Presbyterian Church (USA)
The Presbyterian Church is a mainline Protestant denomination in the United States. A part of the Reformed tradition, it is the largest Presbyterian denomination in the US, known for its progressive stance on doctrine; the PC was established by the 1983 merger of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, whose churches were located in the Southern and border states, with the United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, whose congregations could be found in every state. The named Presbyterian Church in America is a separate denomination whose congregations can trace their history to the various schisms and mergers of Presbyterian churches in the United States; the denomination had 1,415,053 active members and 19,491 ordained ministers in 9,304 congregations at the end of 2017. This number does not include members who are baptized but who are not confirmed or the inactive members affiliated. For example, in 2005, the PC claimed 318,291 baptized, but not confirmed and nearly 500,000 inactive members in addition to active members.
Its membership has been declining over the past several decades. Average denominational worship attendance dropped to 565,467 in 2017 from 748,774 in 2013; the PC is the largest Presbyterian denomination in the United States. Presbyterians trace their history to the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century; the Presbyterian heritage, much of its theology, began with the French theologian and lawyer John Calvin, whose writings solidified much of the Reformed thinking that came before him in the form of the sermons and writings of Huldrych Zwingli. From Calvin's headquarters in Geneva, the Reformed movement spread to other parts of Europe. John Knox, a former Roman Catholic Priest from Scotland who studied with Calvin in Geneva, took Calvin's teachings back to Scotland and led the Scottish Reformation of 1560; because of this reform movement, the Church of Scotland embraced Reformed theology and presbyterian polity. The Ulster Scots brought their Presbyterian faith with them to Ireland, where they laid the foundation of what would become the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.
Immigrants from Scotland and Ireland brought Presbyterianism to America as early as 1640, immigration would remain a large source of growth throughout the colonial era. Another source of growth were a number of New England Puritans who left the churches because they preferred presbyterian polity. In 1706, seven ministers led by Francis Makemie established the first American presbytery at Philadelphia, followed by the creation of the Synod of Philadelphia in 1717; the First Great Awakening and the revivalism it generated had a major impact on American Presbyterians. Ministers such as William and Gilbert Tennent, a friend of George Whitefield, emphasized the necessity of a conscious conversion experience and pushed for higher moral standards among the clergy. Disagreements over revivalism, itinerant preaching, educational requirements for clergy led to a division known as the Old Side–New Side Controversy that lasted from 1741 to 1758. In the South, the Presbyterians were evangelical dissenters Scotch-Irish, who expanded into Virginia between 1740 and 1758.
Spangler argues they were more energetic and held frequent services better atuned to the frontier conditions of the colony. Presbyterianism grew in frontier areas. Uneducated whites and blacks were attracted to the emotional worship of the denomination, its emphasis on biblical simplicity, its psalm singing; some local Presbyterian churches, such as Briery in Prince Edward County, owned slaves. The Briery church purchased five slaves in 1766 and raised money for church expenses by hiring them out to local planters. After the United States achieved independence from Great Britain, Presbyterian leaders felt that a national Presbyterian denomination was needed, the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America was organized; the first General Assembly was held in Philadelphia in 1789. John Witherspoon, president of Princeton University and the only minister to sign the Declaration of Independence, was the first moderator. Not all American Presbyterians participated in the creation of the PCUSA General Assembly because the divisions occurring in the Church of Scotland were replicated in America.
In 1751, Scottish Covenanters began sending ministers to America, the Seceders were doing the same by 1753. In 1858, the majority of Covenanters and Seceders merged to create the United Presbyterian Church of North America. In the decades after independence, many Americans including Calvinists and Baptists were swept up in Protestant religious revivals that would become known as the Second Great Awakening. Presbyterians helped to shape voluntary societies that encouraged educational, missionary and reforming work; as its influence grew, many non-Presbyterians feared that the PCUSA's informal influence over American life might make it an established church. The Second Great Awakening divided the PCUSA over revivalism and fear that revivalism was leading to an embrace of Arminian theology. In 1810, frontier revivalists organized the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Throughout the 1820s, support and opposition to revivalism hardened into well-defined factions, the New School and Old School respectively.
By the 1838, the Old School–New School Controversy had divided the PCUSA. There were now two general assemblies each claiming to represent the PCUSA. In 1858, the New School split along sectional lines when its Southern synods and pre
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
Reddit is an American social news aggregation, web content rating, discussion website. Registered members submit content to the site such as links, text posts, images, which are voted up or down by other members. Posts are organized by subject into user-created boards called "subreddits", which cover a variety of topics including news, movies, video games, books, fitness and image-sharing. Submissions with more up-votes appear towards the top of their subreddit and, if they receive enough votes on the site's front page. Despite strict rules prohibiting harassment, Reddit's administrators spend considerable resources on moderating the site; as of March 2019, Reddit had 542 million monthly visitors, ranking as the #6 most visited website in U. S. and #21 in the world, according to Alexa Internet, with 53.9% of its user base coming from the United States, followed by the United Kingdom at 8.2% and Canada at 6.3%. Reddit was founded by University of Virginia roommates Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian in 2005.
Condé Nast Publications acquired the site in October 2006. In 2011, Reddit became an independent subsidiary of Condé Nast's parent company, Advance Publications. Reddit is based in California. In October 2014, Reddit raised $50 million in a funding round led by Sam Altman and including investors Marc Andreessen, Peter Thiel, Ron Conway, Snoop Dogg, Jared Leto, their investment valued the company at $500 million then. In July 2017, Reddit raised $200 million for a $1.8 billion valuation, with Advance Publications remaining the majority stakeholder. Reddit is a website comprising user-generated content—including photos, videos and text-based posts—and discussions of this content in what is a bulletin board system; the name "Reddit" is a play-on-words with i.e.. "I read it on Reddit." As of 2018, there are 330 million Reddit users, called "redditors". The site's content is divided into categories or communities known on-site as "subreddits", of which there are more than 138,000 active communities; as a network of communities, Reddit's core content consists of posts from its users.
Users can comment on others' posts to continue the conversation. A key feature to Reddit is that users can cast positive or negative votes, called upvotes and downvotes, for each post and comment on the site; the number of upvotes or downvotes determines the posts' visibility on the site, so the most popular content is displayed to the most people. Users can earn "karma" for their posts and comments, which reflects the user's standing within the community and their contributions to Reddit; the most popular posts from the site's numerous subreddits are visible on the front page to those who browse the site without an account. By default for those users, the front page will display the subreddit r/popular, featuring top-ranked posts across all of Reddit, excluding not-safe-for-work communities and others that are most filtered out by users; the subreddit r/all does not filter topics. Registered users who subscribe to subreddits see the top content from the subreddits to which they subscribe on their personal front pages.
Front-page rank—for both the general front page and for individual subreddits—is determined by a combination of factors, including the age of the submission, positive to negative feedback ratio, the total vote-count. There are 330 million Reddit users, called "redditors". Registering an account with Reddit is free and does not require an email address. In addition to commenting and voting, registered users can create their own subreddit on a topic of their choosing. In Reddit style, usernames begin with "u/". For example, noteworthy redditors include u/Poem_for_your_sprog, who responds to messages across Reddit in verse, u/Shitty_Watercolour, who posts paintings in response to posts. Subreddits are overseen by moderators, Reddit users who earn the title by creating a subreddit or being promoted by a current moderator; these moderators are volunteers who manage their communities and enforce community-specific rules, remove posts and comments that violate these rules, work to keep discussions in their subreddit on topic.
Admins, by contrast, are paid to work for Reddit. Discussions on Reddit are organized into user-created areas of interest called "subreddits". There are about 138,000 active subreddits among a total of 1.2 million, as of July 2018. Subreddit names begin with "r/". For instance, r/science is a community devoted to discussing scientific topics and r/television is a community devoted to discussing TV shows. Meanwhile, r/popular features top-ranked posts across all of Reddit, excluding not-safe-for-work communities and others that are most filtered out by users; the subreddit r/all does not filter topics. In a 2014 interview with Memeburn, Erik Martin general manager of Reddit, remarked that their "approach is to give the community moderators or curators as much control as possible so that they can shape and cultivate the type of communities they want". Subreddits use themed variants of Reddit's alien mascot, Snoo, in the visual styling of their communities; as of April 4, 2019, the top 10 subreddits by number of subscribers are: Reddit Premium is a premium membership that allows users to view the site ad-free.
Users may be gifted coins if another user valued the comment or post due to humorous or high-quality content. Reddit Premium unlocks several features not accessible to regular users, such as comment highlighting, exclusive subreddits, a personalized Snoo. R
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Guiyang is the capital of Guizhou province of Southwest China. It is located in the center of the province, situated on the east of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, on the north bank of the Nanming River, a branch of the Wu River; the city has an elevation of about 1,100 meters. It has an area of 8,034 square kilometers. At the 2010 census, its population was 4,324,561, out of whom 3,037,159 lived in the 7 urban districts. A city with humid subtropical climate, Guiyang is surrounded by mountains and forest; the area, inhabited since at least the Spring and Autumn period, formally became the capital of the surrounding province in 1413, during the Yuan dynasty. The city is home to a large Bouyei ethnic minority population. Guiyang has a diversified economy, traditionally a center for aluminum production, phosphate mining, optical instrument manufacturing. Since 2015, it has seen targeted investments into big data and emerged as a local innovation hub; the valley approximating present-day Guiyang has been inhabited since the Autumn period.
Guiyang was a 7th-century military outpost under the Sui and Tang, when the area around it was known as Juzhou. It grew into a city named Shunyuan under the Mongolian Yuan dynasty sometime between their 1279 southwestern campaigns and 1283. By the time Guizhou became a full province in 1413, its capital at Guiyang was known as Guizhou, it became a prefectural seat under the Qing. Guiyang grew during the development of the southwest that occurred after the Japanese invasion of China during World War II, it has grown since Deng Xiaoping's economic reforms reached it in the 1990s. The city's heart is around the Dashizi, a "big cross", Penshuichi, a traffic intersection, in the center of which there was a large fountain until early 2010, when it was paved over for better traffic. Guiyang has a four-season, monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, tempered by its low latitude and high elevation, it has moderate-temperature summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 5.1 °C in January to 23.9 °C in July, while the annual mean is 15.35 °C.
Rain is common throughout the year, with occasional flurries in winter. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 12 percent in January to 41 percent in August, the city receives only 1150 hours of sunshine, making it one of China's least sunny major cities. Average monthly relative humidity is above 75% throughout the year; the moderate temperature together with other factors including air quality, wind speed, etc. made Guiyang to be ranked No.2 in the "Top 10 Summer Capitals of China". The entire Guiyang municipality consists of six districts, one county-level city and three counties; the districts are Nanming, Huaxi, Wudang and Guanshanhu. The county-city is Qingzhen and the counties are Kaiyang and Xiuwen; the Gui'an New District, a non-administrative economic project, is situated to the southwest of Guiyang. It crosses over into areas under the jurisdiction of the neighboring city of Anshun. Guiyang is the commercial hub of Guizhou Province. In 2017, GDP for the Guiyang region totaled 353.8 billion yuan, with per capita GDP of 74,493 yuan.
The city is a large center for retail and wholesale commercial activities with operations of major domestic and international general retailers such as Wal-Mart, Carrefour, RT-Mart, Beijing Hualian and Xingli Group as well as consumer electronics and appliance sellers Gome and Suning. Wholesale operations include large regional produce and industrial and construction machinery depots. Wal-Mart's southwest China regional vegetable and produce distribution center is located in Guiyang. Foreign brands have penetrated Guiyang including McDonald's, Burger King, H&M, Starbucks. Most of the time, they are located near the various shopping centers; the largest shopping centers are Hunter city plaza, Huaguoyuan Shopping Center, Nanguohuajing. Hydro-electric power generators are located along the city's main rivers including the Wu River. By 2007, the city's hydro electric plants supplied over 70 percent of the city's electricity. Coal is mined in the locality of Guiyang and Anshun, there are large thermal generating plants at Guiyang and Duyun, supplying electricity for a portion of the city's industry.
A large iron and steel plant came into production in Guiyang in 1960, supplying the local machinery-manufacturing industry. Guiyang has a sizable domestic pharmaceuticals industry, producing traditional Chinese as well as Western medicines. Guiyang has completed the first stage of city-wide free WiFi. In 2016, Guiyang was named as the Best-Performing City in China by the Milken Institute owing to the city's "growth in jobs, gross domestic product." Guizhou Province saw the third-fastest growth among China’s 31 regional districts in the first half of the year, growing by 10.5 percent. This growth is attributed to Guiyang's investments in computing and big data. Due to tax incentives and state support, multinational corporations such as Foxconn, Huawei, Hyundai Motor, Tencent and Alibaba have opened offices in Guiyang. Guiyang is populated by 23 different minorities, the most populous of, the Miao people, in addition to the ethnic Han; as of 2011, the total population of Guiyang municipality was 4.3 million, among wh
Fayetteville is the third-largest city in Arkansas and county seat of Washington County. The city is centrally located within the county and has been home of the University of Arkansas since the institution's founding in 1871. Fayetteville is on the outskirts of the Boston Mountains, deep within the Ozarks. Known as Washington until 1829, the city was named after Fayetteville, from which many of the settlers had come, it was incorporated on November 3, 1836 and was rechartered in 1867. The four-county Northwest Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 105th in terms of population in the United States with 463,204 in 2010 according to the United States Census Bureau; the city had a population of 73,580 at the 2010 Census. Fayetteville is home to the University of the state's largest university; when classes are in session, thousands of students on campus change the city's demographics. Thousands of Arkansas Razorbacks alumni and fans travel to Fayetteville to attend football and baseball games.
The University's men's track and field program has won 41 national championships to date. Fayetteville was named the third best place to live in the United States in the 2016 U. S. News Best Places To Live Rankings, one of the best places to retire in the South. Forbes ranked Fayetteville as the 24th-best city for business and careers in 2016. Lonely Planet named Fayetteville among its top 20 places to visit in the South in 2016; the city hosts the Walmart Shareholders Meetings each year at the Bud Walton Arena. In 1828, George McGarrah settled at Big Spring with his family on the modern day corner of Spring and Willow, founding the town of Washington, starting work on the courthouse. On October 17, Washington County was established, Washington chosen as the county seat; the Washington Courthouse was finished in 1829, contained the post office. In the year Postmaster Larkin Newton changed the name to the Fayetteville Courthouse, to avoid confusing with Washington, Hempstead County. Two councilmen selected to name the city were from Fayetteville, itself named for Fayetteville, North Carolina.
That original Fayetteville was named for General Lafayette, a French general who helped the colonies gain independence in the American Revolutionary War. The first store in Fayetteville was opened by John Nye in a small building constructed by James Holmsley. In 1832 David Walker, Chief Justice of the Arkansas supreme court, built a double log cabin on what is now Center Street. In 1822 Archibald Yell, the second Governor of Arkansas, built a house and called it "Waxhaw" after his home in North Carolina; this was on the outskirts of town but now is a street named after him that connects College and School streets. The first hotels were the Onstott House. Fayetteville was incorporated as a town on November 3, 1836. In 1859, a city charter was obtained from the Legislature. During the Civil War the municipal government was suspended and was not reinstated until 1867. P. V. Rhea was the president of the town trustees in 1836. W. Walker was the first mayor under the charter of 1859, M. L. Harrison was the first mayor when the government was reorganized in 1867.
The telegraph came to Fayetteville in 1860, strung along the Military Road from St. Louis, Missouri to Little Rock. During the American Civil War, the Union General Samuel Ryan Curtis occupied Fayetteville on February 18, 1862 and the following week, the Battle of Pea Ridge took place northeast of Fayetteville; the city housed wounded soldiers from the Battle of Prairie Grove in December 1862, housed injured troops on Dickson Street. Confederate troops besieged Union soldiers in Fayetteville on April 18, 1863 at the present-day intersection of College Avenue and Dickson Street, at their headquarters. Union soldiers held the city against cannon fire and cavalry attacks, although their headquarters sustained damage; the building was restored and is operated as the Headquarters House, a museum of the Washington County Historical Society. Fayetteville was occupied from December 1862 until May 1865 by the First Arkansas Union Cavalry, a regiment of Union men from Northwest Arkansas. Union forces repelled a Confederate attack in October 1864.
After the war, the United States government established the Fayetteville National Cemetery in 1867. A cemetery for Confederate dead was founded in 1873. Newspapers were established early; the Fayetteville Weekly Democrat began publishing in 1868. It developed as the Northwest Arkansas Times, is still in print today; the Fayetteville Schools District was founded on March 20, 1871 as the first independent school district in Arkansas. The public school system was established by the Reconstruction era legislature. Arkansas had struggled with a state banking crisis, resulting in the illegality of banking until 1868. Following the reinstatement, the Stark Bank became the first bank in the state in 1872, becoming the William McIlroy Bank four years later; this institution remains today as Arvest Bank. In 1954, a few days after Charleston, Fayetteville was the second school district in the southern United States to implement school integration in response to Brown v. Board of Education. Fayetteville is located in the Boston Mountains, a subset of The Ozarks which run through Northwest Arkansas, southern Missouri, Eastern Oklahoma.
The rocks of the Boston Mountains were formed when sandstones and shales were deposited on top of the Springfield Plateau during the Pennsylvanian Period. In the Fayettevill
Arkansas Razorbacks football
The Arkansas Razorbacks football program represents the University of Arkansas, located in Fayetteville, Arkansas, in the sport of American football. The Razorbacks compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Western Division of the Southeastern Conference; the program has 1 claimed national championship awarded by the Football Writers Association of America and Helms Athletic Foundation in 1964, 1 unclaimed national championship awarded by the Foundation for the Analysis of Competitions and Tournaments in 1977, 13 conference championships, 45 All-Americans, an all-time record of 701–475–40. The Razorbacks are the 23rd-ranked team in college football history by total number of wins. Home games are played at locations on or near the two largest campuses of the University of Arkansas System: Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium in Fayetteville, War Memorial Stadium in Little Rock; the first University of Arkansas football team was formed in 1894 and coached by John Futrall, a Latin professor at the University.
That team played three games: two against one against Texas. Before the 1909 season, the teams were called the Arkansas Cardinals and a bird was the school's mascot; the name and mascot changed following the 1909 season when the football team, coached by Hugo Bezdek, finished 7–0. The Cardinals became the Razorbacks after Arkansas defeated LSU 7-0 and coach Bezdek told them they were "as tough" as a band of fighting Razorbacks; the Wooo Pig Sooie or calling the Hogs became a tradition and the official school cheer in the 1920s when farmers rushing out to meet the bus returning from an away game called the hogs as a greeting. Arkansas prevailed over powerhouses Oklahoma, LSU and Washington of St. Louis in 1909, was declared unofficial champions of the South and Southwest, it was with the help of Steve Creekmore. Creekmore became the first Razorback star, a quarterback from Van Buren who played only intramurals. Bezdek used Creekmore to install a early edition of the hurry-up offense, as the team never huddled and chased the ball after every play.
Creekmore was known for "fast and slippery running and passing" and could return punts and tackle well. There are differing stories about the origins of the'Razorbacks' mascot, however; the Texarkana Arkansas High School mascot and athletic emblem is the Razorback with red and white serving as the school colors. The Razorback mascot was selected in 1910 to replace the Cardinal as the University of Arkansas mascot. In exchange for its use, the university provided used athletic gear to Texarkana Arkansas High. With the new name and mascot, the Hogs defeated LSU 51–0 and gave Texas A&M their only loss in 1910, but fell short of another perfect season, losing 5–0 to Kansas State. In 1913, Arkansas quarterback J. L. Carter and the Razorbacks lost to Ole Miss, took a fateful train to Arkadelphia to play Ouachita Baptist. While Carter was eating, he was invited to a meeting of Ouachita boosters, he transferred and defeated Arkansas 15–9 in 1914. The Hogs would be contacted by L. Theo Bellmont in 1913 in his attempt to create an intercollegiate conference to regulate use of ringers.
Hugo Bezdek, since replaced by E. T. Pickering, had recommended that the Hogs join a conference before he left to coach at Oregon; the Razorbacks joined the Southwest Conference as charter members in 1915. The conference included teams from Texas and Oklahoma. Southwestern would join, but leave the following year; the 1916, 1917, 1919 teams were led at quarterback by "Arkansas' greatest athlete" Gene Davidson. The Razorbacks didn't have a winning conference record until 1920, didn't win the conference championship until 1936. Arkansas had the best record during the 1933 season, but had to forfeit the SWC Championship because Ulysses "Heine" Schleuter, who had no eligibility remaining, played on the team. Schleuter had told coach Fred Thomsen that he was eligible, but he was recognized by an SMU player during the game as a former Cornhusker; the Hogs did accept an invitation to the 1934 Dixie Classic, a precursor to today's Cotton Bowl Classic. Arkansas became rivals with Ole Miss due to proximity.
Although not SWC members, Ole Miss played Arkansas intermittently until a yearly series began from 1952–1961. During the 1938 season, the Razorbacks replaced their 300-seat stadium known as The Hill with Bailey Stadium, named after Arkansas governor Carl Bailey, it was known as University Stadium for one game before being changed to honor the governor. This stadium still exists today, although renovated, as Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium, the current home of the Razorbacks. Arkansas won the conference championship in 1946, earning a bid in the 1947 Cotton Bowl Classic with LSU; the game would become known as the Ice Bowl. The two rivals battled to a scoreless tie, with Razorback great Clyde Scott tackling an LSU Tiger at the one yard-line to preserve the tie on the second-to-last play of the game. LSU would fail to complete the field goal attempt on the next play; the Razorbacks defeated Mary the next year in the 1948 Dixie Bowl. In 1954, the Ole Miss rivalry would catch fire; the Hogs played the Rebels in War Memorial Stadium on October 23, 1954.
The Rebels were ranked #5 by the AP Poll entering the game, Arkansas was picked to finish last in the SWC. The contest would be decided by a 66-yard halfback pass from tailback Buddy Bob Benson to blocking back Preston Carpenter, the only score of the game; this is re