SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Preserved counties of Wales

The preserved counties of Wales are the current areas used in Wales for the ceremonial purposes of lieutenancy and shrievalty. They are based on the counties created by the Local Government Act 1972 and used for local government and other purposes between 1974 and 1996; the Local Government Act 1994 abolished the eight ceremonial counties created by the Local Government Act 1972. However, it created the concept of preserved counties based on their areas, to be used for purposes such as Lieutenancy; this usage was consolidated by the Lieutenancies Act 1997. Certain statutes in force were amended to include reference to them — as of 16 February 2011, the only remaining provisions still extant are: Sheriffs Act 1887 – the counties that High Sheriffs are appointed to are the preserved counties. Defence Act 1842 – Lieutenants are those appointed to preserved counties. Sea Fisheries Act 1967 – relevant portions of the sea shore shall be deemed to be within preserved counties; the preserved counties were almost identical to the 1974–96 counties, but with a few minor changes in line with local government boundary changes: Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant and Llangedwyn were transferred from Clwyd to Powys, Wick, St Brides Major and Pentyrch were transferred from Mid Glamorgan to South Glamorgan.

There were however two local government areas and Conwy, split between preserved counties. The Local Government Boundary Commission for Wales were instructed by the National Assembly for Wales on 11 March 2002 to undertake a review of preserved county boundaries. In their final proposals the part of the local government area of Caerphilly, in Mid Glamorgan was to be part of Gwent and the part of the local government area of Conwy, in Gwynedd was to be part of Clwyd; the boundary between Mid Glamorgan and South Glamorgan was to be re-aligned to reflect small changes in local government boundaries. The Assembly accepted these proposals such that from 2 April 2003 each preserved county encompassed between one and five whole local government areas; the boundary between West Glamorgan and Powys was further modified on 1 April 2005 as a result of boundary changes between Ystalyfera and Ystradgynlais. The boundary between Mid Glamorgan and Powys was further modified on 1 April 2010 to reflect the 2009 local government boundary changes in the area around Vaynor, Merthyr Tydfil.

The population figures are mid-year estimates for 2007 from the Office for National Statistics, grouping component unitary authority area figures into their respective preserved counties. Historic counties of Wales Local government in Wales Ceremonial counties of England Shires of Scotland

History of coffee

The history of coffee dates back to the 15th century, earlier with a number of reports and legends surrounding its first use. The native origin of Coffee bean is from Ethiopia; the earliest substantiated evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is from the early 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen, spreading soon to Mecca and Cairo. By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, South India, Turkey, the Horn of Africa, northern Africa. Coffee spread to the Balkans, to the rest of Europe, as well as Southeast Asia and to America, despite bans imposed during the 15th century by religious leaders in Mecca and Cairo, by the Catholic Church; the word "coffee" entered the English language in 1582 via the Dutch koffie, borrowed from the Ottoman Turkish kahve, in turn borrowed from the Arabic qahwah. The Arabic word qahwah referred to a type of wine, whose etymology is given by Arab lexicographers as deriving from the verb qahā in reference to the drink's reputation as an appetite suppressant.

The word qahwah is sometimes alternatively traced to the Arabic quwwa, or to Kaffa, a medieval kingdom in Ethiopia whence the plant was exported to Arabia. These etymologies for qahwah have all been disputed, however; the name qahwah is not used for the berry or plant, which are known in Arabic as bunn and in Somali and Oromo as būn. Semitic languages had the root qhh, "dark color", which became a natural designation for the beverage. According to this analysis, the feminine form qahwah was chosen to parallel the feminine khamr, meant "the dark one". There are several legendary accounts of the origin of the drink itself. One account involves the Moroccan Sufi mystic Ghothul Akbar Nooruddin Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili; when traveling in Ethiopia, the legend goes, he observed birds of unusual vitality feeding on berries, upon trying the berries, experienced the same vitality. Other accounts attribute the discovery of coffee to Sheikh Abu al-Hasan ash-Shadhili's disciple, Omar. According to the ancient chronicle, known for his ability to cure the sick through prayer, was once exiled from Mecca to a desert cave near Ousab.

Starving, Omar found them to be bitter. He tried roasting the beans to improve the flavor, he tried boiling them to soften the bean, which resulted in a fragrant brown liquid. Upon drinking the liquid Omar was sustained for days; as stories of this "miracle drug" reached Mecca, Omar was made a saint. The Ethiopian ancestors of today's Kaffa Province, hence the name coffee, were the first to have recognized the energizing effect of the native coffee plant; the tribesmen who consumed it were hunters who left on days-long treks and benefitted from the coffee plant's ability to quell hunger and provide more energy. Studies of genetic diversity have been performed on Coffea arabica varieties, which were found to be of low diversity but with retention of some residual heterozygosity from ancestral materials, related diploid species Coffea canephora and C. liberica. The original domesticated coffee plant is said to have been from Harar, the native population is thought to be derived from Ethiopia with distinct nearby populations in Sudan and Kenya.

Coffee was consumed in the Islamic world where it originated and was directly related to religious practices. For example, coffee helped its consumers fast in the day and stay awake at night, during the Muslim celebration of Ramadan, it became associated with Muhammad's birthday. Indeed, various legends ascribed coffee’s origins to Muhammad, through the archangel Gabriel, brought it to man to replace the wine which Islam forbade. Another account involves a 9th-century Ethiopian goat-herder, who, noticing the energizing effects when his flock nibbled on the bright red berries of a certain bush, chewed on the fruit himself, his exhilaration prompted him to bring the berries to a monk in a nearby monastery. But the monk disapproved of their use and threw them into the fire, from which an enticing aroma billowed, causing other monks to come and investigate; the roasted beans were raked from the embers, ground up, dissolved in hot water, yielding the world's first cup of coffee. Since this story is not known to have appeared in writing before 1671, 800 years after it was supposed to have taken place, it is likely to be apocryphal.

The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the late 15th century, by Sufi Imam Muhammad Ibn Said Al Dhabhani, known to have imported goods from Ethiopia to Yemen. Coffee beans were first exported out of Ethiopia to Yemen by Somali merchants from Berbera. In addition, the centre of the coffee trade for much of the early modern era, obtained most of their coffee from the Berbera-based merchants, who in turn procured the beans from the environs of Harar. Sufis in Yemen used the beverage as an aid to concentration and as a kind of spiritual intoxication when they chanted the name of God. Sufis used it to keep themselves alert during their nighttime devotions. A translation of Al-Jaziri's manuscript traces the spread of coffee from Arabia Felix northward to Mecca and Medina, to the la

Han Yerry

Han Yerry Tewahangarahken was known as Honyery Doxtator. Han Yerry was born into his mother's Wolf clan, as the Iroquois had a matrilineal society with women holding property and hereditary leadership passing through their lines, children took the nationality and clan of their mother, as they gain social status through her, he became a war chief of the Oneida people and was key during the American Revolutionary War, considered to be one of the most influential leader of the Oneida. Yerry fought in the Battle of Oriskany against other members of the Haudenosaunee, he was married to Tyonajanegen. Han Yerry was thought to have had a German Palatine father. Although this statement is most a result of confusion with another family of "Dockstaders" that can trace their line back to Georg Dachstädter, a German Palatine who settled in Upstate New York in 1709. Han Yerry is not in his line and therefore his children most adopted the name. There are unclear references in documents of the period to a Wolf Clan title Otatshehte, or "Carries a Quiver".

It is possible. This was discussed in the online resources of the Oneida nation."Americans feared invasion from Canada throughout much of 1776. Late that year, another Oneida leader brought accurate intelligence indicating there would be no attack that year. Ojistalak was a sachem in the Wolf clan; the Oneidas had nine such titles and they carried immense prestige. Ojistalak's title was considered to be the highest and, as a gifted public speaker, he was a influential man among the Oneidas. Pro-American in outlook, Ojistalak had a great deal to do with the pro-American stand of the Oneidas during the war, it is that it was Ojistalak who, in 1778, declared his Nation's "unalterable resolution" at every hazard, to hold fast the Covenant Chain with the United States, with which to be buried in the same grave, or to enjoy the fruits of victory and peace."This word is a variant of Otsistarare, a known nickname of Han Yerry. Beginning in the 1780s a Peter Otsistarare Han Yerry's son, is recorded using this name as well.

It is possible. Like many accounts from this era, the records are fragmentary and sometimes transcribed by indian agents with poor phonetic accuracy to the preservation of indigenous languages