The sustainable yield of natural capital is the ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, i.e. the surplus required to maintain ecosystem services at the same or increasing level over time. This yield varies over time with the needs of the ecosystem to maintain itself, e.g. a forest that has suffered a blight or flooding or fire will require more of its own ecological yield to sustain and re-establish a mature forest. While doing so, the sustainable yield may be much less. In forestry terms it is the largest amount of harvest activity that can occur without degrading the productivity of the stock; this concept is important in fishery management, in which sustainable yield is defined as the number of fish that can be extracted without reducing the base of fish stock, the maximum sustainable yield is defined as the amount of fish that can be extracted under given environmental conditions. In fisheries, the basic natural capital or virgin population, must decrease with extraction.
At the same time productivity increases. Hence, sustainable yield would be within the range in which the natural capital together with its production are able to provide satisfactory yield, it may be difficult to quantify sustainable yield, because every dynamic ecological conditions and other factors not related to harvesting induce changes and fluctuations in both, the natural capital and its productivity. In the case of groundwater there is a safe yield of water extraction per unit time, beyond which the aquifer risks the state of overdrafting or depletion. Sustainable yield in fisheries Sustained yield
Museum integrated pest management
Museum integrated pest management is the practice of monitoring and managing pest and environmental information with pest control methods to prevent pest damage to collections and cultural heritage. Preserving cultural heritage is the ultimate goal for most museum collection personnel. Museum pests come in many different forms: insects, rodents, bats and fungi and the two most common types are insects and fungi, it is recommended that every museum have some form of pest control in place and monitoring system to protect their collection and that museums review their storage and museum facilities to determine how to best control and prevent pest infestations while utilizing an Integrated Pest Management plan. Museum IPM is a sub specialty of Integrated pest management that focuses on the application in museums and cultural institutions; the primary difference between IPM and Museum IPM is that in the context of a museum, the main focus is placed on the protection of collections from pests. Integrated Pest Management is a ‘holistic’ approach to controlling pests” that seeks to understand what pests are attracted to, their habits, life cycles.
Part of this program is to identify what types of pests are located in the building, establish the museum's short- and long-term goals for their IPM program, build a consensus amongst the staff. The museum should “consult experts if necessary and choose the most appropriate and safe control methods for eradication” of the pests, it is important not to rush to rash decisions if a few pests are discovered. A museum should plan out of their steps before taking any action. Integrated Pest Management requires the museum to allocate time and energy for the implementation and monitoring the progress of their program. An IPM program “will require the coordinated effort of all staff members to properly implement, may be more expensive than traditional pest management”; the implementation of integrated pest management should be done in steps. To begin, a museum should review a floor plan of the building and determine all “doors, windows and heat sources, drains”, as well as all furniture and other objects within the museum.
The museum can place traps that have been numbered and dated throughout the building using the floor plan as a guide of potential problem areas. The location of the traps should be marked on the floor plan. Once the traps are in place, they should be monitored. Detailed notes should be made on the finding in the traps, which pests are being trapped, how they are accessing the museum, what do these trapped pests look for in a food source. After the first few months, the trap placement should be refined to insure the best outcome. Before any new items or objects enter the collection storage area, the contents should be inspected for any signs of insect activity. If an object is found, or thought to be infested, it should be isolated and put into quarantine; the museum should next look to identify the pest and determine what type of harm the pests can cause. Infested objects should be place into sealed plastic bags before moving them into the collection area, it is important to secure the object and make sure that no other eggs or larvae fall from the object and spread the infestation.
The objects around the quarantined object should be examined to determine the extent of the infestation. The museum must monitor all of their pest management programs to ensure. Routine monitoring will provide information about the points of entry, amount of insects, where they reside in the building, what they are feeding on. With this information, a museum will be able to identify the damaged areas and what pests are infesting the museum; the staff should be careful in the placement of these traps to ensure that they do not come into contact with objects from the collection. When traps are placed in a new location in the building they should be checked within the first 48 hours; this will help confirm where the problem areas are located and if adjustments need to be made to the trap locations. The next step should be weekly and monthly inspections. Once the pests have been identified and the best location confirmed the traps should be changed every two months, or sooner if they are full or have lost their stickiness.
When the staff conducts their insect monitoring, the staff member “should use a bright flashlight during inspections, looking for live adults and larvae and the presence of shed larval skins or feces”. It is important for the museum staff to continually review all components of the pest management program and determine if adjustments are needed. A key component in Integrated Pest Management for museums is the ability to identify the pests causing issues so the museum staff can establish a plan of attack to remove the pest from the building. Traps can be used to identify the pests, the extent of infestation, determine the source of the infestation. All of the identification information on the pests should be documented to keep track of the pests, points of entry, potential damage the pest may cause. Having these “records of inspection results...will help identify seasonal risk factors and areas with a high frequency of problems”. The museum should review the data and ask “can we remove the pest? are eggs present?
What is the least damaging approach to treatment?”. Once a museum have this information written down and confirmed by all those involved in the program, a treatment strategy can be planned and implemented. Traps: Traps are an important part of Integrated Pest Management and they come in different shapes and odors. Traps will help to identify the museums pest problem, should be periodically emptied as the dead pests will attract and b
The hobby of collecting includes seeking, acquiring, cataloging, displaying and maintaining items that are of interest to an individual collector. Collections differ in a wide variety of respects, most in the nature and scope of the objects contained, but in purpose, so forth; the range of possible subjects for a collection is unlimited, collectors have realised a vast number of these possibilities in practice, although some are much more popular than others. In collections of manufactured items, the objects may be antique or collectable. Antiques are collectable items at least 100 years old, while other collectables are arbitrarily recent; the word vintage describes old collectables that are not yet antiques. Commonplace items that are now rare are called ephemera. Collecting is a childhood hobby for some people, but for others a lifelong pursuit or something started in adulthood. Collectors who begin early in life modify their aims when they get older; some novice collectors start purchasing items that appeal to them slowly work at learning how to build a collection, while others prefer to develop some background in the field before starting to buy items.
The emergence of the internet as a global forum for different collectors has resulted in many isolated enthusiasts finding each other. The most obvious way to categorize collections is by the type of objects collected. Most collections are of manufactured commercial items, but natural objects such as birds' eggs, butterflies and seashells can be the subject of a collection. For some collectors, the criterion for inclusion might not be the type of object but some incidental property such as the identity of its original owner; some collectors are generalists with broad criteria for inclusion, while others focus on a subtopic within their area of interest. Some collectors accumulate arbitrarily many objects that meet the thematic and quality requirements of their collection, others—called completists or completionists—aim to acquire all items in a well-defined set that can in principle be completed, others seek a limited number of items per category. Collecting items by country is common; the monetary value of objects is irrelevant to others.
Some collectors maintain objects in pristine condition. After a collectable has been purchased, its retail price no longer applies and its value is linked to what is called the secondary market. There is no secondary market for an item unless someone is willing to buy it, an object's value is whatever the buyer is willing to pay. Depending on age, supply and other factors, individuals and secondary retailers may sell a collectable for either more or less than what they paid for it. Special or limited edition collectables are created with the goal of increasing demand and value of an item due to its rarity. A price guide is a resource such as a website that lists typical selling prices. Products become more valuable with age; the term antique refers to manufactured items made over 100 years ago, although in some fields, such as antique cars, the time frame is less stringent. For antique furniture, the limit has traditionally been set in the 1830s. Collectors and dealers may use the word vintage to describe older collectables that are too young to be called antiques, including Art Deco and Art Nouveau items and Depression glass, etc.
Items which were once everyday objects but may now be collectable, as all examples produced have been destroyed or discarded, are called ephemera. Psychological factors can play a role in both the motivation for keeping a collection and the impact it has on the collector's life; these factors can be negative. The hobby of collecting goes hand-in-hand with an interest in the objects collected and what they represent, for example collecting postcards may reflect an interest in different places and cultures. For this reason, collecting can have educational benefits, some collectors become experts in their field. Maintaining a collection can be a relaxing activity that counteracts the stress of life, while providing a purposeful pursuit which prevents boredom; the hobby can lead to social connections between people with similar interests and the development of new friendships. It has been shown to be common among academics. Collecting for most people is a choice, but for some it can be a compulsion, sharing characteristics with obsessive hoarding.
When collecting is passed between generations, it might sometimes be that children have inherited symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Collecting can sometimes reflect a fear of scarcity, or of discarding something later regretting it, it has been speculated that the widespread appeal of collecting is connected to the hunting and gathering, once necessary for human survival. Collecting is associated with memory by association and the need for the human brain to catalogue and organise information and give meaning to ones actions. Collecting is a practice with a old cultural history. In Mesopotamia, collecting practices have been noted among royalty and elites as far back as the 3rd millennium BCE; the Egyptian Ptolemaic dynasty collected books from all over the known world at the Library of Alexandria. The Medici family, in Renaissance Florence, made the first effort to collect art by private patronage, this way artists could be free for the first time from the money given by the Church and Kings.
Exhibition of cultural heritage objects
The exhibition of cultural heritage objects is a practice used by organizations where collected objects are put on display to the public. The objects are chosen and placed together to offer educational value, to tell a story. Organizations that collect cultural heritage objects, such as museums, tend to focus on the identification and interpretation of what they collect and study; these organizations many times will have a mandate to exhibit those objects to the public. The process, undertaken when an object is chosen to be in an exhibition requires careful analysis of the needs of both the object and the exhibit design. Therefore, exhibitions have created a need for systems and procedures to be in place for processing the objects. A Collection Management Policy, or CMP, is a set of policies that address various aspects of collections management; this policy defines the scope of a museum's collection and how the organization cares for and makes collections available to the public. Access and use policies for objects in a collection will be explained in the CMP.
The documentation of object activity and monitoring will be laid out in the policy. When an object is chosen for exhibition inclusion, the CMP will give clarity and guidance as to how to proceed. An Exhibition Policy may be included within a CMP giving strategic planning guidelines that allow all participants in the exhibit-making process to know how it fits into the overall exhibit program and organization mission; the formalized idea of a team of contributing members designing and developing museum exhibitions has been in practice since the late 1970s. Depending on the size and nature of the collecting organization, the number of people involved and what duties are assigned, the following responsibilities can vary significantly. Registrar - check availability of objects, prepare exhibition file which may include: tracking of objects, loan documents, condition assessments, conservation information and shipping information Curator - may create exhibition concept, subject matter expert, object research Conservator/Restorer - inspect object, prepare treatment proposal, cost estimates for treatment Exhibition designer - designs the space for an exhibition: graphic look and feel, display cases, lighting Mount Maker/Preparator- creation of mounts and display mechanisms for each object to be displayed When an object is chosen for exhibit one must have an understanding of the nature of the material, its condition, the types of deterioration to which the object is susceptible.
Collections personnel and registrars work with developers and content specialists to select objects at a project’s onset, work with production specialists for determining proper conditions for display, such as light levels, humidity concerns and mount making. The registrar will research the object's file for any condition history, a current condition report will be done to make an assessment if the object is capable of withstanding display; because of exhibition inclusion, the object may be handled, exposed to direct lighting, experience fluctuations in temperature and humidity. All of these factors are agents of deterioration, making the assessment of the object's condition prior to exhibit important; the exhibition can take place in the same organization that houses the object, at another institution, or many locations as with a traveling exhibition. The process for in-house exhibitions begins in a similar fashion as a loan. An object list is decided upon and the status of each object must be researched for location and condition.
The object's exhibit history is a factor worth consideration. Recent display and exposure to light may require the object to rest in storage for a period before allowing it to be exhibited again; the preparation for a loan gets more extensive with insurance, loan contracts and considerations for travel. The object needs to be packed and crated with the object's specific requirements, such as thermal insulation, reusable closure systems, or travel frames; the size of an object's crate will need to be considered for exit into buildings. Exhibition loans have more variables that come into play than with in-house exhibitions, so consultation with a registrar or curator is optimal for individual collectors; the safety of all objects in a collection should always be at the forefront of decision making. Human negligence is the largest factor in harm done to collections; the many types of objects in a collection require various handling procedures. Yet all objects have some handling rules in common: prepare yourself, do not rush, plan ahead, think through the procedures before laying a hand on any object.
Security is an important aspect of exhibition development that works to keep cultural heritage objects safe. Security measures can involve locking cases, adding weight or fasteners in a display case to prevent tipping, a security system, having guards or staff members in the exhibition space. Preventive conservation as a long term approach for conservation “involves maintaining the details of appearance and behavior of an object as well as possible and for as long as possible.” At this point, a discussion about the condition of the object and the state to which stake holders would prefer the object should happen. The medium of an object will give rise to the desired appearance. For example, a painting with obvious problems to its structure, or the condition is questionable, may be deemed unusable for exhibition. Concerns for how an object should appear during an exhibition will precede a decision to conduct conservation treatment; the ideal state of an object is different for each institution.
The reason for having an object in the first place
Richard William Heinberg is an American journalist and educator who has written extensively on energy and ecological issues, including oil depletion. He is the author of 13 books, presently serves as the senior fellow at the Post Carbon Institute. Heinberg grew up in Missouri, his father, William Heinberg, was a high-school physics and chemistry teacher. Heinberg's interest in science came from his father, but at an early age, he rejected his parents' fundamentalist Christian beliefs. At one point he lived at Colorado's Sunrise Ranch, headquarters the " Emissaries of Divine Light" group, which Heinberg called "a sort of benign cult." Heinberg, after two years in college and a period of personal study, became personal assistant to Immanuel Velikovsky in November 1979. After Velikovsky's death, Heinberg assisted his widow in editing manuscripts, he published his first book in 1989, Memories and Visions of Paradise: Exploring the Universal Myth of a Lost Golden Age, the result of ten years of study of world mythology.
An expanded second edition was published in 1995. He began publishing his alternative newsletter, the MuseLetter, in 1992, his next book was published in 1993: Celebrate the Solstice: Honoring the Earth's Seasonal Rhythms through Festival and Ceremony. In June 1995, speaking to the International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations in Dayton, Heinberg provided "A Primitivist Critique of Civilization" and discussed the ways in which "We are, it would seem, killing the planet."His books from the 1990s address the relationships between humanity and the natural world. In 1998, he began teaching at New College of California. In the "Culture and Sustainable Community" program, which he helped design, he remained a member of the Core Faculty until 2007. In 2003, Heinberg published The Party's Over: Oil and the Fate of Industrial Societies, one of the first full-length analyses on the issue of peak oil. In 2004, Heinberg provided the closing address for the First US Conference on Peak Oil and Community Solutions.
His title was "Beyond the Peak." In February 2007, Heinberg addressed the Committee on International Trade of the European Parliament and served as an advisor to the National Petroleum Council in its report to the U. S. Secretary of Energy on Peak Oil. In October 2007, the Green Party of Aotearoa organised a speaking tour of New Zealand for Heinberg, which included a presentation in the Beehive theatrette within the New Zealand Parliament building. In 2008 he was a Mayor's appointed member of the Oil Independent Oakland 2020 Task Force, convened to chart a path for the city to reduce its petroleum dependence. Heinberg is now the Senior Fellow of the Post Carbon Institute in California, he is a violinist and book designer. He is married to Janet Barocco. Heinberg has proposed an international protocol to peak oil management with the aim of reducing the impact of the arrival of the peak; the adoption of the Protocol would mean that oil-importing nations should deal to reduce their importations in an annual percentage, while exporting countries should deal to reduce their exportations in the same percentage.
The Uppsala Protocol has been focused in a similar direction. Heinberg is the editor of MuseLetter, included in Utne Magazine's annual list of Best Alternative Newsletters, he has appeared in the documentaries The End of Suburbia, The 11th Hour, Crude Impact, Smoke & Mirrors, Chasing God, What a Way to Go: Life at the End of Empire, The Great Squeeze, The Power of Community: How Cuba Survived Peak Oil, A Farm for the Future and Ripe For Change. Heinberg serves on the advisory board of The Climate Mobilization, a grassroots advocacy group calling for a national economic mobilization against climate change on the scale of the home front during World War II, with the goal of 100% clean energy and net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2025. Heinberg is one of the more moderate commentators on peak oil Memories and Visions of Paradise: Exploring the Universal Myth of a Lost Golden Age Celebrate the Solstice: Honoring the Earth’s Seasonal Rhythms through Festival and Ceremony A New Covenant with Nature: Notes on the End of Civilization and the Renewal of Culture ISBN 978-0-8356-0746-9 Cloning the Buddha: The Moral Impact of Biotechnology The Party's Over: Oil and the Fate of Industrial Societies Powerdown: Options and Actions for a Post-Carbon World The Oil Depletion Protocol: A Plan to Avert Oil Wars and Economic Collapse, Peak Everything: Waking Up to the Century of Declines.
Blackout: Coal and the Last Energy Crisis. The Post Carbon Reader: Managing the 21st Century’s Sustainability Crises], edited by Richard Heinberg & Daniel Lerch ISBN 978-0-9709500-6-2 The End of Growth: Adapting to Our New Economic Reality, ISBN 978-0-86571-695-7 Snake Oil: How Fracking's False Promise of Plenty Imperils Our Future ISBN 978-0976751090 Afterburn: Society Beyond Fossil Fuels ISBN 978-0865717886 Our Renewable Future: Laying the Path for One Hundred Percent Clean Energy ISBN 978-1610917797
A museum is distinguished by a collection of unique objects that forms the core of its activities for exhibitions, research, etc. This differentiates it from an archive or library, where the contents may be more paper-based and less exhibition oriented, or a private collection of art formed by an individual, family or institution that may grant no public access. A museum has a collecting policy for new acquisitions, so only objects in certain categories and of a certain quality are accepted into the collection; the process by which an object is formally included in the collection is called accessioning and each object is given a unique accession number. Museum collections, archives in general, are catalogued in a collection catalogue, traditionally in a card index, but nowadays in a computerized database. Transferring collection catalogues onto computer-based media is a major undertaking for most museums. All new acquisitions are catalogued on a computer in modern museums, but there is a backlog of old catalogue entries to be computerized as time and funding allows.
Museum collections are varied. There are collections of art, of scientific specimens, of historic objects, of living zoological specimens and much more; because there are so many things to collect, most museums have a specific area of specialization. For example, a history museum may only collect objects relevant to a particular county or a single person, or focus on a type of object such as automobiles or stamps. Art museums may focus on a period, such as modern art, or a region. Large museums will have many subcollections, each with its own criteria for collecting. A natural history museum, for example, will have mammals in a separate collection from insects; because museums cannot collect everything, each potential new addition must be considered as to its appropriateness for a given museum's defined area of interest. Accessioning is the legal process of accepting an object into a museum collection; because accessioning an object carries an obligation to care for that object in perpetuity, it is a serious decision.
While in the past many museums accepted objects with little deliberation, today most museums have accepted the need for formal accessioning procedures and practices. These are set out as part of a museum's Collections Management Policy or CMP. While each museum has its own procedures for accessioning, in most cases it begins with either an offer from a donor to give an object to a museum, or a recommendation from a curator to acquire an object through purchase or trade. Several issues must be considered in the decision to accept an object. Common issues include: Is the object relevant to the museum's mission and its scope of collecting, as defined by its governing body? Was the object lawfully acquired and if foreign in origin, imported in compliance with international law? Does the owner of an object have legal title to the object and therefore the right to transfer it? Are there any other parties with an interest in the object? Is the object encumbered by any legal obligations or constraints?
Would the object pose any threats or dangers to other objects or staff? Does the museum have the resources to properly care for the object Is the object encumbered by any donor restrictions? Answering these questions required investigating an object's provenance, the history of an object from the time it was made. Many museums will not accession objects that have been acquired illegally or where other parties have an interest in the object. In art museums, special care is given to objects that changed hands in European countries during World War II and archaeological objects unearthed after the 1970 UNESCO Convention covering the transport of cultural property. Other disciplines have different concerns. For example, anthropology museums will pay special attention to Native American objects that may be subject to repatriation, paleontology museums may look at whether proper permitting procedures were followed when they are offered fossil collections. While in the past, museums accepted objects with donor-based restrictions, many museums today ask that gifts be given unrestricted.
Common donor restrictions include requiring that an object always be exhibited, or that a collection stays together. However, such restrictions can prevent museums from changing their exhibits as scholarship evolves and may introduce conservation issues for delicate objects not suited to continued display. Final decision to accept an object lies with the museum's board of trustees. In large museums, a special committee may meet to review potential acquisitions. Once the decision has been made to accept an object, it is formally accessioned through a Deed of Gift and entered into the museum's catalog records; each object is given a unique catalog number to identify it. Objects are packed for appropriate archival storage, or prepared for exhibition or other educational use. Once accessioned into the collection, museum objects must be appropriately cared for. New objects may be treated for any pre-existing damage; the object is cataloged by a curator or other specialist with knowledge of the object's importance and history.
The object will be given an appropriate storage location. Museum storage conditions are meant to minimize any deterioration; this means keeping objects in a stable climate, preventing exposure to pests, minimizing any handling, using only archival materials that will not deteriorate or harm the objects. Obj
Gifford Pinchot was an American forester and politician. Pinchot served as the first Chief of the United States Forest Service from 1905 until his firing in 1910, was the 28th Governor of Pennsylvania, serving from 1923 to 1927, again from 1931 to 1935, he was a member of the Republican Party for most of his life, though he joined the Progressive Party for a brief period. Pinchot is known for reforming the management and development of forests in the United States and for advocating the conservation of the nation's reserves by planned use and renewal, he called it "the art of producing from the forest whatever it can yield for the service of man." Pinchot coined the term conservation ethic. Pinchot's main contribution was his leadership in promoting scientific forestry and emphasizing the controlled, profitable use of forests and other natural resources so they would be of maximum benefit to mankind, he was the first to demonstrate the practicality and profitability of managing forests for continuous cropping.
His leadership put conservation of forests high on America's priority list. Asked how to say his name, he told The Literary Digest "as though it were spelled pin'cho, with slight emphasis on the first syllable." Gifford Pinchot was born August 11, 1865, to Episcopalian parents in Simsbury, the son of James W. Pinchot, a successful New York City wallpaper merchant, Mary Eno, daughter of one of New York City's wealthiest real estate developers, Amos Eno, he graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy and in 1889, Yale University, where he was a member of Skull and Bones. He had a sister Antoinette; the Pinchots made a great fortune by importing French wallpaper to furnish stately American homes during the late Victorian era. Pinchot's father James made conservation a family affair and suggested that Gifford should become a forester, asking him just before he left for college in 1885, "How would you like to become a forester?" Gifford studied as a postgraduate in Nancy, for a year. He returned home and plunged into the nascent forestry movement, intent on shaping a national forest policy.
At Gifford's urging, together James and Gifford endowed the Yale School of Forestry in 1900, James turned Grey Towers, the family estate at Milford, into a "nursery" for the American forestry movement. Family financial affairs were managed by brother Amos Pinchot, thus freeing Gifford to do the more important work of developing forest management concepts. Unlike some others in the forestry movement, Gifford's wealth allowed him to singly pursue this goal without worry of income. Pinchot's approach set him apart from the other leading forestry experts Bernhard E. Fernow and Carl A. Schenck. Fernow had been Pinchot's predecessor in the United States Department of Agriculture's Division of Forestry before leaving in 1898 to become the first Dean of the New York State College of Forestry at Cornell. Schenck was Pinchot's successor at the Biltmore Estate and founder of the Biltmore Forest School on Biltmore Estate, their schools reflected their approaches to introducing forestry in the United States: Fernow advocated a regional approach and Schenck a private enterprise effort in contrast to Pinchot's national vision.
The men who had the most influence on his development as a forester were American foresters Dietrich Brandis, who had brought forestry to the British Empire, Wilhelm Schlich, Brandis' successor. Pinchot relied upon Brandis' advice for introducing professional forest management in the U. S. and on how to structure the Forest Service when Pinchot established it in 1905. In 1896, the National Academy of Sciences formed the National Forest Commission. Pinchot was the only non-Academy member. President Grover Cleveland asked Pinchot to develop a plan for managing the nation's Western forest reserves. In 1897, Pinchot became a member of Boone and Crockett Club one of North America's first conservation organizations, founded by Theodore Roosevelt. In 1898, Gifford Pinchot succeeded Bernhard Fernow as chief of the Division of Forestry renamed the United States Forest Service in 1905. Thus, management of the federal forests changed from the United States Department of the Interior to this agency within the Department of Agriculture.
Pinchot introduced better forestry methods into the operations of private owners and small, by using new forestry school graduates to demonstrate good practices and help make working plans. In 1900, Pinchot established the Society of American Foresters; this helped bring credibility to the new profession of forestry, was part of the broader professionalization movement underway in the United States at the turn of the twentieth century. Until 1900, only two American schools trained professional foresters, the New York State College of Forestry at Cornell and the Biltmore Forest School; the Pinchot family endowed a 2-year graduate-level School of Forestry at Yale University, at Pinchot's urging, fellow Yale alumnus Henry S. Graves, along with James W. Toumey, left the Division in 1900 to start the school. By the fall of 1900, Cornell's forestry program had 24 students, Biltmore 9, Yale 7. One unique feature of the Pinchot/Yale approach was requiring students to first experience the forest at a camp at Grey Towers before beginning their academic studies.
Pinchot sought to turn public land policy from one that dispersed resources among private holdings, to one that maintained federal ownership and management of public land. As a progressive, Pinchot believed in