Jesus cousins, Jerome concluded that James the brother of the Lord, is therefore James, son of Alphaeus, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, and the son of Mary Cleophas.
James, the brother of Jesus was stoned to death by the Jews, with this testimony of Hippolytus there is good reason to assume that James the son of Alphaeus is the same person as James the brother of Jesus. These two works of Hippolytus are often neglected because the manuscripts were lost during most of the church age, as most scholars consider them spurious, they are often ascribed to Pseudo-Hippolytus. The two are included in an appendix to the works of Hippolytus in the collection of Early Church Fathers. According to the fragments of the work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord of the Apostolic Father Papias of Hierapolis. 70–163 AD, Cleophas and Alphaeus are the person, and Mary the wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus would be the mother of James the brother of Jesus, and of Simon and Judas. These four are found in the Gospel, thus James, the brother of the Lord would be the son of Alphaeus, who is the husband of Mary the wife of Cleophas or Mary the wife of Alphaeus. For the Anglican theologian J. B.
Lightfoot this fragment quoted above would be spurious, Jerome concluded that James the brother of the Lord is the same as James the Less. Other epithets are James the brother of the Lord, surnamed the Just and he is sometimes referred to in Eastern Christianity as James Adelphotheos, James the Brother of God. The oldest surviving Christian liturgy, the Liturgy of St James, uses this epithet, the New Testament mentions several people named James. The Pauline Epistles, from about the decade of the 1st century, has two passages mentioning a James. The Acts of the Apostles, written sometime between 60 and 150 AD, describes the period before the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD and it has three mentions of a James. The Gospels, with disputed datings ranging from about 50 to as late as 130 AD, describe the period of Jesus ministry and it mentions at least two different people named James
A synagogue, spelled synagog, is a Jewish house of prayer. Synagogues have a hall for prayer, and may have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall. Some have a room for Torah study, called the beith midrash beis medrash —בית מדרש. Synagogues are consecrated spaces used for the purpose of prayer, Tanakh reading and assembly, halakha holds that communal Jewish worship can be carried out wherever ten Jews assemble. Worship can be carried out alone or with fewer than ten people assembled together, halakha considers certain prayers as communal prayers and therefore they may be recited only by a minyan. The synagogue does not replace the long-since destroyed Temple in Jerusalem, israelis use the Hebrew term beyt knesset. Jews of Ashkenazi descent have traditionally used the Yiddish term shul in everyday speech, Sephardi Jews and Romaniote Jews generally use the term kal. Spanish Jews call the synagogue a sinagoga and Portuguese Jews call it an esnoga, persian Jews and some Karaite Jews use the non-Hebrew term kenesa, which is derived from Aramaic, and some Arab Jews use kenis.
Reform and some Conservative Jews use the word temple, the Greek word synagogue is used in English, to cover the preceding possibilities. The all-day Yom Kippur service, in fact, was an event in which the congregation both observed the movements of the kohen gadol as he offered the days sacrifices and prayed for his success. During the Babylonian captivity the Men of the Great Assembly formalized and standardized the language of the Jewish prayers, prior to that people prayed as they saw fit, with each individual praying in his or her own way, and there were no standard prayers that were recited. Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai, one of the leaders at the end of the Second Temple era and this contributed to the continuity of the Jewish people by maintaining a unique identity and a portable way of worship despite the destruction of the Temple, according to many historians. A synagogue dating from between 75 and 50 BCE has been uncovered at a Hasmonean-era winter palace near Jericho, more than a dozen Second Temple era synagogues have been identified by archaeologists.
Any Jew or group of Jews can build a synagogue, there is no set blueprint for synagogues and the architectural shapes and interior designs of synagogues vary greatly. In fact, the influence from local religious buildings can often be seen in synagogue arches, domes. Historically, synagogues were built in the architectural style of their time. Thus, the synagogue in Kaifeng, China looked very like Chinese temples of that region and era, with its outer wall, the styles of the earliest synagogues resembled the temples of other sects of the eastern Roman Empire. The surviving synagogues of medieval Spain are embellished with mudéjar plasterwork, the surviving medieval synagogues in Budapest and Prague are typical Gothic structures
Methodist Church of Great Britain
The Methodist Church of Great Britain is the fourth-largest Christian denomination in Britain and the mother church to Methodists worldwide. It participates in the World Methodist Council, the World Council of Churches, in July 2014 the church had approximately 202,000 members in 4,650 congregations, and 575,000 adherents in total. Methodism began primarily through the work of John Wesley, who led a revival in 18th century Britain. His preaching centred upon the universality of Gods grace for all, the effect of faith on character and he organised the new converts locally and in a Connexion across Britain. In the 19th century, the Wesleyan Methodist Church experienced many secessions, the main streams of Methodism were reunited in 1932, forming the Methodist Church as it is today. Methodist circuits, containing several local churches, are gathered into thirty-one districts, the movement which would become the Methodist Church began in the mid-18th century within the Church of England. A small group of students, including John Wesley, Charles Wesley and George Whitefield and they focused on methodical study of the Bible and living a holy life.
Other students mocked them, saying they were the Holy Club, the first Methodist movement outside the Church of England was associated with Howell Harris in Wales. This was to become the Calvinistic Methodist Church, another branch of the Methodist revival was under the ministry of George Whitefield, resulting in the Countess of Huntingdons Connexion. The largest branch of Methodism in England was organised by John Wesley and he took to open-air preaching to recruit followers to his movement. He formed small classes in which his followers would receive religious guidance, most importantly, Wesley appointed itinerant evangelists to travel and preach as he did and to care for these groups of people. It is a tribute to Wesleys powers of oratory and organisational skills that the term Methodism is today assumed to mean Wesleyan Methodism unless otherwise stated, Methodist preachers were famous for their enthusiastic sermons and often accused of fanaticism. Theophilus Evans, a critic of the movement, even wrote that it was the natural Tendency of their Behaviour, in Voice and Gesture and horrid Expressions.
In one of his prints, William Hogarth likewise attacked Methodists as enthusiasts full of Credulity, other attacks against the Methodists were physically violent—Wesley was nearly murdered by a mob at Wednesbury in 1743. The Methodists responded vigorously to their critics and thrived despite the attacks against them, as Wesley and his colleagues preached around the country they formed local societies and organised through Wesleys leadership and conferences of preachers. Wesley insisted that Methodists regularly attend their local church as well as Methodist meetings. In 1784, Wesley made provision for the governance of Methodism after his death through the Yearly Conference of the People called Methodists and he nominated 100 people and declared them to be its members and laid down the method by which their successors were to be appointed. The Conference has remained the governing body of Methodism ever since, as his societies multiplied, and elements of an ecclesiastical system were successively adopted, the breach between Wesley and the Church of England gradually widened
Before the establishment of patriarchs, metropolitan was the highest episcopal rank in the Eastern rites of the Church. They presided over synods of bishops, and were granted privileges by canon law. The Early Church structure generally followed the Roman imperial practice, with one bishop ruling each city, the bishop of the provincial capital, the metropolitan, enjoyed certain rights over other bishops in the province, called suffragans. The other bishops are known as suffragan bishops, the metropolitan is obliged to request the pallium, a symbol of the power that, in communion with the Church of Rome, he possesses over his ecclesiastical province. This holds even if he had the pallium in another metropolitan see and it is the responsibility of the metropolitan, with the consent of the majority of the suffragan bishops to call a provincial council, decide where to convene it, and determine the agenda. It is his prerogative to preside over the provincial council, no provincial council can be called if the metropolitan see is vacant.
As of April 2006,508 archdioceses were headed by metropolitan archbishops,27 archbishops lead an extant archdiocese, but were not metropolitans, see Catholic Church hierarchy for the distinctions. In those Eastern Catholic Churches that are headed by a patriarch, similarly, a metropolitan has the right to ordain and enthrone the bishops of his province. The metropolitan is to be commemorated in the liturgies celebrated within his province, a major archbishop is defined as the metropolitan of a certain see who heads an autonomous Eastern Church not of patriarchal rank. The canon law of such a Church differs only slightly from that regarding a patriarchal Church, there are autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches consisting of a single province and headed by a metropolitan. In his autonomous Church it is for him to ordain and enthrone bishops, in the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the title of metropolitan is used variously, in terms of rank and jurisdiction. In terms of rank, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches metropolitans are ranked above archbishops in precedence, primates of autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches below patriarchal rank are generally designated as archbishops.
In the Greek Orthodox Churches, archbishops are ranked above metropolitans in precedence, some Eastern Orthodox Churches have functioning metropolitans on the middle level of church administration. In Romanian Orthodox Church there are six regional metropolitans who are the chairmen of their respective synods of bishops, for example, Metropolitan of Oltenia has regional jurisdiction over four dioceses. On the other hand, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches title of metropolitan is only honorary, in Serbian Orthodox Church, honorary title of metropolitan is given to diocesan bishops of some important historical sees. For example, diocesan bishop of the Eparchy of Montenegro and the Littoral is given the title of metropolitan. Diocesan bishop of the Eparchy of Dabar-Bosnia is given the title of metropolitan. Non-canonical Eastern Orthodox Churches generally use metropolitan title according to traditions of usage in Churches from which they were split
The term is taken from Latin minister, which itself was derived from minus. In Catholic churches, the concept of a priesthood is emphasised, many ministers are styled as The Reverend, however some use Pastor as a title, and others do not use any specific form of address. The Church of England defines the ministry of priests as follows, Priests are called to be servants, with their Bishop and fellow ministers, they are to proclaim the word of the Lord and to watch for the signs of Gods new creation. Formed by the word, they are to call their hearers to repentance and to declare in Christs name the absolution, with all Gods people, they are to tell the story of Gods love. They are to baptize new disciples in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit and they are to unfold the Scriptures, to preach the word in season and out of season, and to declare the mighty acts of God. They are to preside at the Lords table and lead his people in worship, offering them a spiritual sacrifice of praise.
They are to bless the people in Gods name and they are to resist evil, support the weak, defend the poor, and intercede for all in need. They are to minister to the sick and prepare the dying for their death, guided by the Spirit, they are to discern and foster the gifts of all Gods people, that the whole Church may be built up in unity and faith. All denominations require that the minister has a sense of calling. One of the clearest references is found in 1 Timothy 3, 1-16, moreover he must have a good report of them which are without, lest he fall into reproach and the snare of the devil. Likewise must the deacons be grave, not doubletongued, not given to wine, not greedy of filthy lucre. And let these first be proved, let them use the office of a deacon, even so must their wives be grave, not slanderers, faithful in all things. Let the deacons be the husbands of one wife, ruling their children, the churches have three orders of ordained clergy, Bishops are the primary clergy, administering all sacraments and governing the church.
Priests administer the sacraments and lead local congregations, they cannot ordain other clergy, however, in some denominations, deacons play a non-sacramental and assisting role in the liturgy. Until the Reformation, the clergy were the first estate but were relegated to the estate in Protestant Northern Europe. After compulsory celibacy was abolished during the Reformation, the formation of an hereditary priestly class became possible, whereby wealth. Higher positioned clergy formed this clerical educated upper class, High Church Anglicanism and High Church Lutheranism tend to emphasise the role of the clergy in dispensing the Christian Sacrament. Bishops and deacons have traditionally officiated over of acts worship, rituals, among these central traditions have been baptism, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, the Mass or the Divine Service, and coronations
Oriental Orthodoxy has approximately 84 million adherents worldwide. Oriental Orthodox Churches uphold their own ancient ecclesiastic traditions of apostolic succession and these Churches rejected the definition of the two natures of Christ, known as the Chalcedonian Definition, which was issued by the Council of Chalcedon in 451. The Eastern Orthodox maintain numerous theological and ecclesiological similarities with the Oriental Orthodox, the Oriental Orthodox Churches are in full communion with each other, but not with the Eastern Orthodox Church, despite the similar name. The schism between Oriental Orthodoxy and the Great Church was based on differences in Christology, the First Council of Nicaea, in 325, declared that Jesus Christ is God, that is to say, consubstantial with the Father. Later, the ecumenical council, the Council of Ephesus, declared that Jesus Christ, though divine as well as human, is only one being. Thus, the Council of Ephesus explicitly rejected Nestorianism, the Christological doctrine that Christ was two distinct beings, one divine and one human, who happened to inhabit the same body.
The Churches that became Oriental Orthodoxy were firmly anti-Nestorian, and those who opposed Chalcedon saw this as a concession to Nestorianism, or even as a conspiracy to convert the Church to Nestorianism by stealth. As a result, over the decades, they gradually separated from communion with the Great Church. Monophysitism was condemned as heretical alongside Nestorianism, and to accuse a church of being Monophysite is to accuse it of falling into the opposite extreme from Nestorianism, the Oriental Orthodox themselves reject this description as inaccurate, having officially condemned the teachings of both Nestorius and Eutyches. They define themselves as Miaphysite instead, holding that Christ has one nature, the schism between the Oriental Orthodox and the rest of Christendom occurred in the 5th century. They would accept only of or from two natures but not in two natures and it is not entirely clear that Nestorius himself was a Nestorian. The Oriental Orthodox churches were often called Monophysite, although they reject this label, as it is associated with Eutychian Monophysitism.
It was not until 518 that the new Byzantine Emperor, Justin I, Justin ordered the replacement of all non-Chalcedonian bishops, including the patriarchs of Antioch and Alexandria. The extent of the influence of the Bishop of Rome in this demand has been a matter of debate, Justinian I attempted to bring those monks who still rejected the decision of the Council of Chalcedon into communion with the greater church. The exact time of event is unknown, but it is believed to have been between 535 and 548. St Abraham of Farshut was summoned to Constantinople and he chose to bring with him four monks, upon arrival, Justinian summoned them and informed them that they would either accept the decision of the Council or lose their positions. Abraham refused to entertain the idea, theodora tried to persuade Justinian to change his mind, seemingly to no avail. Abraham himself stated in a letter to his monks that he preferred to remain in exile rather than subscribe to a faith which he believed to be contrary to that of Athanasius of Alexandria