Samuel Stanhope Smith
Samuel Stanhope Smith was a Presbyterian minister, founding president of Hampden–Sydney College and the seventh president of the College of New Jersey from 1795 to 1812. His stormy career ended in his enforced resignation, the school, not named, was always intended to be a college-level institution, in the same advertisement, Smith explicitly likens its curriculum to that of the College of New Jersey. Academy was a term used for college-level schools not run by the established church. Stanhope Smith held honorary doctorates from Yale and Harvard and was a member of the American Philosophical Society. Smith studied under president Witherspoon, married Witherspoons daughter, returned to Princeton as a professor in 1779, College authorities denounced it as a sign of moral decay. Smith was active in the affairs of the Presbyterian Church and served as moderator of the 11th General Assembly in 1799, Smith was an urbane and cultivated man who sought, in the tradition of Witherspoon, to maintain orthodoxy while opposing tendencies toward rigidity and obscurantism.
His efforts were unsuccessful, and he was forced to resign from his office in 1812 as a result of criticism from within the church, in his efforts to reconcile reason and revelation Smith left himself vulnerable to charges of rationalism and Arminianism. Smith was the first systematic expositor of Scottish Common Sense Realism in America, an empiricist in his anthropology and a Lamarckian before Lamarck, he sought to mediate between science and religious orthodoxy. In his work, Stanhope Smith expressed progressive views on marriage and egalitarian ideas about race, the second edition of his Essay on the Causes of Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species became important as a powerful argument against the increasing racism of 19th-century ethnology. An example he provides involves the blacks in the southern states, in this essay Smith described the basic concept of sexual selection, this was before Charles Darwin popularized the theory. Smith is known for his attempt to refute Thomas Jeffersons claim in Notes on the State of Virginia, in it, he attacked Jeffersons disregard of poetic abilities of Phillis Wheatley, African slave prodigy.
Noah Webster cited Stanhope Smith in Websters 1828 Dictionary in the definition of philosophy, the citation was from Stanhope Smiths second edition of his Essay on the Causes of Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species. The quote as given, True religion, and true philosophy must ultimately arrive at the same principle, Essay on the Causes of Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species. Newark, New Jersey, Jacob Halsey and Co.1799, lectures on the Evidences of the Christian Religion. Lectures on Moral and Political Philosophy. J, longer Biography of Samuel Stanhope Smith from the Princeton Companion Photographic tour of Samuel S. Smiths grave at Princeton Cemetery. Biography of Samuel Stanhope Smith at the Hampden–Sydney College web site, a Hideous Monster of the Mind, American Race Theory in the Early Republic. An American Dictionary of the English Language, definition of philosophy Brinkley, John Luster. On This Hill, A narrative history of Hampden–Sydney College, 1774-1994
Samuel Davies (clergyman)
Samuel Davies was an evangelist and Presbyterian minister. Davies ministered in Hanover County from 1748-1759, followed by a term as the fourth President of Princeton University, known as the College of New Jersey, from 1759 to 1761. One of the first non-Anglican preachers in Virginia, he was an advocate for religious freedom. Davies was a writer, authoring several hymns and publishing a book of poetry. Davies was born in New Castle County, Delaware to David Davies and Martha Thomas Davies, Daviess mother eventually became a follower of presbyterian doctrine, which led to his earliest exposure to Calvinist theology. A child of religious parents, his mother named him after the prophet Samuel. Blairs son, named Samuel, was a member of Princetons graduating class of 1760, the younger Blair became the second chaplain of the United States House of Representatives. After Davies completed his studies with Blair, the Presbytery of New Castle licensed him to preach in 1746 and he joined the New Side synod of New York, and married Sarah Kirkpatrick on October 23,1746, while he was preaching in Pennsylvania and Delaware.
Commissioned as an evangelist to Virginia several months later, on February 17,1747, virginias colonial legislature in 1743 had licensed Polegreen reading room and three others in and near Hanover County, Virginia. Davies eventually led seven congregations in five counties, fulfilling his duties despite frail health from tuberculosis and his beloved wife Sarah died from a miscarriage on September 15,1747, shortly before their first anniversary. Her death led Davies to believe that he too was near death, Davies eventually recovered his health and continued to preach. Davies returned to Virginia in May 1748, and on October 4,1748, married Jane Holt and he fathered six children with Jane, including one child who died at birth. As one of the first non-Anglican ministers licensed to preach in Virginia, Davies advanced the cause of religious, Davies strong religious convictions led him to value the freeborn mind and the inalienable liberty of conscience that the established Anglican Church in Virginia often failed to respect.
Davies helped found the Presbytery of Hanover, encompassing all Presbyterian ministers in Virginia and he served as its first moderator and was considered the regions leading voice for religious dissenters. Rev. Davies served as the first minister at Providence Presbyterian Church in Louisa County, while in Virginia, unlike the earlier Rev. Makemie, Davies advocated educating slaves, including teaching them to read. Although personally not opposed to slavery, Davies believed that slaves deserved direct access to the word of God the same as their masters, slaves became a particular focus of his ministry, and several contemporaries noted how Davies converted African slaves at unusually high numbers. Davies used the materials he received from his sponsors in Great Britain to instruct slaves. The classic spiritual Lord, I want to be a Christian in my heart reportedly originated at Polegreen, Rev. Davies eventually baptized hundreds as Christians, and they joined other members of the congregation at the communion table
Aaron Burr Sr.
Aaron Burr Sr. was a notable Presbyterian minister and college educator in colonial America. He was a founder of the College of New Jersey and the father of Aaron Burr, a native of Connecticut, Burr was born in 1716 in present-day Fairfield to Daniel and Elizabeth Burr, his father was a wealthy farmer. Aaron Burr attended Yale College, where he obtained a B. A. in 1735, after graduation, he studied theology in New Haven and witnessed the First Great Awakening, a significant religious and spiritual movement of the 1730s and 1740s. He was personally acquainted with Jonathan Edwards and his wife Sarah, daughter of James Pierpont, Edwards, a leader of the Great Awakening, was Burrs mentor. On December 21,1736, Burr a became minister of the Presbyterian Church of Newark, Newark and he taught Greek and Latin to youth, and co-authored Introduction to the Latin Tongue. After a few years, Burr rose to prominence in the Presbyterian circles of upper New Jersey, presbyterians became divided between the so-called conservative Old Side and dissenting, pro-Awakening New Side congregationalists—between Old and New Lights.
The rift affected the faculty and student body at Yale that was at the time an incubator for both Presbyterian and Congregational clergy, dickinson was elected first president of the College, but died soon after in 1747. Burr, who taught at the College, became the president on November 9,1748 after approval of the college charter by New Jersey governor Jonathan Belcher. During his tenure, the curriculum was settled, the student body increased from 8 in 1747 to 40-50 in 1751, among the first graduates was Richard Stockton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, five others became Presbyterian ministers. In 1755, Burr was relieved of his duties in order to concentrate full-time on his work at Princeton. At age 32, he became the youngest person ever to serve as president of Princeton, on June 29,1752, Burr married Esther Edwards, daughter of the New England Congregational great, Jonathan Edwards. Together, they had two children, Sarah Sally Burr, who married Tapping Reeve Aaron Burr, who married Theodosia Bartow Prevost in 1782, after her death in 1794, he married Eliza Jumel in 1833.
His remains were interred in the Presidents Lot at Princeton Cemetery and his widow died seven months later, orphaning their three-year-old daughter and two-year-old son. His grandchildren include Aaron Burr Reeve, who died shortly after the birth of his child, Tapping Burr Reeve. Theodosia was married to Joseph Alston, who served as the 44th Governor of South Carolina from 1812 to 1814, Sermon at the Ordination of David Bostwick. A Discourse Delivered at New-Ark in New Jersey, January 1,1755, the Watchmans Answer to the Question, What of the Night, & C, A Sermon Preached Before the Synod of New York, Convened at Newark in New Jersey, September 30,1756. The Supreme Deity of our Lord Jesus Christ, Maintained, a Funeral Sermon, Preached at the Interment of Jonathan Belcher, Esg. Photographic tour of Aaron Burrs grave at Princeton Cemetery, biography of Burr Sr. at Princeton University
Finley was the second son from a family of at least 9 children of Michael Finley by Ann daughter of Samuel ONeill. At least 2 of his brothers, Rev James Finley and Rev. Andrew Finley, Finley was awarded an honorary degree by the University of Glasgow. In 1743 Finley was assigned by the New Brunswick Presbytery to the newly formed Presbyterian congregation at Milford and this congregation was started when 39 Scotch-Irish people applied under the Toleration Act as Presbyterians under the Church of Scotland. The larger community of Connecticut may have tolerated this new church, in May 1742 the Presbyterians were denied erecting their church on the commons. In November 1742, with the aid of a court order and their first five ministers were harassed with fines and threats of being apprehended as early as January 1742. It was into this climate that the Rev. Samuel Finley was assigned to the Milford Presbyterian congregation and he preached in Milford on August 25, and in New Haven, Connecticut on September 1,1743.
For this, he was prosecuted and condemned, governor Jonathan Law ordered him transported as a vagrant from the Connecticut colony. In any event, Finley was escorted from Connecticut and advanced on his journey to New Jersey, about this time, Finley is said to have founded the West Nottingham Academy. He may have served as pastor of the Cold Spring Presbyterian Church, on Cape May, on September 26,1744, Samuel Finley married Sarah Hall, daughter of Joseph Hall and Rebecca Rutter. Various sources report five sons and three daughters were born of this union, on May 13,1761, he married Ann Clarkson, daughter of Matthew Clarkson and Cornelia de Peyste, of Philadelphia. Finleys first wife, Sarah Hall, was the sister of Susanna Hall Harvey, the mother of Dr. Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Rush moved into the Finley home at the age of six upon the death of his father, Finley is said to have convinced Rush to become a physician. Rush attended Finley as his physician at the time of his death, another signer of the Declaration of Independence, Richard Stockton, studied under Finley at West Nottingham Academy.
Stocktons daughter, subsequently married Benjamin Rush, Finleys sermons, Hazard said, were calculated to inform the ignorant, to alarm the careless and secure, and to edify and comfort the faithful. Finley died on July 17,1766 and it is thought that the so-called Stamp Act Trees planted in front of the then-Presidents home at Princeton were planted by Finley. Samuel Finley Breese Morse, the developer of the telegraph and the namesake of Morse Code, was Finleys great-grandson via his daughter, Rebecca. RADM Herald F. Stout, 2d Ed 2 VV bound as 1, Dover OH,1956, v 1 pp 14–5,24 Genealogical and Personal History of Fayette County Pennsylvania, Vol. I-II, John W. Jordan, ed. New York, USA, Lewis Historical Publishing Company,1912 Biography from A Princeton Companion by Alexander Leitch, Princeton University Press,1978
Francis Landey Patton
Francis Landey Patton, American educator, academic administrator, and theologian, and the twelfth president of Princeton University. He was born in Warwick Parish, part of the British Overseas Territories, in 1871, Patton moved to Chicago to become minister of the Jefferson Park Presbyterian Church, Chicago. From 1872 to 1881, he was a professor at McCormick Theological Seminary and he wrote The Inspiration of the Scriptures, and Summary of Christian Doctrine. Patton was opposed to the spread of liberal Christianity in his denomination, as editor of a Presbyterian weekly entitled Interior, he denounced the growth of liberalism in the Chicago Presbytery. He brought charges of heresy in 1874 against David Swing, and was prosecuting attorney at Swings trial and he accused Swing of subscribing to a modern version of the heresy of Sabellianism and of unduly countenancing Unitarianism. In 1881, he left Chicago and became Stuart professor of the relation of philosophy and he co-edited the Presbyterian Review with Dr Charles A Briggs 1880-1888.
In 1888, he was elected president of the College of New Jersey and his appointment was criticized by some alumni, who noted that Patton was not an American citizen, while some feared he would harangue students with John Knox-style sermons. During Pattons time as university president, Princeton more than doubled in size, Patton appointed many prominent Princeton professors, Woodrow Wilson, Bliss Perry, John Grier Hibben, Henry van Dyke, Paul Van Dyke, and Howard C. Warren. Patton announced the change from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University in the midst of the ceremonies celebrating the Colleges Sesquicentennial in 1896. Although Princeton founded a school while Patton was president, Patton played little role in the foundation of the graduate school. In 1891, Dr Charles A Briggs, Pattons former co-editor at the Presbyterian Review was appointed the first-ever Professor of Biblical Theology by Union Theological Seminary, on Pattons urging, the General Assembly voted to remove Briggs from his position.
The faculty of Union Theological Seminary voted to withdraw from the rather than remove Briggs from his chair in order to defend the institutions academic freedom. Although Patton was popular as an academic, a theologian, in the 1890s, clerical control over Princeton waned, and more and more businessmen and lawyers were elected as Trustees of Princeton University. Dissatisfied with Pattons management of the university, in 1902, the Trustees voted to replace Patton as president, Patton thus became president of Princeton Theological Seminary. In that capacity, he opposed Henry van Dykes proposal to revise the Westminster Confession of Faith, Patton retired in 1913 and returned to his native Bermuda. He continued to out on controversies within the Presbyterian church. He published a book entitled Fundamental Christianity, in which he wrote We cannot change Christianity and we may reject it if we please, but its meaning is plain. He died in Bermuda on November 25,1932 and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed.
Patton, Francis Landey
Prospect House (Princeton, New Jersey)
In 1878, it was given to the College of New Jersey, which became Princeton University and served as the house of the school president. Woodrow Wilson lived here before he became governor of New Jersey, in 1968, it became a university clubhouse. It was designated a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1985, sculpture Garden National Register of Historic Places listings in Mercer County, New Jersey Prospect House History Princeton University, Prospect House
John Witherspoon was a Scottish-American Presbyterian minister and a Founding Father of the United States. Politically active, Witherspoon was a delegate from New Jersey to the Second Continental Congress and he was the only active clergyman and the only college president to sign the Declaration. Later, he signed the Articles of Confederation and supported ratification of the Constitution, in 1789 he was Convening Moderator of the First General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. This latter claim of Knox descent though ancient in origin is long disputed and he attended the Haddington Grammar School, and obtained a Master of Arts from the University of Edinburgh in 1739. He remained at the University to study divinity, in 1764, he was awarded an honorary doctorate degree in divinity by the University of St. Andrews. Witherspoon was a staunch Protestant and supporter of republicanism, consequently, he was opposed to the Roman Catholic Legitimist Jacobite rising of 1745–1746.
Following the Jacobite victory at the Battle of Falkirk, he was imprisoned at Doune Castle. He became a Church of Scotland minister at Beith and they had ten children, with five surviving to adulthood. From 1758–1768, he was minister of the Laigh kirk, Witherspoon became prominent within the Church as an Evangelical opponent of the Moderate Party. During his two pastorates he wrote three works on theology, notably the satire Ecclesiastical Characteristics, which opposed the philosophical influence of Francis Hutcheson. Thus and his emigrated to New Jersey in 1768. At the age of 45, he became the sixth President of the college, upon his arrival, Witherspoon found the school in debt, with weak instruction, and a library collection which clearly failed to meet student needs. He immediately began fund-raising—locally and back home in Scotland—added three hundred of his own books to the library, and began purchasing scientific equipment. Witherspoon instituted a number of reforms, including modeling the syllabus and university structure after that used at the University of Edinburgh and he firmed up entrance requirements, which helped the school compete with Harvard and Yale for scholars.
Witherspoon taught personally courses in Eloquence or Belles Lettres, however, none was more important than Moral Philosophy. An advocate of Natural Law within a Christian and republican Cosmology, Witherspoon considered Moral Philosophy vital for ministers, firm but good-humored in his leadership, Witherspoon was very popular among both faculty and students. Witherspoon had been a prominent evangelical Presbyterian minister in Scotland before accepting the Princeton position, as the Colleges primary occupation at the time was training ministers, Witherspoon became a major leader of the early Presbyterian church in America. He helped organize Nassau Presbyterian Church in Princeton, N. J, Witherspoon transformed a college designed predominantly to train clergymen into a school that would equip the leaders of a new Protestant country
John Aikman Stewart
John Aikman Stewart was a New York City banker who during the administration of Grover Cleveland replenished the nations gold supply by issuing new bonds. He was the person in its history to serve as acting President of Princeton University from 1910 to 1912. He was born on August 26,1822, during the presidency of Grover Cleveland he replenished the nations gold supply by organizing a syndicate that bought $50,000,000 in bonds. He died on December 18,1926
Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions. The roles and functions of clergy vary in different religious traditions but these usually involve presiding over specific rituals, some of the terms used for individual clergy are cleric, clergywoman and churchman. In Islam, a leader is often known formally or informally as an imam, mufti. In Jewish tradition, a leader is often a rabbi or hazzan. Cleric comes from the ecclesiastical Latin clericus, for belonging to the priestly class. This is from the Ecclesiastical Greek clericus, meaning appertaining to an inheritance, Clergy is from two Old French words, clergié and clergie, which refer to those with learning and derive from Medieval Latin clericatus, from Late Latin clericus. Clerk, which used to mean one ordained to the ministry, in the Middle Ages and writing were almost exclusively the domain of the priestly class, and this is the reason for the close relationship of these words. Now, the state is tied to reception of the diaconate.
Minor Orders are still given in the Eastern Catholic Churches, and it is in this sense that the word entered the Arabic language, most commonly in Lebanon from the French, as kleriki meaning seminarian. This is all in keeping with Eastern Orthodox concepts of clergy, which include those who have not yet received, or do not plan to receive. A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who have religious authority or function. Buddhist clergy are often referred to as the Sangha. This diversity of monastic orders and styles was originally one community founded by Gautama Buddha during the 5th century BC living under a set of rules. The interaction between Buddhism and Tibetan Bon led to a uniquely Tibetan Buddhism, within which various sects, the interaction between Indian Buddhist monks and Chinese Confucian and Taoist monks from c200-c900AD produced the distinctive Chan Buddhism. In these ways, manual labour was introduced to a practice where monks originally survived on alms, layers of garments were added where originally a single thin robe sufficed and this adaptation of form and roles of Buddhist monastic practice continued after the transmission to Japan.
For example, monks took on administrative functions for the Emperor in particular secular communities, again, in response to various historic attempts to suppress Buddhism, the practice of celibacy was relaxed and Japanese monks allowed to marry. This form was transmitted to Korea, during Japanese occupation, as these varied styles of Buddhist monasticism are transmitted to Western cultures, still more new forms are being created. This broad difference in approach led to a schism among Buddhist monastics in about the 4th century BCE