President's House (Philadelphia)

The President's House, at 524–30 Market Street in Philadelphia, was the third Presidential Mansion. It housed George Washington from November 27, 1790 to March 10, 1797 and John Adams from March 21, 1797 to May 30, 1800; the three-and-a-half-story brick mansion on the south side of Market Street was built in 1767 by widow Mary Lawrence Masters. In 1772, she gave it as a wedding gift to her elder daughter, who married Richard Penn, a grandson of William Penn and the lieutenant-governor of the Colony; the Penns and the Masterses moved to England during the early days of the American Revolutionary War. During the British occupation of Philadelphia, September 1777 to June 1778, the house was headquarters for General Sir William Howe. Following the British evacuation, it housed the American military governor, Benedict Arnold, it was here that he began his treason. After Arnold left Philadelphia, the next resident was John Holker. Holker was a purchasing agent for the French. During his residency the house suffered a fire, was sold to a man whom Holker knew well, financier Robert Morris.

In 1781, Morris purchased and expanded the house. Washington lodged here with Morris during the 1787 Constitutional Convention. In 1790, Morris gave up the house for his friend to use as the Executive Mansion, moved to the house next door. President Washington occupied the President's House from November 1790 to March 1797, President Adams from March 1797 to May 1800. Adams oversaw the transfer of the federal government from the temporary capital of Philadelphia to the District of Columbia, first occupied the White House there on November 1, 1800; the main Morris house in Philadelphia was demolished in 1832. The four-story east and west walls survived. These, along with surviving sections of the backbuildings, were demolished in the 1950s during the development of Independence Mall. In late 2000, during excavation for the new Liberty Bell Center, foundations of the President's House were uncovered. Intense interest arose in the project after it was revealed that the center's planned main entrance would be just feet from the site of Washington's slave quarters.

Although reluctant, Independence National Historical Park expanded its interpretation at the center to include more about slavery, including material about the nine enslaved African Americans: Moll, Christopher Sheels, his son Richmond, Oney Judge, her brother Austin, Giles and Joe, who had worked at the President's House. The Park undertook a public archaeology project in 2007 that uncovered foundations of the backbuildings, the President's office, the massive Bow Window designed by Washington as a ceremonial space, it commissioned a memorial at the site, which opened in 2010 to mark the site of the President's House, as well as to acknowledge the slaves and their place in Philadelphia and United States history, with material about the black community in the city, both free and enslaved. Washington had a household staff of about 24, several of whom were enslaved African Americans, plus an office staff of four or five, all of whom lived and worked in the house, his wife Martha and two of her grandchildren, "Wash" Custis and Nelly Custis, were part of the First Family.

The house was too small for the 30-plus occupants, so the President made additions: "...a large two-story bow to be added to south side of the main house making the rooms at the rear thirty-four feet in length, a long one-story servants' hall to be built on the east side of the kitchen ell, the bathtubs to be removed from the bath house's second floor and the bathingroom turned into the President's private office, additional servant rooms to be constructed, an expansion of the stables." Although Pennsylvania passed a law in 1780 for the gradual abolition of slavery in the state, it permitted slaveholders from other states to hold slaves in the free state for up to six months. After that time, slaves would gain their freedom. Members of Congress were exempt from Pennsylvania's Gradual Abolition Act, but not officers of the executive and judicial branches. Washington and other slaveholders rotated their slaves out of the state to prevent the slaves from establishing the six-month residency needed to qualify for manumission.

After Washington's slave Oney Judge escaped from captivity in Philadelphia, the president replaced most of his slaves in the capital with indentured servants who were German immigrants. Hercules, a cook who had worked in Philadelphia, was sent back to Virginia by Washington and assigned to field work, he made his way to freedom in Philadelphia. He was seen living in New York City, he was among the slaves whom Washington freed in his will. Although Washington had stipulated that his slaves should not be freed until after both his and Martha Washington's deaths, his widow decided to free his slaves in 1801. By absent from Mount Vernon for four years, the fugitive Hercules may never have learned that he was free. Major acts as president: Oversaw the ratification of the United States Bill of Rights. Oversaw the establishment and planning of the future District of Columbia. Quashed the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania. Major acts as president: Built 6 frigates for the United States Navy. Established the modern United States Marine Corps.

French seizure of more than 300 American ships and the XYZ Affair's demand for bribes led to the Quasi War with France. Completed construction of the White House and much of the Uni

Into the Wild (song)

"Into the Wild" is a break-through song by American indie rock recording artist LP. The song, best known for being featured in a Citibank commercial, was released as a single on May 29, 2012 through Warner Bros. Records; the song was included on LP's third studio album, Forever for Now. In the end of 2011, "Into the Wild" was prominently used in a Citibank ThankYou Card national TV ad campaign, featuring rock climbers Katie Brown and Alex Honnold; the song received vast exposure in the commercial. Both the commercial and the lyrics to the song were a subject of discussion: "Viewers of the commercial are as curious about the lyrics to the song", said Jeanne Moos on CNN. A music video for the song was shot at the Four Aces in Palmdale, California over the summer of 2012. Released onto YouTube on 4 October 2012, the video was directed by Shane Drake and features Brittany Snow and Haley Bennett. On February 24, 2012, a version of "Into the Wild" recorded in the historic EastWest Studios in Hollywood was released to promote LP's live EP.

The Into the Wild: Live at EastWest Studios EP was released on April 24, 2012 through Warner Bros. Records

Banu Kanz

Banu al-Kanz was a semi-nomadic Muslim dynasty of mixed Arab–Beja ancestry that ruled the border region between Upper Egypt and Nubia between the 10th and 15th centuries. They were descended from the sons of sheikhs of the Arab Banu Rabi'ah tribe and princesses of the Beja Hadariba tribe, they gained official control over the region of Aswan, Wadi Allaqi and the frontier zone in the early 11th century when their chief, Abu al-Makarim Hibatallah, captured a major rebel on behalf of the Fatimid authorities. Abu al-Makarim was accorded the title Kanz al-Dawla by Caliph al-Hakim and his successors inherited the title; the Banu Kanz entered into conflict with the Ayyubids in 1174, during which they were defeated and forced to migrate southward into northern Nubia, where they helped accelerate the expansion of Islam in the Christian region. They assumed control of the Nubian Kingdom of Makuria in the early 14th century, but by the early the 15th century, they were supplanted by the Hawwara tribesmen dispatched by the Mamluks to combat the Banu Kanz.

Their modern-day descendants are a Sudanese tribe known as the "Kunuz", who live in the far north of the country. The origins of the Banu al-Kanz lay in the Arab tribal migrations to the Egyptian frontier region with Nubia in the 9th century; the nomadic Arab tribes, of which the largest were the Mudhar, Rabi'ah, Juhaynah and Qays'Aylan, moved to the region after the discovery of gold and emerald mines there. The Banu Kanz originated from the Banu Rabi'ah, who moved to Egypt from Arabia during the reign of Abbasid caliph al-Mutawakkil, between 847 and 861 CE. In 855, Abdullah ibn Abd al-Hamid al-Umari, a Medina native who studied in al-Fustat and Kairouan, emigrated to Aswan, where he sought to profit from the region's gold mines, he and his slaves were sheltered by the Mudhar and he became the latter's eminent sheikh. Al-Umari and the Mudhar were driven out of Wadi Allaqi and Aswan by the Rabi'ah and proceeded to set up their encampments and mining colony at al-Shanka, to the east of the Kingdom of Makuria.

Al-Umari was driven back north to Wadi Allaqi and Aswan by the Nubians of Muqurra in the late 9th century. Thereafter, he gained recognition from the Juhayna, Rabi'ah and Qays'Aylan as their collective leader. Al-Umari oversaw a huge gold mining enterprise in the region, the industry financed his own virtual independence in Wadi Allaqi and Aswan. Although he twice defeated the Egyptian army of Ahmad ibn Tulun, the governor of Egypt, forced the latter to cease attempts to subjugate him, al-Umari assassinated by Mudhar tribesmen after suppressing a revolt by Rabi'ah. Following his fall, Arab tribal activity continued to increase in the Eastern Desert region; the Rabi'ah emerged as the strongest of the Arab tribes inhabiting the Egyptian-Nubian frontier region. By the 10th century, they were running a principality; the Rabi'ah was able to grow powerful because of their alliance with the indigenous Beja people, namely the Muslim Hadariba tribe, which controlled the region between the Red Sea coastline and the eastern banks of the Nile River.

The alliance manifested in business partnerships in the mining industry and intermarriage, including between the chiefs of the two tribes. The sons of Rabi'ah father and Hadariba mothers inherited the lands and titles of their maternal grandparents since Beja inheritance prioritized descent from the mother. Thus, by 943, Ishaq ibn Bishr, born to a Rabi'ah father, became the chief of the Rabi'ah-Hadariba principality after succeeding his maternal Beja uncles Abdak and Kawk. According to the 14th-century Arab historian Ibn Fadlallah al-Umari, the Rab'iah and Beja "became like one" during Ishaq's reign; the latter was killed during an intra-tribal war in Wadi Allaqi, was succeeded by a paternal cousin from Bilbays, Abu Yazid ibn Ishaq. Abu Yazid established Aswan as the principality's capital and was recognized by the Fatimid Caliphate, which controlled Upper Egypt, as the "protector of Aswan". In 1006, Abu Yazid's son and successor, Abu al-Makarim Hibatallah, was given the title of Kanz al-Dawla by Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi Amr Allah as an honorary reward for capturing the anti-Fatimid rebel Abu Rakwa.

Thenceforth, Abu al-Makarim's successors inherited the Kanz al-Dawla title, while the mixed Rabi'ah-Hadariba people of their principality became known as the "Banu Kanz". The principality of the Banu Kanz included the countryside of Aswan to the north, the frontier with Nubia to the south and most of the Eastern Desert between Aswan and the Red Sea; this put the Banu Kanz in control of Wadi Allaqi's mines, the routes connecting the mines to Aswan and the Red Sea port town of Aydhab and the trade between Nubia and Egypt. Altogether, this enabled the Banu Kanz to derive substantial influence. Despite their power, the Banu Kanz were not independent from the Fatimid state and the Kanz al-Dawla, who reported to the Fatimid governor of Qus, benefited from the integral role he played within the Fatimid system; the caliphs accorded the Kanz al-Dawla responsibility for regulating Fatimid diplomatic ties and commerce with Nubia, tax collection in the frontier villages, protecting the mines of Wadi Allaqi and travelers and caravans passing through the principality.

The Maris-based Nubian counterparts of the Kanz al-Dawla played a similar role and belonged to a minor branch of the Rabi'ah-Hadariba confederation. In 1168, the Banu Kanz provided safe haven to the disbanded black African regiments of the Fatimid army by the influential aides of Caliph al-Adid and his nephew Saladin. Saladin toppled al-Adid in 1171 and established the Ayyubid S