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President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State

The president of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State was the head of government or prime minister of the Irish Free State which existed from 1922 to 1937. He was the chairman of the Executive Council of the Free State's cabinet; the president was appointed by the governor-general, upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann and had to enjoy the confidence of the Dáil to remain in office. The office was succeeded by that of Taoiseach, though subsequent Taoisigh are numbered from the first president of the Executive; the president of the Executive Council was nominated by the Dáil and formally appointed by the governor-general, though the governor-general was bound by constitutional convention to honour the Dáil's choice. On paper, executive power was vested in the governor-general, with the Executive Council empowered to "aide and advise" him. In practice, the governor-general only exercised his powers on the advice of the president of the Executive Council, making the latter the Free State's political leader.

Once he had appointed the president, the governor-general appointed the remaining members of the Executive Council on the president's nomination. The president had the freedom to choose, from among members of the Dáil, any vice-president he wished, but the remainder of the cabinet had to be approved by a vote of consent in the Dáil before they could assume office. If he ceased to "retain the support of a majority in Dáil Éireann," the president, along with his cabinet, was obliged to resign, but could continue to serve as acting president until the appointment of a successor; the method of appointment of the president of the Executive Council was through a commission of the monarch or governor-general, either the leader of the party with a majority of seats in the lower house of parliament or, if no party commanded an absolute majority, whichever leader he believed would be best able to avoid a vote of no confidence. The office of the president of the Executive Council was less powerful than either its modern equivalent, the office of Taoiseach, or the offices of most modern prime ministers in nations that follow the parliamentary system of government.

In particular, the powers of the President were subject to two important limitations: He could not dismiss a member of the Executive Council individually. Rather, the Executive Council had to be disbanded and reformed as a whole in order to replace a single minister, he could not request a dissolution of parliament on his own initiative. This could only be done by the Executive Council acting collectively; the result of these restrictions was, according to Brian Farrell, that the president of the Executive Council was closer to being the Executive Council's chairman or presiding officer, than its dominant leader. Nonetheless a strong president could exercise authority beyond the limits laid down in the 1922 constitution; the president's weak position arose from the fact that the status of his office was modelled on that of the prime minister of the United Kingdom before 1918. Until 1918, the British prime minister's powers had been theoretically quite limited and, as a member of the cabinet, the office-holder was regarded as primus inter pares.

Under Prime Minister David Lloyd George, from 1918 onwards, the powers of the office increased, as Lloyd George unilaterally claimed for himself powers that had belonged to the Cabinet collectively, most the right to seek a parliamentary dissolution. In 1931, the Free State sought, was granted, the right to have an Irish minister formally advise the King in the exercise of his powers and functions in the Irish Free State, to the exclusion of British ministers; this had the effect of giving the president of the Executive Council the right to advise the King in his capacity as His Majesty's Irish Prime Minister. The office of President of the Executive Council came into being on 6 December 1922 with the establishment of the Irish Free State, replacing the previous offices of President of Dáil Éireann and Chairman of the Provisional Government. Only two individuals held the office of President of the Executive Council during its existence: W. T. Cosgrave, until 1932, Éamon de Valera thereafter.

Under a constitutional amendment passed in 1936 and legislation passed in 1937 the office of Governor-General was abolished, with most of his powers being transferred to the Executive Council. At the same time, the president of the Executive Council ceased to be formally appointed by the governor-general, thenceforth being elected by the Dáil; the Irish Free State was reconstituted as'Ireland' on 29 December 1937, when the present-day Constitution of Ireland came into effect. The new Constitution abolished the office of President of the Executive Council, replacing it with that of Taoiseach; the Taoiseach occupies a more powerful position than the president of the Executive Council did and has authority both to dismiss ministers individually and to request a dissolution of parliament on his own initiative. Irish heads of government since 1919

Passenger (Swedish band)

Passenger was a Swedish metal band active between 1995–2004. Passenger was formed in 1995 by Engelin. Both members wanted to do something, not Thrash metal or Melodic death metal unlike the bands they played in. At its early stages the band was called Cliff. Under the name Cliff they recorded two demos in Studio Fredman. After a break in the band and after Engelin was hired as a session guitarist for In Flames' Whoracle tour, Anders Fridén, the vocalist of In Flames showed interest in Passenger and joined the band. In the year 2000 the band went on to record a demo. In 2001 the band recorded another demo in which early versions of the songs "Used", "In My Head", "Circus" and "Drowning City" were recorded. After a third demo the band recorded and released their debut album entitled Passenger. A video for "In Reverse" was released, they did their only tour during New Year's period of 2003/2004, opening for Lacuna Coil, with Moonspell and Poisonblack. Sten noted in February 2004 on their official website that they were in the process of recording their second album.

However, since Fridén, lead vocalist of both Passenger and In Flames has been noted saying that he has little time for the project, due to other commitments, the group has split up as a result. In an interview with Fridén he stated that as soon as he gets a break from In Flames, he wants to get all the group together to record a second album for early 2010; this however, did not happen as Anders continued touring with In Flames until October 2010 when they entered their studio to record their next album. As of 2013, a decade after the band released their self-titled debut album, there has not been any activity in regards to regrouping. However, an interview with Unsung Melody, Fridén has acknowledged that there has been some minor activity, but nothing solid. Anders Fridén – Vocals Patrik J. StenDrums Niklas EngelinGuitar Håkan SkogerBass – from Headplate In Flames Gardenian Gothenburg metal Alternative metal Passenger Bio at The Gauntlet

Zelda's Adventure

Zelda's Adventure is an action-adventure fantasy video game developed by Viridis Corporation and released for the Philips CD-i console system based on The Legend of Zelda franchise. Set in the land of Tolemac, the game follows a non-traditional Zelda-saves-Link storyline, in which Link has been captured by the evil lord Ganon, Zelda must collect the seven celestial signs in order to rescue him. Released nearly 8 months after the first two Zelda CD-i games, Zelda's Adventure uses a different game engine from Faces of Evil and Wand of Gamelon. Whereas the first two CD-i games were patterned on the side-scrolling Zelda II: The Adventure of Link, Zelda's Adventure took the top-down The Legend of Zelda, A Link to the Past, Link's Awakening as its models. Zelda's Adventure is the only Legend of Zelda game to feature live-action cutscenes. Reception for the game was poor, whereas some critics have given more nuanced reviews of the first two games, modern criticism for Zelda's Adventure is unanimously negative.

Unlike the previous two CD-i Zelda games, which take the side-scrolling view from Zelda II, Zelda's Adventure is played with the overhead view found in The Legend of Zelda. Playing as Princess Zelda, the aim is to fight through the Seven Shrines of the Underworld to collect the celestial signs, bring the land of Tolemac to an Age of Lightness. Unlike the other two games, Zelda's Adventure was created by Viridis, an different company, with a change in style and gameplay. Level design is much like the original The Legend of Zelda and The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past, with an overworld that allows access to individual dungeons; the FMV sequences. Ganon has kidnapped Link and stolen the seven celestial signs, creating an "Age of Darkness" in the kingdom of Tolemac. Princess Zelda is recruited by the court astrologer Gaspra to collect the signs to defeat Ganon and save Link. Guided by the words of Shurmak, Zelda must first travel through the forest to the Shrine of Rock, where she encounters Llort, a greedy minion of Ganon who protects the first celestial sign.

Gaspra appears to congratulate Zelda and direct her to the Shrine of Illusion where she faces Pasquinade to earn the second celestial sign. Guided by the inhabitants of Tolemac, Zelda makes her way to the mountains to conquer the Shrines of Air and Destiny before crossing the great south sea to challenge Agwanda at the Shrine of Water for the fifth sign. Gaspra directs Zelda once more to the Shrine of Power in the southeast where her strength is tested, before travelling to the Shrine of Fire where she will face Warbane; as Zelda reaches to collect the final celestial sign Ganon's claw stops her, she is drawn into his lair for the final battle. In the game's final scenes, peace returns to Tolemac. Link is revealed to be safe, holding hands with Zelda where the entrance to Ganon's lair once stood, the land now thriving with new growth. In 1989, Nintendo signed a deal with Sony to begin development of a CD-ROM-based system known as the "Nintendo PlayStation" or the SNES CD to be an add-on to the Super Nintendo Entertainment System that would allow for FMV and larger games.

However, Nintendo broke the agreement and instead signed with Philips to make the add-on, which caused Sony to spin off their add-on into its own console called the PlayStation. Witnessing the poor reception of the Sega Mega-CD, Nintendo scrapped the idea of making an add-on entirely; as part of dissolving the agreement with Philips, Nintendo gave them the license to use five of their characters, including Link, Princess Zelda, Ganon, for games on Philips's console called the CD-i, after the partnership's dissolution. Contracting out to independent studios, Philips subsequently used the characters to create three games for the CD-i, with Nintendo taking no part in their development except to give input on the look of the characters based on the artwork from Nintendo's original two titles and that of their respective instruction booklets. Philips insisted that the development studios utilize all aspects of the CD-i's capabilities including FMV, high-resolution graphics, CD-quality music; because the system had not been designed as a dedicated video game console, there were several technical limitations, such as laggy controls, numerous problems in streaming-audio, disc access, graphics.

The backgrounds for Zelda's Adventure were created from videos of scenery near Santa Monica Boulevard in West L. A. footage of Hawaii taken from a helicopter, the developers' vacation photos. This decision was responsible for much of the game's RAM usage, causing backgrounds to scroll and causing extreme frustration to the game's developers; the CD-i's technical abilities were so limited that the use of one or two kilobytes of system RAM caused arguments amongst the developers. Photos of the characters were shot using mirrors mounted on the ceiling, so low it precluded mounting the camera. All of the game's human characters were played by the in-office staff; the characters sprite walking animations were done by having the actors walk on a motorized treadmill. The game's music composer Mark Andrade played the part of Gaspra in the game's cutscenes, while his voice was provided by Hal Smith. Zelda in the game's cutscene was played by office receptionist Diane Burns, while her sprite was played by Annie Ward.

The houses and interiors built for the cut scenes were built as scale models. The model artist was Jason Bakutis, who had worked in Hollywood on movies like Critters 3 and Freddy's Dead: The Final Nightmare. Developers have stated. Zelda's Adventure spent two years in testing