A regiment is a military unit. Their role and size varies markedly, depending on the country, in Medieval Europe, the term regiment denoted any large body of front-line soldiers, recruited or conscripted in one geographical area, by a leader who was often the feudal lord of the soldiers. By the 17th century, a regiment was usually about a thousand personnel. In many armies, the first role has been assumed by independent battalions, task forces and other, similarly-sized operational units. By the beginning of the 18th century, regiments in most European continental armies had evolved into permanent units with distinctive titles and uniforms, when at full strength, an infantry regiment normally comprised two field battalions of about 800 men each or 8–10 companies. In some armies, an independent regiment with fewer companies was labelled a demi-regiment, a cavalry regiment numbered 600 to 900 troopers, making up a single entity. With the widespread adoption of conscription in European armies during the nineteenth century, the regimental system underwent modification.
Prior to World War I, a regiment in the French, Russian. As far as possible, the battalions would be garrisoned in the same military district, so that the regiment could be mobilized. A cavalry regiment by contrast made up an entity of up to 1,000 troopers. Usually, the regiment is responsible for recruiting and administering all of a military career. Depending upon the country, regiments can be either combat units or administrative units or both and this is often contrasted to the continental system adopted by many armies. Generally, divisions are garrisoned together and share the same installations, thus, in divisional administration and officers are transferred in and out of divisions as required. Some regiments recruited from specific areas, and usually incorporated the place name into the regimental name. In other cases, regiments would recruit from an age group within a nation. In other cases, new regiments were raised for new functions within an army, e. g. the Fusiliers, the Parachute Regiment, a key aspect of the regimental system is that the regiment or battalion is the fundamental tactical building block.
This flows historically from the period, when battalions were widely dispersed and virtually autonomous. For example, a regiment might include different types of battalions of different origins, within the regimental system and usually officers, are always posted to a tactical unit of their own regiment whenever posted to field duty
Battle of Fort Sumter
Following declarations of secession by seven Southern states, South Carolina demanded that the U. S. Army abandon its facilities in Charleston Harbor. On 26 December 1860, Major Robert Anderson of the U. S, an attempt by U. S. President James Buchanan to reinforce and resupply Anderson using the unarmed merchant ship Star of the West failed when it was fired upon by shore batteries on 9 January 1861. South Carolina authorities seized all Federal property in the Charleston area except for Fort Sumter, during the early months of 1861, the situation around Fort Sumter increasingly began to resemble a siege. In March, Brigadier General P. G. T. Beauregard, Beauregard energetically directed the strengthening of batteries around Charleston harbor aimed at Fort Sumter. Conditions in the fort, growing ever dire due to shortages of men, the resupply of Fort Sumter became the first crisis of the administration of the newly inaugurated U. S. President Abraham Lincoln following his victory in the election of November 6,1860.
Beginning at 4,30 a. m. on April 12, although the Union garrison returned fire, they were significantly outgunned and, after 34 hours, Major Anderson agreed to evacuate. There were no deaths on either side as a result of this engagement. Following the battle, there was support from both North and South for further military action. Lincolns immediate call for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion resulted in an additional four southern states declaring their secession, on February 7, the seven states adopted a provisional constitution for the Confederate States of America and established their temporary capital at Montgomery, Alabama. A February peace conference met in Washington, D. C. the remaining eight states declined pleas to join the Confederacy. The seceding states seized numerous Federal properties within their boundaries, including buildings, President James Buchanan protested but took no military action in response. Several forts had been constructed in Charlestons harbor, including Fort Sumter and Fort Moultrie, Fort Moultrie on Sullivan Island was the oldest—it was the site of fortifications since 1776—and was the headquarters of the U. S.
Army garrison. When the garrison began clearing away the dunes, the papers objected, Major Robert Anderson of the 1st U. S. Artillery regiment had been appointed to command the Charleston garrison that fall because of rising tensions, Anderson had served an earlier tour of duty at Fort Moultrie and his father had been a defender of the fort during the American Revolutionary War. Throughout the fall, South Carolina authorities considered both secession and the expropriation of property in the harbor to be inevitable. S. In contrast to Moultrie, Fort Sumter dominated the entrance to Charleston Harbor and, South Carolina authorities considered Andersons move to be a breach of faith. Buchanan, a former U. S. Secretary of State and diplomat, had used carefully crafted ambiguous language to Pickens, from Major Andersons standpoint, he was merely moving his existing garrison troops from one of the locations under his command to another. He had received instructions from the War Department on December 11, written by Major General Don Carlos Buell, Assistant Adjutant General of the Army and you are to hold possession of the forts in this harbor, and if attacked you are to defend yourself to the last extremity
Cavalry or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the most mobile of the combat arms, an individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, dragoon or trooper. The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used animals, such as camels. Cavalry had the advantage of improved mobility, and a man fighting from horseback had the advantages of greater height, another element of horse mounted warfare is the psychological impact a mounted soldier can inflict on an opponent. In Europe cavalry became increasingly armoured, and eventually became known for the mounted knights, in the period between the World Wars, many cavalry units were converted into motorized infantry and mechanized infantry units, or reformed as tank troops. Most cavalry units that are horse-mounted in modern armies serve in purely ceremonial roles, modern usage of the term generally refers to specialist units equipped with tanks or aircraft.
The shock role, traditionally filled by heavy cavalry, is filled by units with the armored designation. Before the Iron Age, the role of cavalry on the battlefield was largely performed by light chariots, the chariot originated with the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in Central Asia and spread by nomadic or semi-nomadic Indo-Iranians. The power of mobility given by mounted units was recognized early on, Cavalry techniques were an innovation of equestrian nomads of the Central Asian and Iranian steppe and pastoralist tribes such as the Persian Parthians and Sarmatians. The photograph above left shows Assyrian cavalry from reliefs of 865–860 BC, at this time, the men had no spurs, saddle cloths, or stirrups. Fighting from the back of a horse was more difficult than mere riding. The cavalry acted in pairs, the reins of the archer were controlled by his neighbours hand. Even at this time, cavalry used swords, shields. The sculpture implies two types of cavalry, but this might be a simplification by the artist, Later images of Assyrian cavalry show saddle cloths as primitive saddles, allowing each archer to control his own horse.
As early as 490 BC a breed of horses was bred in the Nisaean plain in Media to carry men with increasing amounts of armour. However, chariots remained in use for purposes such as carrying the victorious general in a Roman triumph. The southern Britons met Julius Caesar with chariots in 55 and 54 BC, the last mention of chariot use in battle was by the Caledonians at the Mons Graupius, in 84 AD. During the classical Greek period cavalry were usually limited to citizens who could afford expensive war-horses
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
Infantry is the general branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot. As the troops who engage with the enemy in close-ranged combat, infantry units bear the largest brunt of warfare, Infantry can enter and maneuver in terrain that is inaccessible to military vehicles and employ crew-served infantry weapons that provide greater and more sustained firepower. In English, the 16th-century term Infantry describes soldiers who walk to the battlefield, and there engage, the term arose in Sixteenth-Century Spain, which boasted one of the first professional standing armies seen in Europe since the days of Rome. It was common to appoint royal princes to military commands, and the men under them became known as Infanteria. in the Canadian Army, the role of the infantry is to close with, and destroy the enemy. In the U. S. Army, the closes with the enemy, by means of fire and maneuver, in order to destroy or capture him, or to repel his assault by fire, close combat. In the U. S. Marine Corps, the role of the infantry is to locate, close with, and destroy the enemy fire and maneuver.
Beginning with the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century, artillery has become a dominant force on the battlefield. Since World War I, combat aircraft and armoured vehicles have become dominant. In 20th and 21st century warfare, infantry functions most effectively as part of a combined arms team including artillery, Infantry relies on organized formations to be employed in battle. These have evolved over time, but remain a key element to effective infantry development and deployment, until the end of the 19th century, infantry units were for the most part employed in close formations up until contact with the enemy. This allowed commanders to control of the unit, especially while maneuvering. The development of guns and other weapons with increased firepower forced infantry units to disperse in order to make them less vulnerable to such weapons. This decentralization of command was made possible by improved communications equipment, among the various subtypes of infantry is Medium infantry.
This refers to infantry which are heavily armed and armored than heavy infantry. In the early period, medium infantry were largely eliminated due to discontinued use of body armour up until the 20th century. In the United States Army, Stryker Infantry is considered Medium Infantry, since they are heavier than light infantry, Infantry doctrine is the concise expression of how infantry forces contribute to campaigns, major operations and engagements. It is a guide to action, not a set of hard, doctrine provides a very common frame of reference across the military forces, allowing the infantry to function cooperatively in what are now called combined arms operations. Doctrine helps standardise operations, facilitating readiness by establishing common ways of accomplishing infantry tasks, doctrine links theory, history and practice
Richmond in the American Civil War
Richmond, served as the capital of the Confederate States of America for almost the whole of the American Civil War. The city was less than 100 miles from the Union capital in Washington and its proximity to the fighting would lead to it becoming a center of hospitals and military prisons. The city finally fell to Union forces on April 3,1865, in the aftermath of the war, numerous monuments and museums were erected in the city. In the 1860 United States Census, Richmond was the 25th largest urban area in the United States, the city had been the capital of Virginia since 1780. The Confederate States of America was formed in early 1861 from the first states to secede from the Union, Alabama, was selected as the Confederate capital. After the Confederate Army fired on Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, on April 12,1861, beginning the Civil War, additional states seceded. Virginia voted to secede from the Union on April 17,1861, shortly thereafter, in recognition of Virginias strategic importance, the Confederate capital was moved to Richmond.
Richmond remained the capital of the Confederacy until April 2,1865, at point the government evacuated and was re-established, albeit briefly, in Danville. Positioned on the Fall Line along the James River, the city had access to an ample supply of hydropower to run mills. The Tredegar Iron Works, sprawling along the James River, supplied high-quality munitions to Confederacy during the war, the company manufactured railroad steam locomotives in the same period. The foundry made the 723 tons of armor plating that covered the CSS Virginia, the Tredegar works were adjacent to the Richmond Arsenal, which was recommissioned in the lead-up to the war. On Browns Island, the Confederate States Laboratory was established to consolidate explosives production to a setting in the eventuality of an accidental explosion. Numerous smaller factories in Richmond produced tents, uniforms and leather goods and bayonets, as the war progressed, the citys warehouses became the supply and logistical center for much of the Confederate forces within the Eastern Theater.
Richmond was a transportation hub, at the fall of Richmond in April 1865, all but the Richmond and Danville Railroad and the canal had effectively been cut off by Union forces. In the late spring of 1862, a large Federal army under Major General George B. McClellan landed on the Virginia Peninsula, McClellan, who had enjoyed early publicity from a series of successes in western Virginia, was assigned the task of seizing and occupying Richmond. His military maneuvers and the battles and engagements became collectively known as the Peninsula Campaign. McClellans starting base was the Union-held Fort Monroe at the tip of the Peninsula. Efforts to take Richmond by the James River were successfully blocked by Confederate defenses at the Battle of Drewrys Bluff on May 15, the Union Army advance was halted shortly outside of the city at the Battle of Seven Pines on May 31 and June 1,1862
Virginia in the American Civil War
The Commonwealth of Virginia was a prominent part of the Confederate States during the American Civil War. As a slave-holding state, it held a convention to deal with the secession crisis. Opinion shifted after 15 April, when U. S, in May, it was decided to move the Confederate capital from Montgomery, Alabama, to Richmond, in part because the defense of Virginias capital was deemed vital to the Confederacys survival. On 24 May, the U. S. Army moved into northern Virginia, the successes of Robert E. Lee in defending Richmond is a central theme of the military history of the war. The White House of the Confederacy, located a few north of the State Capitol, was home to the family of Confederate leader Jefferson Davis. On October 16,1859, the radical abolitionist John Brown led a group of 22 men in a raid on the Federal Arsenal in Harpers Ferry, U. S. troops, led by Robert E. Lee and quelled the raid. Subsequently, John Brown was tried and executed by hanging in Charles Town on December 2,1859, breckinridge as their party candidate for President.
When Republican Abraham Lincoln was elected as U. S. president, while a majority of the state would look for compromises to the sectional differences, most people opposed any restrictions on slaveholders rights. As the state watched to see what South Carolina would do, many Unionists felt that the greatest danger to the state came not from the North but from rash secession by the lower South. On November 15,1860 Virginia Governor John Letcher called for a session of the Virginia General Assembly to consider, among other issues. The legislature convened on January 7 and approved the convention on January 14, the election of convention delegates drew 145,700 voters who elected, by county,152 representatives. Thirty of these delegates were secessionists, thirty were unionists, advocates of immediate secession were clearly outnumbered. Simultaneous to this election, six slave states formed the Confederate States on February 4. According to one Virginian teacher, William M, one of the conventions first actions was to create a 21-member Federal Relations Committee charged with reaching a compromise to the sectional differences as they affected Virginia.
The committee was made up of 4 secessionists,10 moderates and 7 unionists, at first there was no urgency to the conventions deliberations as all sides felt that time only aided their cause. With the failure of the Peace Conference at the end of February, Unionist support by many was further eroded for many Virginians by Lincolns March 4 First Inaugural address which they felt was argumentative, if not defiant. Throughout the state there was evidence that support for secession was growing, the fourteen proposals defended both slavery and states rights while calling for a meeting of the eight slave states still in the Union to present a united front for compromise. From March 15 through April 14 the convention debated these proposals one by one, during the debate on the resolutions, the sixth resolution calling for a peaceful solution and maintenance of the Union came up for discussion on April 4
Isham G. Harris
Isham Green Harris was an American politician who served as Governor of Tennessee from 1857 to 1862, and as a U. S. Senator from 1877 until his death and he was the states first governor from West Tennessee. Harris rose to prominence in politics in the late 1840s when he campaigned against the anti-slavery initiatives of northern Whigs. He was elected governor amidst rising sectional strife in the late 1850s and his war-time efforts eventually raised over 100,000 soldiers for the Confederate cause. After the Union Army gained control of Middle and West Tennessee in 1862, following the war, he spent several years in exile in Mexico and England. After returning to Tennessee, Harris became a leader of the states Bourbon Democrats, during his tenure in the U. S. Senate, he championed states rights and currency expansion. As the Senates president pro tempore in the 1890s, Harris led the charge against President Grover Clevelands attempts to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, Harris was born in Franklin County, Tennessee near Tullahoma.
He was the child of Isham Green Harris, a farmer and Methodist minister. His parents had moved from North Carolina to Middle Tennessee in 1806 and he was educated at Carrick Academy in Winchester, until he was fourteen. He moved to Paris, where he joined up with his brother William, an attorney, while in Ripley, Harris studied law. He sold his successful business three years for $7,000 and returned to Paris where he continued studying law under Judge Andrew McCampbell, on May 3,1841, he was admitted to the bar in Henry County and began a lucrative practice in Paris. He was considered one of the leading attorneys in the state. On July 6,1843, Harris married Martha Mariah Travis, the daughter of Major Edward Travis, by 1850 the family had a 300-acre farm and a home in Paris. By 1860 their total property was worth $45,000 and included twenty slaves, in 1847, Henry County Democrats convinced Harris to run for the districts Tennessee Senate seat in hopes of countering a strong campaign by local Whig politician William Hubbard.
Anti-war comments made in August by the districts Whig congressional candidate, William T. Haskell, damaged Hubbards campaign, Harris easily defeated the last minute Whig replacement, Joseph Roerlhoe. Shortly after taking his seat, he sponsored a resolution condemning the Wilmot Proviso, in 1848, Harris was an elector for unsuccessful presidential candidate Lewis Cass. In May of that year, he engaged in a debate in Clarksville with Aaron Goodrich. Harris was nominated as the Democratic candidate for the states 9th District seat in the U. S. House of Representatives in 1849, after successfully tying his opponent to unpopular positions of the national Whig Party, Harris won the election easily
Maryland in the American Civil War
During the American Civil War, Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the South and North. Lincolns suspension of habeas corpus in Maryland, and dismissal of the Supreme Court Chief Justices ruling that such suspension was unconstitutional, would leave lasting scars. Later, in July 1864, the Battle of Monocacy near Frederick, Maryland in the third, across the state, nearly 85,000 citizens signed up for the military, with most joining the Union Army. Approximately one third as many enlisted to fight for the Confederacy, the end of the war would bring the abolition of slavery in Maryland, with a new constitution voted in 1864 by a small majority. Animosity against Lincoln would remain, and Marylander John Wilkes Booth would assassinate President Lincoln in April 1865, Maryland, as a slave-holding border state, was deeply divided over the antebellum arguments over states rights and the future of slavery in the Union. Culturally and economically, Maryland found herself neither one thing nor another, in the lead up to the American Civil War, it became clear that the state was bitterly divided in its sympathies.
In the presidential election of 1860 Lincoln won just 2,294 votes out of a total of 92,421, only 2. 5% of the votes cast, in seven counties, Lincoln received not a single vote. Not all blacks in Maryland were slaves, the 1860 Federal Census showed there were nearly as many free blacks as slaves in Maryland. However, across the state, sympathies were mixed, many Marylanders were simply pragmatic, recognising that the states long border with pro-Union Pennsylvania would be almost impossible to defend in the event of war. Maryland businessmen feared the loss of trade that would be caused by war. After John Browns raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859, many citizens began forming local militias, the first bloodshed of the Civil War occurred in Maryland. Panicked by the situation, several soldiers fired into the mob, whether accidentally, in a desultory manner, chaos ensued as a giant brawl began between fleeing soldiers, the violent mob, and the Baltimore police who tried to suppress the violence. Four soldiers and twelve civilians were killed in the riot, the disorder inspired James Ryder Randall, a Marylander living in Louisiana, to write a poem which would be put to music and, in 1939, become the state song, Maryland, My Maryland.
The songs lyrics urged Marylanders to spurn the Northern scum and burst the tyrants chain - in other words, Confederate States Army bands would play the song after they crossed into Maryland territory during the Maryland Campaign in 1862. After the April 19 rioting, skirmishes continued in Baltimore for the next month, Mayor George William Brown and Maryland Governor Thomas Hicks implored President Lincoln to reroute troops around Baltimore city and through Annapolis to avoid further confrontations. In a letter to President Lincoln, Mayor Brown wrote, It is my duty to inform you that it is not possible for more soldiers to pass through Baltimore unless they fight their way at every step. I therefore hope and trust and most earnestly request that no more troops be permitted or ordered by the Government to pass through the city, if they should attempt it, the responsibility for the bloodshed will not rest upon me. The destruction was accomplished the next day, one of the men involved in this destruction would be arrested for it in May without recourse to habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman ruling
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
A military volunteer is a person who enlists in military service by free will, and is not a mercenary or a foreign legionnaire. Volunteers often enlist to fight in the forces of a foreign country. Military volunteers are essential for the operation of volunteer militaries, many armies, including the U. S. Army, formerly distinguished between United States Volunteers enlisted during a war, and regulars who served on long-term basis. Troops raised as state militia were always volunteers, while U. S. troops could be volunteers or regulars, the rank of an officer in a volunteer unit was separate from his rank as a regular, and usually higher. When the volunteer forces were disbanded at the end of the war, for instance, George Armstrong Custer became a brigadier general of volunteers during the American Civil War, but when the war ended, he reverted to captain. Volunteer rank should not be confused with brevet rank, the move to a volunteer over conscription force for a national military appears to improve, at least for the United States, the professionalism of its standing armed forces.
Military volunteer Foreign volunteers Sar-El, national project for volunteers for Israel SAF Volunteer Corps, volunteer scheme for the Singapore Armed Forces