Hillview College is a government-assisted Presbyterian secondary school situated on the foothills of the Northern Range at the top of El Dorado Road in Tunapuna and Tobago. The motto Humani Nihil Alienum is a Latin phrase meaning'Nothing concerning humanity is alien to me'. Expressed in a positive way it means,'I am interested in everything concerning mankind.' It is an all-boys school and is a seven-year school that prepares students for CXC/O-Level examinations at 5th Form and CAPE/A-Level Examinations at 6th Form. It offers education in the areas of business studies and modern studies. In 2011 The Hillview College Senior Cricket Team swept all three titles in InterCol Secondary Schools Cricket League. In July 1951 the Official Board of the Aramalaya Presbyterian Church appealed to the Presbyterian of the Canadian Mission Church for a Boys' Secondary School to be sited on Sheriff Street, Tunapuna. Two years the Naparima College Board, governing only the Canadian missionary Secondary Boys' School in the country at the time, was instructed by the Presbytery to proceed with plans for a programme of secondary school expansion, giving priority to the oilfield area and the area in the vicinity of Tunapuna.
A committee of missionaries agreed to release buildings on Sheriff Street for use and on 27 September 1954 application was made to the Colonial Government for the recognition of a Provisional Assisted Secondary School in Tunapuna. On Monday, 17 January 1955 the school was opened under the principalship of Rev. H. F. Swann, it was called Tunapuna Branch, with an enrollment of 44 students and two teachers. The church hall on Sheriff Street was used as the classroom and the portion of the grounds and cow-shed were used for games and for teaching as a classroom. Naparima College, Tunapuna Branch remained on this site until September 1957. In this year the Principal and students entered the present site at the top of El Dorado Road. In November 1957 the government granted the college Permanent Status as a Government Assisted Secondary School and in 1962 the next principal, Dr. Stephen Moosai-Maharaj, renamed the school to Hillview College and gave it its motto and composed the words for the college song.
In 1959 the science laboratories were built and the number of classrooms increased. In 1967 the main hall was extended to accommodate the increased number staff, an extension was made in 1996 to create offices for the administration and clerical staff. In 1986 a library was named in honour of Mr. Stephen R. Seepersad. In 1993 a 6th Form block was built, in 1999 a pavilion was constructed and named in honour of Mr. Richard Kokaram. In 2005, Amrik Singh Kochhar placed first in the world in Mathematics, Further Mathematics and fourth in Physics in the Cambridge A-level examinations winning Hillview College their President's Gold Medal for the fourth time. Hillview continues to obtains scholarships in the CXC CAPE examinations. However,cricket is not the only thing that hillview is most renowned for as the hillview college football team called the H. V. C. Spartans, spearheaded by Mr. Sievan Siewsaran has been demolishing other football teams in intercol tournaments from the day that Mr. Siewsaran has begun coaching the team.
Victorious InterCol 2011 Cricket Team: - Hillview College became the first North East Zone school to win the PowerGen Secondary Schools Cricket League and swept all other major competitions. As a denominational school, Hillview College is under the jurisdiction of the Presbyterian Secondary Schools Board of Education; the Board is appointed every two years and oversees the progress and development of the five Presbyterian schools in the country. Hillview College has its own Board of Management, responsible for the day-to-day management of the school, it approves the school budget, looks after other financial matters and the maintenance of grounds and buildings. Members of staff are appointed on the recommendation of the Presbyterian Secondary Schools Board of Education. There are five Deans, a Dean of Studies, ten Heads of Department who assist the Principal and Vice Principal in the administration of the school. A Librarian and Library Assistant, four Laboratory Assistants, a Bursar, a secretary, an Office Assistant, ten Ancillary Staff and 4 security guards complete the quota of staffing at Hillview College.
Composed By Dr. Stephen Moosai-Maharaj singAcross the campus clear. Our Flag and goldIt floats on high serene. Three Humming Birds in flightO'er the mountain peaks. To us who study hereHillview will always be. Rev. Harold F. Swann - 1955-1957 Rev. Isaac Kirkpatrick - 1957-1962 Dr. Stephen Moosai-Maharaj - 1962-1969 Mr. Stephen Alisharan - 1969-1975 Mr. Stephen Seepersad - 1975-1988 Mr. Richard Kokaram - 1988-2000 Mr. Jeremiah Seepersad - 2000-2007 Mr. Leslie Mahase - 2007–Present Richard Kelly - Member of Trinidad and Tobago National Cricket Team Leon Romero - Member of Trinidad and Tobago and USA National Cricket Teams Carlyle Mitchell - Defender for Vancouver Whitecaps FC & Member of Trinidad and Tobago National Football Team Naparima Girls' High School Naparima College Iere High School St. Augustine Girls' High School List of school
Port of Spain
Port of Spain the City of Port of Spain, is the capital city of Trinidad and Tobago and the country's second-largest city after San Fernando and the third largest municipality after Chaguanas and San Fernando. The city has a municipal population of 37,074, an urban population of 81,142 and a transient daily population of 250,000, it is located on the Gulf of Paria, on the northwest coast of the island of Trinidad and is part of a larger conurbation stretching from Chaguaramas in the west to Arima in the east with an estimated population of 600,000. The city serves as a retail and administrative centre and it has been the capital of the island since 1757, it is an important financial services centre for the Caribbean and is home to two of the largest banks in the region. Port of Spain was the de facto capital of the short-lived West Indies Federation, which united the Caribbean. Caricom was established in Chaguaramas, west of Port of Spain; the city is home to the largest container port on the island and is one of several shipping hubs of the Caribbean, exporting both agricultural products and manufactured goods.
Bauxite from Guyana is trans-shipped via facilities at Chaguaramas, about 8 kilometres west of the city. The pre-lenten Carnival is tourist attraction. Today, Port of Spain is a leading city in the Caribbean region. Trinidad and Tobago hosted the Fifth Summit of the Americas in 2009 whose guests included US President Barack Obama and US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Port of Spain is home to the biggest and most successful stock exchange in the Caribbean, the Trinidad and Tobago Stock Exchange; the iconic Nicholas Tower, as well as other skyscrapers, are well known throughout the region. These buildings dominate the city's skyline; some of the tallest skyscrapers in the Caribbean are located in Port of Spain. The Port of Spain was founded near the site of the Amerindian fishing village of Cumucurapo, located in the area today known as Mucurapo, west of the city centre; the name Conquerabia is recorded for an Amerindian settlement in this area. In 1560, a Spanish garrison was posted near the foot of the Laventille Hills, which today form the city's eastern boundary.
The part of today's downtown Port of Spain closest to the sea was once an area of tidal mudflats covered by mangroves. The first Spanish buildings here, in the 16th and 17th centuries, were open mud-plastered ajoupas, interspersed between large silk cotton trees and other trees; the fort was a mud-walled enclosure with a shack inside, a flagpole, two or three cannon, few Spanish soldiers. This was captured during Walter Raleigh's expedition in April 1595; the Caribs were transient, travelling up the Orinoco River. The French naval commander Comte D'Estrées visited in 1680, reported that there was no Port of Spain, but in 1690, Spanish governor Don Sebastien de Roteta reported in writing to the King of Spain: In 1699, the alcalde of Trinidad reported to the king that the natives "were in the habit of showering scorn and abuse upon the Holy Faith and ridiculed with jests the efforts of the Holy Fathers". By 1757, the old capital, San José de Oruña, about 11 kilometres inland, had fallen into disrepair, Governor Don Pedro de la Moneda transferred his seat to Port of Spain, which thus became Trinidad's de facto capital.
The last Spanish Governor of Trinidad, Don José Maria Chacón, devoted much of his time to developing the new capital. He compelled the island's Cabildo to move to Port of Spain, he limited its powers to the municipality; the 1783 Cedula of Population, which encouraged the settlement of French Catholics in the island, led to a rapid increase in the town's population and its geographical extension westwards. From the small cluster of buildings at the foot of the Laventille Hills, eleven streets were laid out west to the area bounded by the St. Ann's River, thus establishing the grid pattern which has survived in downtown Port of Spain to the present day. Along the sea shore was the Plaza de la Marina, a parade ground. By 1786, the town had a population of about 3,000. Realising that the St. Ann's River, prone to flooding, was impeding the expansion of the town, Chacón had its course diverted in 1787 so that it ran to the east of the city, along the foot of the Laventille Hills. Port of Spain was now able to continue spreading northwards and westwards, encroaching on the surrounding sugar-cane plantations.
In 1797, Trinidad was invaded by a British force under General Sir Ralph Abercromby. The British landed west of Port of Spain, at what is still called Invaders Bay, marched towards the town. Realising his military resources were inadequate to defend the colony and wishing to avoid unnecessary destruction, Governor Chacón capitulated and was able to negotiate generous terms with Abercromby. Port of Spain remained the capital. In 1803, Port of Spain began growing southwards, with the re
The Borough of Chaguanas is the largest borough and fastest-growing town in Trinidad and Tobago. Located in west-central Trinidad, south of Port of Spain, north of Couva and San Fernando, named after the indigenous tribe who settled there, it grew in size due to its proximity to the Woodford Lodge sugar refinery, it remained a minor town until the 1980s when it began to grow as it drew people for its bargain shopping and moderately-priced housing. However, its rapid growth has seen property values increase dramatically. Chaguanas became a borough in 1990; the current mayor is Gopaul Boodhan, the Borough Council has been dominated by the United National Congress. Chaguanas has been a hub for Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian culture and the broader Indo-Caribbean culture. Chaguanas was named for the Chaguanes Amerindian tribe; the area was settled by the time of the British conquest of Trinidad in 1797. The town originated on what was H. E. Robinson's sugar estate adjacent to the Woodford Lodge sugar refinery and the De Verteuil coconut and cocoa estate to the north and east.
It was sold over to the now defunct Caroni Ltd when sugar was the main export commodity for Trinidad and Tobago, was part of the Woodford Lodge Estate, home to several buildings including the homes of several ex-Caroni workers. Construction of the Trinidad Government Railway helped; the Princess Margaret Highway, built by the US military during World War II, joined the Southern Main Road at Chaguanas. Construction of the Sir Solomon Hochoy Highway extended the highway south to San Fernando; the Carlsen Air Force Base was a former United States Army Air Forces World War II airbase constructed in Carlsen Field in 1942, consisting of two landing strips, "Edinburgh" and "Xerxes". The airbase included an emergency landing strip, "Tobago". Edinburgh Field became the principal combat base for USAAF bombers and Naval airships on Trinidad as well as Navy fighters with a complex of runways and taxiways that surpassed Waller Field; this lasted until 3 November 1943. It was used by the Royal Air Force and was defended by US Army infantry and AA units.
When the Navy began lighter-than-air operations in the Caribbean in the fall of 1943, the 80th Seabees were brought in to build a station at Carlsen Field. To supplement the eight Army-owned buildings taken over by the Navy, the 80th Battalion built a large, steel blimp hangar, a mooring circle, paved runways, a helium-purification plant, other operational appurtenances; the facility was formally disestablished on 1950, today the former air and naval airship base has been turned into a dairy and agricultural area south of Chaguanas and is all but unrecognisable. Much of the former airfield area is owned by National Flour Mills and the only remnants of the base are the name of the area in south Chaguanas, along with streets named "Edinburgh" and "Xerxes". In the 20th century Chaguanas grew as a bazaar town; the construction of Lange Park in the early 1980s attracted a middle-class community moving south from Port of Spain and the East–West Corridor and north from San Fernando. Its central location made it attractive to southerners working in north Trinidad and northerners looking for more affordable homes.
Over the years, there has been an increase in the number of Afro-Trinidadian persons joining the Indo-Trinidadian community of Chaguanas through the construction of National Housing Authority residential housing, such as Edinburgh 500. Orchard Gardens was constructed as an upper middle class community, Lange Park gentrified. Despite Couva's historical legacy within the Caroni County, as Chaguanas has evolved and expanded to become the de facto administrative and commercial capital of Central Trinidad, Couva's character has now changed to become a magnet for industrialisation, health, commercial and residential activities. In October 1990 Chaguanas was elevated to the status of borough under the provisions of the Municipal Corporations Act No. 21 of 1990. Chaguanas is just upstream from the Caroni Swamp; the Caparo River runs through the town. The Chaguanas Main Road runs East to West from Felicity to Longdenville; the Southern Main Road from Busy Corner runs south to San Fernando. The North-South Highways begins and ends at the flyover in Chaguanas, just east of the SMR West of the SMR, Perseverance Road continues south from Railway Road onto Orange Field Road.
Chaguanas has a lowland seasonal tropical climate with a wet season lasting from June to November and a dry season lasting from January to May. Unlike Port of Spain, Chaguanas has a hot and sweltering climate year round, with an exception for the wet season. Chaguanas is bounded to the north by Munroe Road, to the east by the Gandia River, to the south by the Honda River and to the west by the Gulf of Paria; the town is bisected by Uriah Butler Highway. Chaguanas consists of the following main population centres: Downtown Chaguanas – the original core town of Chaguanas and modern central business district. Montrose – commercial district east of the Solomon Hochoy Highway. Edinburgh 500 and other related developments – south of Montrose. Edinburgh Village – south of downtown Chaguanas Area. There are two villages between downtown Chaguanas and Bagna Trace/Carlsen F
Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net. Although it may be played with larger teams, the most common forms of the game are "singles" and "doubles". Badminton is played as a casual outdoor activity in a yard or on a beach. Points are scored by striking the shuttlecock with the racquet and landing it within the opposing side's half of the court; each side may only strike the shuttlecock. Play ends once the shuttlecock has struck the floor or if a fault has been called by the umpire, service judge, or the opposing side; the shuttlecock is a feathered or plastic projectile which flies differently from the balls used in many other sports. In particular, the feathers create much higher drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate more rapidly. Shuttlecocks have a high top speed compared to the balls in other racquet sports; the flight of the shuttlecock gives the sport its distinctive nature. The game developed in British India from the earlier game of shuttlecock.
European play came to be dominated by Denmark but the game has become popular in Asia, with recent competitions dominated by China. Since 1992, badminton has been a Summer Olympic sport with four events: men's singles, women's singles, men's doubles, women's doubles, with mixed doubles added four years later. At high levels of play, the sport demands excellent fitness: players require aerobic stamina, strength and precision, it is a technical sport, requiring good motor coordination and the development of sophisticated racquet movements. Games employing shuttlecocks have been played for centuries across Eurasia, but the modern game of badminton developed in the mid-19th century among the British as a variant of the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock, its exact origin remains obscure. The name derives from the Duke of Beaufort's Badminton House in Gloucestershire, but why or when remains unclear; as early as 1860, a London toy dealer named Isaac Spratt published a booklet entitled Badminton Battledore – A New Game, but no copy is known to have survived.
An 1863 article in The Cornhill Magazine describes badminton as "battledore and shuttlecock played with sides, across a string suspended some five feet from the ground". The game may have developed among expatriate officers in British India, where it was popular by the 1870s. Ball badminton, a form of the game played with a wool ball instead of a shuttlecock, was being played in Thanjavur as early as the 1850s and was at first played interchangeably with badminton by the British, the woollen ball being preferred in windy or wet weather. Early on, the game was known as Poona or Poonah after the garrison town of Pune, where it was popular and where the first rules for the game were drawn up in 1873. By 1875, officers returning home had started a badminton club in Folkestone; the sport was played with sides ranging from 1 to 4 players, but it was established that games between two or four competitors worked the best. The shuttlecocks were coated with India rubber and, in outdoor play, sometimes weighted with lead.
Although the depth of the net was of no consequence, it was preferred that it should reach the ground. The sport was played under the Pune rules until 1887, when J. H. E. Hart of the Bath Badminton Club drew up revised regulations. In 1890, Hart and Bagnel Wild again revised the rules; the Badminton Association of England published these rules in 1893 and launched the sport at a house called "Dunbar" in Portsmouth on 13 September. The BAE started the first badminton competition, the All England Open Badminton Championships for gentlemen's doubles, ladies' doubles, mixed doubles, in 1899. Singles competitions were added in 1900 and an England–Ireland championship match appeared in 1904. England, Wales, Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand were the founding members of the International Badminton Federation in 1934, now known as the Badminton World Federation. India joined as an affiliate in 1936; the BWF now governs international badminton. Although initiated in England, competitive men's badminton has traditionally been dominated in Europe by Denmark.
Worldwide, Asian nations have become dominant in international competition. China, India, Indonesia and South Korea are the nations which have produced world-class players in the past few decades, with China being the greatest force in men's and women's competition recently; the game has become a popular backyard sport in the United States. The following information is a simplified summary of badminton rules based on the BWF Statutes publication, Laws of Badminton; the court is divided into halves by a net. Courts are marked for both singles and doubles play, although badminton rules permit a court to be marked for singles only; the doubles court is wider than the singles court. The exception, which causes confusion to newer players, is that the doubles court has a shorter serve-length dimension; the full width of the court is 6.1 metres, in singles this width is reduced to 5.18 metres. The full length of the court is 13.4 metres. The service courts are marked by a centre line dividing the width of the court, by a short service line at a distance of 1.98 metres from the net, by the outer side and back boundaries.
In doubles, the service court is marked by a long service line, 0.76 metres from the back boundary. T
Presentation College, San Fernando
Presentation College San Fernando is a selective, government-assisted Roman Catholic Boys’ Secondary School located in San Fernando and Tobago. It claims to be the first Catholic secondary school in South Trinidad, having been established circa 1930 in the basement of San Fernando Presbytery, it relocated to the Colony Buildings at La Pique in 1931. The College was named Saint Benedict's College. However, the name was changed in 1948 when management of the school was assumed by the Presentation Brothers. Based on the academic achievements of its graduates and overall success of its alumni, Presentation College, San Fernando is considered by many to be one of the premier secondary schools in Trinidad and Tobago; every year, several students are awarded National Scholarships, which are highly selective merit-based grants earned by students who have attained the highest grades in the Advanced Level Examinations taken by students upon the completion of a seven-year secondary education curriculum.
The top scholarship in Trinidad & Tobago, known as the'President's Medal', has been won on several occasions by Presentation College, San Fernando students, most by Kerry Shastri Singh in 2011. President's Medals are awarded at the CSEC level and the College has copped both Gold and Silver in 2015 by Riyád Khan and David Craig respectively. Students matriculate at age eleven and pursue the curriculum through either the age of sixteen or eighteen, it is important to note that unlike other Caribbean islands and Tobago has a rigorous exam for students to get from primary education to high school education. Primary school student are given five choices of secondary schools and depending on their results in the exam, they will either be accepted to the country's top secondary schools or lower tiered schools. Presentation College maintains a high academic standard. Presentation College, San Fernando houses a number of facilities that fit the secondary education curriculum; these include 5 Science Laboratories, an Information Technology Lab, 2 Lecture/ Conference Rooms, a Technical Drawing Lab, a Library, Music Rooms and an Art Room.
Additional facilities include a football field, cricket pitch, tennis court, squash court and basketball court. The swimming pool can be accessed by the public. Presentation College stands tall at the foot of the San Fernando hill, boarded by Coffee Street to the west, Carib Street to the south, La Pique Road to the north and the hill to the east; the main College entrance is located on Carib Street. Another gate used, is located on Coffee Street. A third gate separates the connected coumpound of Naparima Girls High School from the college but provides access to students to cross to either side. Upon entry via the Carib Street entrance, a visitor is met by the Benedictine Block which houses eight classrooms, the Office Lobby, Offices of the Principal, Vice Principal and Deans, a Staff Room and a Cafeteria. Perpendicular to this Block is another building which accommodates the Art Room, washroom facilities and storage. Underneath is out of bounds to all students. Adjoining this is the Music Rooms, the Pan Theatre and the Conference Room.
Seen from a vast distance, the Bro. Browne Block still remains the College's most imposing building, dominating Lower Coffee Street; this five storey wing houses eleven classroom, the Information Technology Laboratory, the Lecture Room and the Auditorium. The Auditorium is utilised for College activities such as Assemblies, Lectures etc. as well as for indoor sporting events like badminton and table tennis. The northernmost building is the Bro. Jerome Block which possesses Lower and Upper 6 classes, the Physics/Chemistry/Biology Laboratories, the Library, the Technical Drawing Room, the Accounting Room, the Book Room, Form 6 Deans' Offices and washroom facilities. To the rear of this building, one can find the gate which permits access into the Naparima Girls High School compound; this building is out of bounds to lower school students who must be accompanied by a teacher to gain access to the facilities. Next to the aforementioned building is the Brothers' House which served as residence for the Presentation Brothers but is now occupied by the College Chapel and Language Rooms.
Plans have been made to incorporate a Gymnasium into the building, however this project remains under scrutiny and review. The field constitutes the largest portion of the compound; the cricket pitch is found at the south-eastern corner of the campus while the tennis and basketball courts are located at the western end. These facilities are to only be used during timetabled Physical Education sessions, the luncheon intervals and after school hours and serve as training grounds for the school's Presentation Lions sports teams. 1947 The Presentation Brothers came to Trinidad. 1948 The Benedictine Monks handed over St. Benedict's College to the Presentation Brothers on January 12. Presentation College started with 400 students. Bro. Livinus Kelly was the first Principal and served until 1952. 1950 GCE Advanced Level introduced. 1952 First distinctions at the Advanced Level examinations were recorded. Bro. Liam Dromey was appointed Principal. 1953 Bro. Bartholomew Browne was appointed Principal. 1956 The Bro. Browne Block known as The New Block and Auditorium, constructed.
1957 Bro. Jerome Kelly was appointed Principal. 1958 First Island and National Scholarship in Mathematics. 1963 First Jerningham Gold Medal awarded nationally was won by Presentation College. 1963-1972 T
Christmas is an annual festival, commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is preceded by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world's nations, is celebrated religiously by a majority of Christians, as well as culturally by many non-Christians, forms an integral part of the holiday season centered around it; the traditional Christmas narrative, the Nativity of Jesus, delineated in the New Testament says that Jesus was born in Bethlehem, in accordance with messianic prophecies. When Joseph and Mary arrived in the city, the inn had no room and so they were offered a stable where the Christ Child was soon born, with angels proclaiming this news to shepherds who further disseminated the information.
Although the month and date of Jesus' birth are unknown, the church in the early fourth century fixed the date as December 25. This corresponds to the date of the solstice on the Roman calendar. Most Christians celebrate on December 25 in the Gregorian calendar, adopted universally in the civil calendars used in countries throughout the world. However, some Eastern Christian Churches celebrate Christmas on December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which corresponds to a January date in the Gregorian calendar. For Christians, the belief that God came into the world in the form of man to atone for the sins of humanity, rather than the exact birth date, is considered to be the primary purpose in celebrating Christmas; the celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian and secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift giving, completing an Advent calendar or Advent wreath, Christmas music and caroling, lighting a Christingle, viewing a Nativity play, an exchange of Christmas cards, church services, a special meal, pulling Christmas crackers and the display of various Christmas decorations, including Christmas trees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, wreaths and holly.
In addition, several related and interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses; the economic impact of Christmas has grown over the past few centuries in many regions of the world. "Christmas" is a shortened form of "Christ's mass". The word is recorded as Crīstesmæsse in 1038 and Cristes-messe in 1131. Crīst is from Greek Khrīstos, a translation of Hebrew Māšîaḥ, "Messiah", meaning "anointed"; the form Christenmas was historically used, but is now considered archaic and dialectal. Xmas is an abbreviation of Christmas found in print, based on the initial letter chi in Greek Khrīstos, "Christ", though numerous style guides discourage its use.
In addition to "Christmas", the holiday has been known by various other names throughout its history. The Anglo-Saxons referred to the feast as "midwinter", or, more as Nātiuiteð. "Nativity", meaning "birth", is from Latin nātīvitās. In Old English, Gēola referred to the period corresponding to December and January, equated with Christian Christmas. "Noel" entered English in the late 14th century and is from the Old French noël or naël, itself from the Latin nātālis meaning "birth". The gospels of Luke and Matthew describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem to the Virgin Mary. In Luke and Mary travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem for the census, Jesus is born there and laid in a manger. Angels proclaimed him a savior for all people, shepherds came to adore him. Matthew adds that the magi follow a star to Bethlehem to bring gifts to Jesus, born the king of the Jews. King Herod orders the massacre of all the boys less than two years old in Bethlehem, but the family flees to Egypt and returns to Nazareth.
The nativity stories recounted in Matthew and Luke prompted early Christian writers to suggest various dates for the anniversary. Although no date is indicated in the gospels, early Christians connected Jesus to the Sun through the use of such phrases as "Sun of righteousness." The Romans marked the winter solstice on December 25. The first recorded Christmas celebration was in Rome on December 25, 336. Christmas played a role in the Arian controversy of the fourth century. After this controversy was played out, the prominence of the holiday declined; the feast regained prominence after 800. Associating it with drunkenness and other misbehavior, the Puritans banned Christmas during the Reformation, it remained disreputable. In the early 19th century, Christmas was reconceived by Washington Irving, Charles Dickens, other authors as a holiday emphasizing family, kind-heartedness, gift-giving, Santa Claus. Christmas does not appear on th