Independent Girls' Schools Sporting Association
The Independent Girls Schools Sporting Association, was established in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, in 1922 with five founding members, all of them independent Protestant girls schools. Secondary school girls compete in team and individual sports at school level and can be selected through IGSSA for state representative teams, the Independent Girls Schools Sporting Association was established in 1922 as the Girls Secondary Schools Sports Union. Today IGSSA is a sub–committee of the Association of Heads of Independent Girls Schools, the AHIGS Sporting Committee organises competitions among 29 independent girls schools in New South Wales. Secondary school girls compete in team and individual sports at school level and may be selected through IGSSA for state teams, IGSSA works with each member schools physical education and sport programme by providing interschool competition from beginners to elite level. IGSSA graded competitions are held on Saturday mornings and involve between 5000 and 6300 participants each term and these schools make up the bulk of entries at the Schoolgirls Head of the River regatta.
The IGSSA Swimming and Diving carnival has been held annually since 1925, today it is typically held in March at the Sydney Olympic Park Aquatic Centre. In both sports, schools compete in divisions based on their results from the previous year, both divisions have the same point score and the highest total point score within each division is deemed the Division Champion and presented with a shield. The winning school from each of the first divisions is awarded the carnival champion, the IGSSA Athletics carnival has been held annually since 1923. Today it is held in June at Sydney Olympic Park. Competing schools are divided into three based on their results from the previous year. The Division Champions are presented with a shield, with the school of the first divisions awarded the carnival champion. The IGSSA annual Gymnastics Carnival was first held in 1969, today the carnival is typically held in October, at the Sydney Olympic Park Sports Centre in Homebush. Students may compete in either Rhythmic or Artistic gymnastics, and schools are placed in divisions based on their results from the previous year, through combined WAG and RG results, a Champion school is declared.
The Tildesley Tennis Shield competition is IGSSAs longest running carnival and it was first held in 1918, with the now defunct Normanhurst School in Ashfield declared the champion school, and Daphne Akhurst the winner of the singles competition. Akhurst was to one of the best female tennis players Australia has ever produced. She was a pupil of Normanhurst School, which in 1918 had as its Headmistress, Miss Evelyn Mary Tildesley from Staffordshire, England. Normanhurst School had a successful tennis program, and by the 1920s had produced two of Australias most famous female tennis players, with Rosie Payten in addition to Daphne Akhurst. It was Tildesley who donated an oak and bronze shield for a tennis competition which encouraged team spirit amongst Sydneys Protestant girls schools
A boarding school is a school at which most or all of the students live during the part of the year that they go to lessons. The word boarding is used in the sense of bed and board, i. e. lodging, some boarding schools have day students who attend the institution by day and return to their families in the evenings. Many independent schools are boarding schools, Boarding school pupils normally return home during the school holidays and often weekends, but in some cultures may spend most of their childhood and adolescent life away from their families. In the United States, boarding schools comprise various grades, most commonly grades seven or nine through grade twelve—the high school years, other schools are for younger children, grades two through eight. A military school, or military academy, features military education, in the former Soviet Union schools were introduced, these sometimes are known as Internat-schools. Some schools were a type of specialized school with a focus in a particular field or fields such as mathematics, language, sports.
Other schools were associated with orphanages after all children enrolled in Internat-school automatically. Also, separate boarding schools were established for children with special needs, general schools offered extended stay programs featuring cheap meals for children and preventing them from coming home too early before parents were back from work. In post-soviet countries, the concept of boarding school differs from country to country, the term boarding school often refers to classic British boarding schools and many boarding schools around the world are modeled on these. A typical boarding school has separate residential houses, either within the school grounds or in the surrounding area. Pupils generally need permission to go outside defined school bounds, they may be allowed to travel off-campus at certain times, depending on country and context, boarding schools generally offer one or more options, weekly, or on a flexible schedule. Each may be assisted in the management of the house by a housekeeper often known as matron.
In the U. S. boarding schools often have a resident family that lives in the dorm and they have janitorial staff for maintenance and housekeeping, but typically do not have tutors associated with an individual dorm. Nevertheless, older pupils are often unsupervised by staff, and a system of monitors or prefects gives limited authority to senior pupils, houses readily develop distinctive characters, and a healthy rivalry between houses is often encouraged in sport. Houses may have common rooms for television and relaxation and kitchens for snacks, some facilities may be shared between several houses or dorms. In others, separate houses accommodate needs of different years or classes, in some schools, day pupils are assigned to a dorm or house for social activities and sports purposes. Each student has a timetable, which in the early years allows little discretion. Boarders and day students are taught together in school hours and in most cases continue beyond the day to include sports and societies
Gallipoli (1981 film)
They are sent to the peninsula of Gallipoli in the Ottoman Empire, where they take part in the Gallipoli Campaign. During the course of the movie, the young men slowly lose their innocence about the purpose of war, the climax of the movie occurs on the Anzac battlefield at Gallipoli and depicts the futile attack at the Battle of the Nek on 7 August 1915. It does, modify events for dramatic purposes and contains a number of significant historical inaccuracies and it followed the Australian New Wave war film Breaker Morant and preceded the 5-part TV series ANZACs, and The Lighthorsemen. The numerous running sequences in the film are set to Jean Michel Jarres Oxygène, in Western Australia, May 1915, Archy Hamilton, an 18-year-old stockman and prize-winning sprinter, longs to enlist in the Australian Imperial Force. He is trained by his uncle Jack and idolises Harry Lascelles, Archy wins a race with a bullying farmhand, Les McCann, Archy running bare-foot and Les riding his horse bareback. Frank Dunne is an unemployed labourer who has run out of money.
Hes an accomplished sprinter and hopes to win the money at the athletics carnival. Archy and Uncle Jack journey to the athletics carnival, Frank is surprised when Archy defeats him, and is bitter at first and feels robbed of his bet. Eventually Frank approaches Archy in a cafe after getting over his loss, before leaving, Archy gives all the prize money he won at the race to Jack and tells him that he will not be coming home for he has decided to enlist. As Archy and Frank are penniless, they hop on a freight train, walk across the desert. Upon arriving in Perth, they arrange to stay with Franks father, due to Franks Irish heritage and general cynicism, he has little desire to fight for the British Empire. However, Archy persuades him to try to enlist in the Light Horse, failing to ride a horse, Frank enlists in the infantry with three co-workers from the railway, Bill and Snowy. Many of the motivations for enlistment are revealed, wartime ultra-nationalism, anti-German propaganda, a sense of adventure, all soldiers embark on a transport ship bound for Cairo.
Frank and Archy are separated and embark on different troopships, some months later and his fellow soldiers train near the Pyramids and spend their free time in Cairo and visiting brothels. During a training exercise and Archy meet once again, Frank is able to transfer to the Light Horse, the soldiers arrive at Anzac Cove and endure several days of hardships and boredom in the trenches. Franks infantry friends fight in the Battle of Lone Pine on the 6 August. Afterwards, a traumatized Billy tells Frank what happened to the others, Barney has been shot and killed, and Snowy is in a hospital, but in such bad condition that he is denied food and water. The following morning and Frank are ordered to take part in the charge at the Nek, Archy is ordered by Major Barton to be the message runner
The viola is a string instrument that is bowed or played with varying techniques. It is slightly larger than a violin and has a lower and deeper sound. Since the 18th century it has been the middle or alto voice of the family, between the violin and the cello. The strings from low to high are generally tuned to C3, G3, D4. In the past, the viola varied in size and style as did its names, the Italians often used the term, viola da braccio meaning literally, of the arm. Brazzo was another Italian word referring to the viola which the Germans adopted in the form, the French had their own names, Cinquiesme was a small viola, Haute Contre was a large viola and Taile meant Tenor. In the modern era, the French use the term Alto, the viola had enjoyed popularity in the heyday of five-part harmony up until the eighteenth century, taking three lines of the harmony and occasionally playing the melody line. Music that is written for the viola differs from that of most other instruments in that it uses the alto clef.
Viola music switches to the treble clef when there are sections of music written in a higher register to make the notes easier to read. The viola often plays the voices in string quartets and symphonic writing. The viola occasionally plays a major, soloistic role in orchestral music, examples include Don Quixote by Richard Strauss and Harold en Italie by Hector Berlioz. In the earlier part of the 20th century, more composers began to write for the viola, encouraged by the emergence of specialized soloists such as Lionel Tertis and William Primrose. English composers Arthur Bliss, York Bowen, Benjamin Dale, Frank Bridge, Benjamin Britten and Ralph Vaughan Williams all wrote substantial chamber, many of these pieces were commissioned by, or written for Lionel Tertis. William Walton, Bohuslav Martinů, Toru Takemitsu, Tibor Serly, Alfred Schnittke, Paul Hindemith wrote a substantial amount of music for viola, including the concerto Der Schwanendreher. The concerti by Paul Hindemith, Béla Bartók, and William Walton are the big three of viola repertoire, the viola is similar in material and construction to the violin. A full-size violas body is between 25 mm and 100 mm longer than the body of a violin, with an average length of 41 cm.
Small violas typically made for children typically start at 30 cm, for a child who needs a smaller size, a fractional-sized violin is often strung with the strings of a viola. Unlike the violin, the viola does not have a full size. The body of a viola would need to measure about 51 cm long to match the acoustics of a violin, there have been several experiments intended to increase the size of the viola, in the interest of improving the instruments sound
The Armidale School
It is a company limited by guarantee that operates under the Corporations Act. TAS has classes of students in Transition, Junior School for children in Kindergarten to Year 5, a Middle School for those in Years 6 to 8, in 1993, The Armidale School became the first school in Australia to provide internet access for its students. TAS is the member of the Athletic Association of the Great Public Schools of New South Wales located outside of the Sydney metropolitan area. In 1840, a site for the school was purchased at Honeysuckle Point, nothing more came of the plan until the appointment of William Tyrrell, as the first Bishop of Newcastle in 1846. The property was passed on to Tyrrell, and in 1854 the land was resumed by the Hunter River Railway Company, by 1877, the school had still not been established, and Bishop Tyrrell began to push the matter further. Subsequently, a plan was drawn up and land selected at Blandford, in 1881, it was determined that the plan to build the School at Blandford was unaffordable, and a suggestion was made that it should be built on the New England Tablelands at Armidale.
The additional capital required, to the amount of 6,000 pounds, was raised by James Ross, Archdeacon of Armidale, and his leading laymen. On 5 June 1891, The New England Proprietary School Limited was incorporated with 100 pound shares, offered at 50 pounds each, the Directors purchased 20 acres in Armidale in September 1891, adding to the 10 acres obtained in 1889. The foundation stone of the building, designed by noted architect Sir John Sulman, was laid on 22 February 1893. Hon. Victor Albert George, Earl of Jersey, the Opening Ceremony was performed by the Rt. Rev Arthur Vincent Green, Bishop of Grafton and Armidale on 15 May 1894, the name of the Company and School, was changed in 1896 to The Armidale School. Also that year, TAS joined the Athletic Association of the Great Public Schools of New South Wales in Sydney, on 1 January 2010 the School was incorporated as a company limited by guarantee under the Corporations Act with the name, The Armidale School. This expanded upon an already co-educational Junior School, and was announced following a consultation process.
The school started 2016 with 53 girls, including 14 boarders, the Armidale School is situated on a single 18 hectares campus in Armidale, a university city on the New England Tablelands of New South Wales, midway between Sydney and Brisbane. The school features a mix of historic and modern buildings, all of which design elements of the outstanding original building designed by noted architect Sir John Sulman in 1892. Other notable buildings are the 1902 Chapel, designed by Cyril Blacket, and the War Memorial Assembly Hall, the facilities of the school include the Michael Hoskins Creative Arts Centre, which incorporates a 240-seat performing arts theatre, drama classrooms and visual arts studios. The centre is used by local and visiting performing arts organisations including as the home of the Armidale Drama & Music Society. TAS currently has five boarding houses, named Abbott, Dangar, Tyrrell
Bagpipes are a wind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. The term bagpipe is equally correct in the singular or plural, though pipers usually refer to the bagpipes as the pipes, a set of bagpipes minimally consists of an air supply, a bag, a chanter, and usually at least one drone. Many bagpipes have more than one drone in various combinations, held in place in stocks—sockets that fasten the various pipes to the bag, the most common method of supplying air to the bag is through blowing into a blowpipe, or blowstick. In some pipes the player must cover the tip of the blowpipe with their tongue while inhaling, an innovation, dating from the 16th or 17th century, is the use of a bellows to supply air. In these pipes, sometimes called cauld wind pipes, air is not heated or moistened by the players breathing, the bag is an airtight reservoir that holds air and regulates its flow via arm pressure, allowing the player to maintain continuous even sound.
The player keeps the bag inflated by blowing air into it through a blowpipe or pumping air into it with a bellows, materials used for bags vary widely, but the most common are the skins of local animals such as goats, dogs and cows. More recently, bags made of materials including Gore-Tex have become much more common. A drawback of the bag is the potential for fungal spores to colonise the bag because of a reduction in necessary cleaning. An advantage of a bag is that they have a zip which allows the user to fit a more effective moisture trap to the inside of the bag. Bags cut from larger materials are usually saddle-stitched with an extra strip folded over the seam, holes are cut to accommodate the stocks. The chanter is the pipe, played with two hands. Almost all bagpipes have at least one chanter, some pipes have two chanters, particularly those in North Africa, the Balkans in Southern Europe, and Southwest Asia. A chanter can be bored internally so that the walls are parallel for its full length.
The chanter is usually open-ended, so there is no way for the player to stop the pipe from sounding. Thus most bagpipes share a constant, legato sound where there are no rests in the music, primarily because of this inability to stop playing, technical movements are used to break up notes and to create the illusion of articulation and accents. Because of their importance, these embellishments are often highly technical systems specific to each bagpipe, a few bagpipes have closed ends or stop the end on the players leg, so that when the player closes the chanter becomes silent. A practice chanter is a chanter without bag or drones, allowing a player to practice the instrument quietly, the term chanter is derived from the Latin cantare, or to sing, much like the modern French word chanteur. The note from the chanter is produced by a reed installed at its top, the reed may be a single or double reed
The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. Like all brass instruments, sound is produced when the players vibrating lips cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate, nearly all trombones have a telescoping slide mechanism that varies the length of the instrument to change the pitch. Many modern trombone models utilize a rotary valve as a means to lower pitch of the instrument, variants such as the valve trombone and superbone have three valves like those on the trumpet. The word trombone derives from Italian tromba and -one, so the name means large trumpet, the trombone has a predominantly cylindrical bore like its valved counterpart the baritone and in contrast to its conical valved counterparts, the euphonium and the horn. The most frequently encountered trombones are the trombone and bass trombone. The most common variant, the tenor, is an instrument pitched in B♭, an octave below the B♭ trumpet. A person who plays the trombone is called a trombonist or trombone player, the trombone is a predominantly cylindrical tube bent into an elongated S shape.
Rather than being completely cylindrical from end to end, the tube is a series of tapers with the smallest at the mouthpiece receiver. The design of these affects the intonation of the instrument. As with other instruments, sound is produced by blowing air through pursed lips producing a vibration that creates a standing wave in the instrument. The detachable cup-shaped mouthpiece is similar to that of the baritone horn and it has the venturi, a small constriction of the air column that adds resistance greatly affecting the tone of the instrument, and is inserted into the mouthpiece receiver in the slide section. The slide section consists of a leadpipe, the inner and outer tubes. Modern stays are soldered, while sackbuts were made with loose, the slide, the most distinctive feature of the trombone, allows the player to extend the length of the air column, lowering the pitch. To prevent friction from slowing the action of the slide, additional sleeves were developed during the Renaissance, and this part of the slide must be lubricated frequently.
Additional tubing connects the slide to the bell of the instrument through a neckpipe, for example, second position A is not in exactly the same place on the slide as second position E. Many types of trombone include one or more rotary valves used to increase the length of the instrument by directing the air flow through additional tubing. This allows the instrument to reach notes that are not possible without the valve as well as play other notes in alternate positions. Like the trumpet, the trombone is considered a cylindrical bore instrument since it has sections of tubing, principally in the slide section
An electronic keyboard or digital keyboard is an electronic musical instrument, an electronic or digital derivative of keyboard instruments. Broadly speaking, in a popular context, the term electronic keyboard or just a keyboard mostly refers to any type of digital or electronic keyboard instrument. These include synthesizers, digital pianos, stage pianos, electronic organs, however, in true musical terminology, an electronic keyboard is an inexpensive synthesizer equipped with built-in power amplifier and small loudspeakers. Electronic keyboards are capable of recreating a wide range of instrument sounds with less complex sound synthesis, Electronic keyboards are usually dedicated for home users and other non-professional users. The least expensive models do not have velocity-sensitive keys, but mid- to high-priced models do have these feature, home keyboards typically have little if any sound editing capacity. The user typically selects from a range of voices or sounds. Home keyboards have a lower cost than professional synthesizers.
Casio and Yamaha are among the manufacturers of home keyboards. An electronic keyboard may called a digital keyboard, portable keyboard, or home keyboard, referring their digital-based sound generation and light-weight, portable build. In Russia, most kinds of keyboards were often referred to as a synthesizer. The term electronic keyboard may be used to refer to synthesizer or digital piano on colloquial usage, Most keyboards use a keyboard matrix circuit to reduce the amount of wiring that is needed. Electronic hardware can do this, Sound generator, A digital sound module typically contained within an integrated ROM, which is capable of accepting MIDI commands and producing sounds. Keyboard sound generators are mostly based on PCM synth and speakers, an internal audio amplifier built to the sound generator chip and low-powered speakers that amplify the sounds so that the listener can hear them. Power supply, Keyboards may or may not have a power supply system built to the main circuit board.
Flash memory, Most electronic keyboards have an amount of onboard memory for storing MIDI data and/or recorded songs. Floppy disks were obsolete by the early 2000s, with memory cards start to replace them shortly afterwards, USB storage were originally less common at the time, but was popularized by Yamahas Tyros2 workstation keyboard in 2005 and has become a standard feature ever since. Most keyboards today uses USB storage, with the exception of some Casio, keyboard instruments can be found as far back as the hydraulis in the 3rd century BCE, which developed into the pipe organ, and small portable instruments such as the portative and positive organ. Additional keyboard instruments, the clavichord and harpsichord, were developed in the 14th century CE, as technology improved, more sophisticated keyboards were developed, including the 12-tone keyboard still in use today
Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to the British Isles, particularly Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the form of church government. Presbyterian theology typically emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland by the Acts of Union in 1707 which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In fact, most Presbyterians found in England can trace a Scottish connection, the Presbyterian denominations in Scotland hold to the theology of John Calvin and his immediate successors, although there are a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism. The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, most Reformed churches which trace their history back to Scotland are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the ecumenical movement, many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions, especially in the World Communion of Reformed Churches.
Some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Anglicans, Presbyterian history is part of the history of Christianity, but the beginning of Presbyterianism as a distinct movement occurred during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. As the Catholic Church resisted the reformers, several different theological movements splintered from the Church, the Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back primarily to England and Scotland. In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland adopted the Scots Confession as the creed of the Scottish Kingdom, Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization and worship, often using a Book of Order to regulate common practice and order. The origins of the Presbyterian churches are in Calvinism, many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups. Presbyterians place great importance upon education and lifelong learning, Presbyterian government is by councils of elders.
Teaching and ruling elders are ordained and convene in the lowest council known as a session or consistory responsible for the discipline, teaching elders have responsibility for teaching and performing sacraments. Pastors are called by individual congregations, a congregation issues a call for the pastors service, but this call must be ratified by the local presbytery. Ruling elders are usually laymen who are elected by the congregation and ordained to serve with the elders, assuming responsibility for nurture. Often, especially in larger congregations, the elders delegate the practicalities of buildings and this group may variously be known as a Deacon Board, Board of Deacons Diaconate, or Deacons Court. These are sometimes known as presbyters to the full congregation, above the sessions exist presbyteries, which have area responsibilities. These are composed of teaching elders and ruling elders from each of the constituent congregations, the presbytery sends representatives to a broader regional or national assembly, generally known as the General Assembly, although an intermediate level of a synod sometimes exists.
The Church of Scotland abolished the Synod in 1993, Presbyterian governance is practised by Presbyterian denominations and by many other Reformed churches
Presbyterian Ladies' College, Sydney
The Presbyterian Ladies College, Sydney is an independent, Presbyterian and boarding school for girls in Croydon, an inner-western suburb of Sydney, Australia. The school has an enrolment policy for all years but Year 11. Students attend PLC from all regions of the metropolitan area, New South Wales. Established in 1888 by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of NSW, PLC is one of two Sydney schools in the Round Square organisation. In 2001, The Sun-Herald ranked PLC Sydney fourth in Australias top ten girls schools, notable alumnae include the first qualified female architect in Australia and other pioneering women in education and medicine. The General Assembly was inspired to establish a school, particularly a Ladies College, a Ladies College Committee was formed and by July 1887 they had leased a property in Ashfield. Marden was a believer in equal opportunity in education, and has been described as an early feminist. He rejected the idea that PLC was to be merely a school for the daughters of the wealthy.
Out of sympathy with the cry that education is unnecessary for girls, women have to live their life - in most cases a harder one than men have. This notion of accomplishments being sufficient for girls is surely a remnant of those days when women were looked on as the plaything of men. The Presbyterian Ladies College was finally opened by Marden and lady superintendent, Ms M. McCormick, on 30 January 1888 and it was modelled on the great English Public Schools, and was the first school to be established by the Presbyterian Church of New South Wales. Together with the Committee, Marden was responsible for organising the curriculum, during the opening ceremony the Governor invited his wife, the Countess of Jersey, Margaret Child-Villiers, to speak. She made what the Sydney Morning Herald described as an impromptu speech. The Countess speech was reported throughout Australia and elsewhere around the world. PLCs Jersey Day, an event in which ex-students return to the College on the Sunday closest to 10 March, is named in honour of the Countess.
In the early years at Croydon, girls tended to be enrolled at an older age and it was apparent that despite Mardens insistence, many parents viewed the College as a finishing school. As today, it was not a requirement for students to be Presbyterians, the increase in enrolments convinced the Council of the need to set up a branch school on another site, preferably on the North Shore. In 1913 Marden reported that applications were being refused because of shortness of space
Field hockey is a team sport of the hockey family. The earliest origins of the date back to the Middle Ages in England, France. The game can be played on a field or a turf field as well as an indoor board surface. Each team plays with eleven players, including the goalie, players use sticks made out of wood, carbon fibre, fibre glass or a combination of carbon fibre and fibre glass in different quantities to hit a round, plastic ball. The length of the stick depends on the players individual height, only one end of the stick is allowed to be used. Goalies often have a different kind of stick, however they can use an ordinary field hockey stick. The specific goal-keeping sticks have another curve at the end of the stick, the uniform consists of shin guards, shorts, a mouth guard and a jersey. Today, the game is played globally, with particular popularity throughout Western Europe, the Indian subcontinent, Southern Africa, New Zealand, Field Hockey is the national game of India and Pakistan. The term field hockey is used primarily in Canada and the United States where ice hockey is more popular, in Sweden the term landhockey is used.
To some degree in Norway and it is a section of Norways Bandy Association. Until recently they called it hockey, when it was changed to landhockey, during play, goal keepers are the only players who are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their body, while field players play the ball with the flat side of their stick. Goal keepers cannot play the ball with the back of their stick, whoever scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout, there are many variations to overtime play that depend on the league and tournament play. In college play, an overtime period consists of a 10-minute golden goal period with seven players for each team. If a tie remains, the game enters a one-on-one competition where each team chooses 5 players to dribble from the 25 yard line down to the circle against the opposing goalie. The player has 8 seconds to score on the goalie keeping it in bounds, the play ends after a goal is scored, the ball goes out of bounds, a foul is committed or time expires.
If the tie still persists extra rounds thereafter until one team has scored, the FIH is responsible for organising the Hockey Rules Board and developing the rules for the game. A popular variant of field hockey is indoor field hockey, which differs in a number of respects while embodying the principles of hockey
The French horn is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. The double horn in F/B♭ is the horn most often used by players in professional orchestras, a musician who plays any kind of horn is generally referred to as a horn player. Most horns have lever-operated rotary valves, but some, especially older horns, use piston valves, the backward-facing orientation of the bell relates to the perceived desirability to create a subdued sound, in concert situations, in contrast to the more piercing quality of the trumpet. A horn without valves is known as a horn, changing pitch along the natural harmonics of the instrument. Pitch may be controlled by the position of the hand in the bell, the pitch of any note can easily be raised or lowered by adjusting the hand position in the bell. Three valves control the flow of air in the single horn, the more common double horn has a fourth valve, usually operated by the thumb, which routes the air to one set of tubing tuned to F or another tuned to B♭.
Triple horns with five valves are made, tuned in F, B♭. Also common are descant doubles, which typically provide B♭ and alto F branches and this configuration provides a high-range horn while avoiding the additional complexity and weight of a triple. A crucial element in playing the horn deals with the mouthpiece, when playing higher notes, the majority of players exert a small degree of additional pressure on the lips using the mouthpiece. It is the goal of all serious brass musicians to develop their technique such that additional mouthpiece pressure is avoided altogether, or at the very least, the name French horn is found only in English, first coming into use in the late 17th century. At that time, French makers were preeminent in the manufacture of hunting horns, as a result, these instruments were often called, even in English, by their French names, trompe de chasse or cor de chasse. The International Horn Society has recommended since 1971 that the instrument be simply called the horn, there is a more specific use of French horn to describe a particular horn type, differentiated from the German horn and Vienna horn.
In this sense, French horn refers to an instrument with three Périnet valves. It retains the narrow bell-throat and mouthpipe crooks of the orchestral hand horn of the late 18th century, and most often has an ascending third valve. This is a whole-tone valve arranged so that with the valve in the up position the valve loop is engaged, the horn is the third-highest-sounding instrument in the brass family, below the trumpet and the cornet. Horns are mostly tuned in B♭ or F, or a combination of both, in some traditions, novice players use a single horn in F, while others prefer the B♭ horn. The F horn is used more commonly than the B♭ horn, sound is produced by vibrating the players lips into the mouthpiece of the instrument. Different partials in the series can be played by adjusting the air pressure and lip tension