Senate of Cambodia
The Senate is the upper house of the Parliament of Cambodia. It is a legislative body composed of 62 members. Fifty-eight of the Senate seats are elected every six years by the commune councillors from 24 provinces of Cambodia and members of the National Assembly. In addition, the King nominates two Senators, the National Assembly nominates two, ending with a total of 62 Senators; the Senate performs its duties as determined in the law in force. The Senate is chaired and presided by the President Say Chhum of the Cambodian People's Party and assisted by two Vice Presidents; the first Senate session was held on March 25, 1999 and the first election was held on January 22, 2006. The fourth and current Senate was inaugurated by King Norodom Sihamoni on April 23, 2018; the next election is due to be held in 2024. Article 102: The term of the Senate is six years and ends on the day when the new Senate takes office. Article 107: The Senate holds its ordinary sessions twice a year; each session shall last at least three months.
If requested by the king or Prime Minister, or at least one-third of all the senators, the Senate shall convene in an extraordinary session. An absolute majority vote of all senators is used in the following cases: Election of the President, Vice Presidents of the Senate and all members of the commissions or special commission Adoption of organic laws Adoption of the internal regulations of the Senate Adoption of laws or issuesA two-third-majority vote of all senators is used for the following cases: Adoption of the Constitution law The vote pertaining to decision to indict, detent, confinement disciplinary action, parliamentary immunity, loss of membership, or abandonment of post. A three-fourth-majority vote of all senators is to be used to decide on suspension of detention or indictment of any senator; the President of the Senate is assisted by two Vice Presidents. If the President is unable to perform his/her duties due to illness or due to fulfilling the functions of Acting Head of State or as a Regent, or due to being on a mission abroad, a Vice President shall replace him.
The Permanent Committee of the Senate consists of: The President of the Senate Two Vice Presidents of the Senate The Chairman of the nine Commissions of the Senate National Assembly Parliament of Cambodia Politics of Cambodia List of legislatures by country List of Senators Ruling party wins Cambodia poll Senate of the Kingdom of Cambodia Senate Homepage Official Results of the 2007 Commune Councils Election
Senate of Chile
The Senate of the Republic of Chile is the upper house of Chile's bicameral National Congress, as established in the current Constitution of Chile. According to the present Constitution of Chile, the Senate is composed of thirty-eight directly elected senators, chosen by universal popular suffrage vote in 19 senatorial circumscriptions; these serve eight-year terms, with half of them being replaced every fourth year. They must be eligible to vote, have completed secondary school, or its equivalent, be at least 35 years old; the Senate sessions at the new National Congress located in the port city of Valparaíso that replaced the old National Congress located in downtown Santiago, the nation's capital. Amendments to the Constitution, approved by a joint session of Congress on August 16, 2005, eliminated non-directly elected senators from March 11, 2006, the day 20 newly elected senators were sworn in, leaving the total number of senators at 38, all directly elected. According to the Constitution of 1980, "designated" or "institutional" senators were appointed to the chamber.
Two former heads of state, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle and Augusto Pinochet, were installed as senators for life. Pinochet resigned from this position and Frei lost his seat in the 2005 reform. However, Frei remained in the Senate by winning an elective seat; the Senate of Chile was created in 1812 to support the formulations of policies of the Government Junta. Since it has undergone several constitutional reorganizations that have altered the scope of its constitutional powers, its composition and the generation of its members. Created by Article 7 of the Provisional Constitutional Manual of 1812, it was composed of seven titular members and three alternate members and was supposed to serve as a counterbalance to the executive power of the Government Junta. The senators were directly nominated by the provinces in agreement with the central government, it functioned from November, 1812 to January, 1814, when it was reorganized to better respond to the problems caused by the successive military defeats at the hands of the advancing Spanish Army.
Created by Article 13 of the Provisional Government Manual of 1814. As its predecessor, it was composed of seven titular members nominated by the provinces in lists of three from which they were selected by the Supreme Director, it functioned from March to July, 1814, when the Spanish Army captured Santiago, putting an end to the Patria Vieja government. Created by Title III of the Constitution of 1818, it was composed of five titular members and five alternate members selected directly by the Supreme Director. It was supposed to function only when the lower house was not in function or could not meet, had the power to enact "provisory rules" that had the same effect as laws It functioned from October, 1818 to May, 1822. Key to Senate classes by regions: Class 1 consists of:-the 23 current senators whose seats expire in March 2026. Class 2 consists of:-the 20 current senators whose seats expire in March 2022. Plus 7 new senators, who will be elected in 2022 President of the Senate of Chile National Congress of Chile Chamber of Deputies of Chile Politics of Chile List of legislatures by country Senate of Chile Official web site Article from the Economist dealing with the Senate composition
Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968—the longest tenure in the position's history—and President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974. He had long been a top aide to president Charles de Gaulle; as president, he was a moderate conservative who repaired France's relationship with the United States and maintained positive relations with the newly independent former colonies in Africa. He strengthened his political party, the Union of Democrats for the Republic, to make it a bastion of the Gaullist movement. Pompidou's presidency is held in high esteem by French political commentators. Pompidou was born in the department of Cantal in central France. After his khâgne at Lycée Louis-le-Grand, where he befriended future Senegalese poet and statesman Léopold Sédar Senghor, he attended the École Normale Supérieure, from which he graduated with a degree of agrégation in literature, he first taught literature at the lycée Henri IV in Paris until hired in 1953 by Guy de Rothschild to work at Rothschild.
In 1956, he was appointed the bank's general manager, a position he held until 1962. He was hired by Charles de Gaulle to manage the Anne de Gaulle Foundation for Down syndrome. Jacques Chirac served as an aide to Prime Minister Pompidou and recalled: The man gave the appearance of being secretive, wily, a little cunning – which he was, to a degree. However, it was his intelligence and competence that conferred indisputable authority on him and commanded respect.... I remember his untamed eyebrows, his penetrating kindly gaze, his perceptive smile, full of humour and mischievousness, his voice with its wonderful low, gravelly tone, a figure, both powerful and elegant. Reserved, little given to emotional outbursts, Pompidou did not forge close ties with his colleagues, he served as prime minister of France under de Gaulle after Michel Debré resigned, from 14 April 1962 to 10 July 1968, to this day is the longest serving French prime minister under the Fifth Republic. His nomination was controversial.
In October 1962, he was defeated in a vote of no-confidence, but de Gaulle dissolved the National Assembly. The Gaullists won Pompidou was reappointed as Prime Minister. In 1964, he was faced with a miners' strike, he led the 1967 legislative campaign of the Union of Democrats for the Fifth Republic to a narrow victory. Pompidou was regarded as being responsible for the peaceful resolution of the student uprising of May 1968, his strategy was to break the coalition of students and workers by negotiating with the trade-unions and employers. Until this crisis, he was the Prime Minister of a prosperous France. However, during the events of May 1968, disagreements arose between de Gaulle. Pompidou did not understand why the President did not inform him of his departure to Baden-Baden on May 29, their relationship, until very good, would be strained from on. Pompidou led and won the 1968 legislative campaign, overseeing a tremendous victory of the Gaullist Party, he resigned. In part due to his actions during the May 1968 crisis, he appeared as the natural successor to de Gaulle.
Pompidou announced his candidature for the Presidency in January 1969. Some weeks his wife's name was mentioned in the Markovic affair, thus appearing to confirm her husband's status as a cuckold. Pompidou was certain. In social policy, Pompidou's tenure as prime minister witnessed the establishment of the National Employment Fund in 1963 to counter the negative effects on employment caused by industrial restructuring. After the failure of the 1969 constitutional referendum, de Gaulle resigned and Pompidou was elected president of France. In the general election of 15 June 1969, he defeated the centrist President of the Senate and Acting President Alain Poher by a wide margin. Though a Gaullist, Pompidou was more pragmatic than de Gaulle, notably facilitating the accession of the United Kingdom to the European Community on 1 January 1973, he embarked on an industrialisation plan and initiated the Arianespace project, as well as the TGV project, furthered the French civilian nuclear programme.
He was sceptical about the "New Society" programme of Jacques Chaban-Delmas. In 1972, he replaced Chaban-Delmas with a more conservative Gaullist. While the left-wing opposition organised itself and proposed a Common Programme before the 1973 legislative election, Pompidou widened his presidential majority by including Centrist pro-European parties. In addition, he paid special attention to regional and local needs in order to strengthen his political party, the UDR, which he made it a central and lasting force in the Gaullist movement; the United States was eager to restore positive relations with France after de Gaulle's departure from office. New US President Richard Nixon and his top adviser Henry Kissinger admired Pompidou; the United States offered to help the French nuclear programme. Economic difficulties, arose following the Nixon Shock and the 1973-75 recession over the role of the American dollar as the medium for world trade. Pompidou sought to maintain good relations with the newly-independent former French colonies in Africa.
In 1971, he visited Mauritania, Ivory Coast and Gabon. H
2006 Fijian coup d'état
The Fijian coup d'état of December 2006 occurred as a continuation of the pressure, building since the military unrest of the 2000 Fijian coup d'état and 2005–06 Fijian political crisis. Fiji had seen four definitive coups in the past two decades. At the heart of the previous three of these lay the tensions between the ethnic Fijians and Indian Fijians. Religion played a significant role. In each coup, one of the sides sought to establish reduced rights for the Indian Fijians; the church in Fiji played a significant role in politics — senior leaders of the Methodist Church of Fiji and Rotuma supported the coup of 2000 and the subsequent proposal to pardon those involved. The possibility of declaring Fiji a theocratic Christian state was proposed in the past; this has brought Josaia Voreqe "Frank" Bainimarama, leader of the December 2006 coup, in conflict with the Methodist church in the past. A long-running conflict between the government and military of the Republic of the Fiji Islands reached crisis point in early December 2006.
The catalysts for the unrest were three bills under consideration by the Fijian parliament, one of which would question the illegality of the Fiji coup of 2000 and offer pardons to some of the rebels who participated in it. Nine demands were handed down from Commodore Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama to Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase pertaining to issues concerning these bills. Bainimarama gave an ultimatum to Qarase to concede to these demands or to resign from his post by Friday 1 December; this was deferred to Monday 4 December. After weeks of preparations by the military, on 4 December, a well orchestrated military presence made itself known in Suva by setting up strategic road blocks, making public demonstrations of their presence and seizing weapons from opposing factions, including the police. On 5 December, many key government ministers and chief executives were placed under house arrest and President Ratu Josefa Iloilo signed an order dissolving Parliament, though he made a press statement denying having done so.
Two Australian soldiers died in a Blackhawk helicopter crash after Australia moved three warships to waters near Fiji in case evacuation of foreign nationals became necessary. The current crisis has its origins in the Fiji coup of 2000; the 2000 coup was aimed at the multi-ethnic Government led by Mahendra Chaudhry. The proponents of the coup were an armed faction not associated with the military, who opposed their actions. After Bainimarama declared martial law and resolved the crisis by force, an interim government was sworn in, headed by current prime minister Laisenia Qarase; the Prime Minister was democratically elected in elections in 2001 and 2006, has since begun to take actions that have provoked the displeasure of the military. Three contentious bills have come before parliament: the Reconciliation Tolerance and Unity Bill, Qoliqoli Bill and the Land Tribunal Bill, all three of which were considered objectionable by the opponents of the 2000 coup; the most significant of these has been the RTU bill, which would grant an amnesty to some of those involved or being investigated for involvement in the coup of 2000, including individuals who are presently officials within government.
There was friction concerning these bills and a truce was brokered by Vice-President Ratu Joni Madraiwiwi on 16 January 2006, which cooled the 2005–06 Fijian political crisis. Nonetheless, relations between the government and the military remained strained. On 22 September 2006, Commodore Bainimarama attacked government policies in a speech at Ratu Latianara Secondary School. News service Fiji Village reported that he claimed that government leniency towards perpetrators of the 2000 coup had created a culture of disrespect for the law, to which he attributed the increasing incidents of rape and desecration of Hindu temples, he criticized the Methodist Church of Fiji and Rotuma, for supporting the government. The next day Prime Minister Qarase accused the Commodore's statements of being unconstitutional, announced his intention to refer the matter to the Supreme Court for a judgement on the proper role of the military; the Methodist Church reacted to the Commodore's suggestion that government policies could take Fiji back to paganism and cannibalism.
Reverend Ame Tugaue, the General Secretary of the Church, commented that the Commander appeared to be ignoring the fact that it was the influence of Christianity that had abolished cannibalism in Fiji. On 25 September, military spokesman Major Neumi Leweni said that the government's proposed court action was a threat to the nation, that the military was united in its resolve to prosecute persons implicated in the 2000 coup and in its opposition to legislation proposing amnesty for such offenders, he reiterated the opposition of the military to the "Qoliqoli Bill", which proposed to hand control of seabed resources to ethnic Fijians. The Fiji Sun quoted Bainimarama on 25 September as saying that his speech at Ratu Latianara Secondary School had been based on the advice of United States General John Brown; the same afternoon, United States Ambassador Larry Dinger told the Fiji Village News that Bainimarama had misunderstood Brown's intentions. The military must never challenge the rule of a constitutional government, Dinger insisted.
Brown may have led to the coup. Leweni subsequently denied that the Fijian military stance on the Qoliqoli Bill had been influenced by Brown. Neumi Leweni called on the Qarase government to resig
Liberal Party of Australia
The Liberal Party of Australia is a major centre-right political party in Australia, one of the two major parties in Australian politics, along with the centre-left Australian Labor Party. It was founded in 1944 as the successor to the United Australia Party; the Liberal Party is the largest and dominant party in the Coalition with the National Party of Australia. In two states and territories of Australia the parties have merged, forming the Country Liberal Party of the Northern Territory and the Liberal National Party of Queensland. Except for a few short periods, the Liberal Party and its predecessors have operated in similar coalitions since the 1920s; the party's leader is Scott Morrison and its deputy leader is Josh Frydenberg. The pair were elected to their positions at the August 2018 Liberal leadership ballot, with Frydenberg and Morrison as replacements for Julie Bishop and Malcolm Turnbull the latter of whom Morrison succeeded as Prime Minister of Australia. Now the Morrison Government, the party had been elected at the 2013 federal election as the Abbott Government which took office on 18 September 2013.
At state and territory level, the Liberal Party is in office in three states: Will Hodgman, Premier of Tasmania since 2014, Gladys Berejiklian, Premier of New South Wales since 2017 and Steven Marshall, Premier of South Australia since 2018. The party is in opposition in the states of Victoria and Western Australia, in both the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory; the party's ideology has been referred to as conservative, liberal-conservative, conservative-liberal, classical liberal. The Liberal Party tends to promote economic liberalism. Two past leaders of the party, Sir Robert Menzies and John Howard, are Australia's two longest-serving Prime Ministers; the Liberal Party has spent more time in government than any other federal political party in Australian history. The Liberals' immediate predecessor was the United Australia Party. More broadly, the Liberal Party's ideological ancestry stretched back to the anti-Labor groupings in the first Commonwealth parliaments; the Commonwealth Liberal Party was a fusion of the Free Trade Party and the Protectionist Party in 1909 by the second prime minister, Alfred Deakin, in response to Labor's growing electoral prominence.
The Commonwealth Liberal Party merged with several Labor dissidents to form the Nationalist Party of Australia in 1917. That party, in turn, merged with Labor dissidents to form the UAP in 1931; the UAP had been formed as a new conservative alliance in 1931, with Labor defector Joseph Lyons as its leader. The stance of Lyons and other Labor rebels against the more radical proposals of the Labor movement to deal the Great Depression had attracted the support of prominent Australian conservatives. With Australia still suffering the effects of the Great Depression, the newly formed party won a landslide victory at the 1931 Election, the Lyons Government went on to win three consecutive elections, it avoided Keynesian pump-priming and pursued a more conservative fiscal policy of debt reduction and balanced budgets as a means of stewarding Australia out of the Depression. Lyons' death in 1939 saw. Menzies served as Prime Minister from 1939 to 1941 but resigned as leader of the minority World War II government amidst an unworkable parliamentary majority.
The UAP, led by Billy Hughes, disintegrated after suffering a heavy defeat in the 1943 election. Menzies called a conference of conservative parties and other groups opposed to the ruling Australian Labor Party, which met in Canberra on 13 October 1944 and again in Albury, New South Wales in December 1944. From 1942 onward Menzies had maintained his public profile with his series of "The Forgotten People" radio talks—similar to Franklin D. Roosevelt's "fireside chats" of the 1930s—in which he spoke of the middle class as the "backbone of Australia" but as having been "taken for granted" by political parties. Outlining his vision for a new political movement in 1944, Menzies said:... hat we must look for, it is a matter of desperate importance to our society, is a true revival of liberal thought which will work for social justice and security, for national power and national progress, for the full development of the individual citizen, though not through the dull and deadening process of socialism.
The formation of the party was formally announced at Sydney Town Hall on 31 August 1945. It took the name "Liberal" in honour of the old Commonwealth Liberal Party; the new party was dominated by the remains of the old UAP. The Australian Women's National League, a powerful conservative women's organisation merged with the new party. A conservative youth group Menzies had set up, the Young Nationalists, was merged into the new party, it became the nucleus of the Young Liberals. By September 1945 there were more than 90,000 members, many of whom had not been members of any political party. After an initial loss to Labor at the 1946 election, Menzies led the Liberals to victory at the 1949 election, the party stayed in office for a record 23 years— the longest unbroken run in government at the federal level. Australia experienced prolonged economic growth during the post-war boom period of the Menzies Government and Menzies fulfilled his promises at the 1949 election to end rationing of butter and petrol and provided a five-shilling endowment for first-born children, as well as for others.
While himself an unashamed anglophile, Menzies' government
Constitution of Argentina
The Constitution of Argentina is the basic governing document of Argentina, the primary source of existing law in Argentina. Its first version was written in 1853 by a Constitutional Assembly gathered in Santa Fe, the doctrinal basis was taken in part from the United States Constitution, it was reformed in 1860, 1866, 1898, 1949, 1957, the current version is the reformed text of 1994. The first attempt to divide political power in Argentina was during the government created after the May Revolution: the Primera Junta could not create new taxes without the Cabildo's authorization. Many revolutionary leaders, led by Mariano Moreno, wanted to declare independence and to make a constitution in order to build an independent state. In October 1811, the Junta Grande, which succeeded the Primera Junta, enacted the Regulation for the Division of Power, but it was not accepted by the executive power; the freedom of press and the Decree on Individual Security were accepted by November. In 1813, the General Constitutional Assembly was intended to declare a constitution but it could only declare the freedom for slaves' sons.
In 1819 and 1826 were declared two constitutions that failed because of the disagreement between Federalists and Unitarians. Many other constitutional pacts existed between 1820 and 1853; the most important of them are: the Treaty of Pilar, the Treaty of the Cuadrilátero, the Federal Pact, the Palermo Protocol, the Treaty of San Nicolás. The Federal Pact urged all the provinces to call a General Federal Congress, however this would have limited Juan Manuel de Rosas's power, the most powerful province governor, so the Congress was never called; when Rosas was defeated, in 1852, the Treaty of San Nicolás called the Constitutional Congress that, in Santa Fe, on May 1, 1853, sworn to make effective the federal Constitution. The Province of Buenos Aires left the Argentine Confederation until 1859; the first constitutional amendment to the original 1853 text was performed in 1860 after Buenos Aires rejoined the Argentine Confederation. It consisted of several changes to many of the original articles.
One of the major changes was the renaming of the state: according to the reform, the country would be named República Argentina and, for legal purposes, Nación Argentina, replacing the older Argentine Confederation denomination in all articles of the constitution. Another important inclusion was the constitutional recognizing of Buenos Aires' exclusive rights guaranteed by the Treaty of San Nicolás; the following reform was done in 1866 and established that exportation and importation taxes would be destined to the National Treasury indefinitely, no longer until 1866 as the 1860 reform did. In 1898, another minor constitutional amendment was approved, it allowed a more flexible ratio for proportional apportionment in the Chamber of Deputies and set the number of ministries to eight. During Juan Domingo Perón's government the Argentine Constitution of 1949 was passed, a major revision of the constitution, its goal was to modernize and adapt the text to the twentieth century's concepts of democracy, as for example, including a list of social rights including better working conditions for the working class, right to good education, etc.
This was included into the principles stated on the Preamble. It permitted the indefinite reelection of the president. During the military regime known as the Revolución Libertadora that had deposed Perón's government in 1955, in 1957 and before the elections that had to be held in 1958, a Constitutional Convention was elected to reform the constitution; this reform does not include 1949's, implicitly annulling it. The only changes done were to include a summary of Perón's social articles known as article 14 bis and to establish the necessity to have a Labour and Social Security Code. In 1972, a "Constitutional Amendment" done by the military government led by general Alejandro A. Lanusse reformed the 1957 text; this had to last until 1977 but its application could be extended until 1981 if no Constitutional Convention in 1976 decided either to accept it or reject it definitively. This amendment was not applied by the democratic government of Perón in his third term nor by his wife Isabel Perón acting as President after his death.
Some changes were related to the size of Senate and one-term reelection of president and vice-president. Reduced presidential and deputies' terms all to four years; the last version of the Argentine Constitution was done by Carlos Saúl Menem in 1994. It included many of the modifications from the 1972 "amendment" as the growth of the Senate size, one-term presidential reelection and reduction of its term to four years, it made Buenos Aires City an autonomous entity with its own authorities. Other changes were done to ensure a softer presidentialist regime, the inclusion of a new chapter into the Bill of Rights related to politics and environment, the adoption of a much faster legislative procedure for creating laws. In addition with the 1994 constitutional reform, the requirement of belonging to the Roman Catholic faith in order to be President or Vice President of the Republic, was abolished; the Argentine Constitution has four major division types. For example, the First Part is divided into Chapters but not into Sections.
The scheme of the Constitution is the following: Pream
Say Chhum is a Cambodian politician, President of the Senate of Cambodia since 2015. He was First Vice-President of the Senate until June 2015, when he succeeded Chea Sim upon the latter's death, he served as Chairman of the Permanent Committee of the Central Committee of the Cambodian People's Party. He was elected to represent Kampong Speu Province in the National Assembly in 2003, he served as Second Vice-President of the National Assembly. As First Vice-President of the Senate, Say Chhum served as acting Senate President when the ailing Chea Sim was absent. Shortly after Chea Sim's death, Say Chhum was unanimously elected as President of the Senate on 9 June 2015 by the 51 senators present, his son, Say Sam Al, was appointed Minister of the Environment in 2013