Air Wisconsin Airlines is a regional airline based at Appleton International Airport in the town of Greenville, United States, near Appleton. Air Wisconsin operated US Airways Express service on behalf of US Airways prior to becoming an American Eagle regional air carrier; as of March 2018, Air Wisconsin operates as a United Express regional air carrier with primary hubs to located at Chicago O'Hare International Airport and Washington Dulles International Airport. In 1963 investors from the Fox Cities raised $110,000 to start a new airline; the airline was established as an independent commuter air carrier in 1965 and started operations on August 23, 1965, just one day after the brand new Outagamie County Regional Airport was opened using de Havilland Dove commuter aircraft configured with nine passenger seats. It was founded to connect Appleton with Chicago and had 17 employees and two de Havilland Dove aircraft. According to the August 23, 1965 Air Wisconsin timetable, the airline was flying one route between Appleton and Chicago O'Hare Airport with four round trips on weekdays and two round trips on Saturdays and Sundays operated with the British-manufactured Dove twin prop aircraft.
By the mid 1970s, Air Wisconsin was flying two small commuter turboprop airliner types, being the de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter and Swearingen Metro, was operating a small hub at Chicago O'Hare Airport with service to destinations in Indiana and Wisconsin as well as to Minneapolis/Saint Paul from several small cities in Wisconsin. In September 1978 the airline was certified by the Civil Aeronautics Board as a regional air carrier. In October 1978 it had over $10 million in assets. Joining Air Wisconsin in 1965 as traffic manager and becoming president, Preston H. Wilbourne's leadership oversaw Air Wisconsin grow to an airline serving 29 cities in an eleven state area with 32 aircraft boarding over 10,000 passengers daily. Air Wisconsin gained the nicknames "Air Willy" and "Rag Tag" and more "Air Wis" and "Air Wisky". By 1985, Air Wisconsin had become large independent regional air carrier operating British Aerospace BAe 146-200 and British Aircraft Corporation BAC One-Eleven jets as well as de Havilland Canada DHC-7 Dash 7 turboprops with flights as far west as Grand Island and Minneapolis/Saint Paul, as far east as Bridgeport and New Haven, Connecticut with a large connecting hub located at Chicago O'Hare Airport.
By early 1986, the airline was serving sixteen airports with its British-manufactured jets with flights to Appleton, Cedar Rapids, Chicago O'Hare Airport, Michigan, Fort Wayne, Grand Island, Green Bay, Kalamazoo, Lincoln, Moline, Illinois/Quad Cities, New Haven, South Bend, Toledo, Waterloo and Wausau/Stevens Point, Wisconsin with other flights and destinations in its route system being served with the Canadian-manufactured four engine Dash 7 turboprop. Air Wisconsin pioneered the concept of code sharing as a United Express carrier operating on behalf of United Airlines; as an independent air carrier prior to its business agreement with United to provide passenger feed, Air Wisconsin became the nation's largest regional airline in the 1980s. In 1985 it merged with Mississippi Valley Airlines and continued to operate under the Air Wisconsin name. By late 1989 Air Wisconsin was operating United Express code share service from two United hubs: Chicago O'Hare International Airport and Washington Dulles International Airport.
According to the Official Airline Guide at this time, United Express flights were operated with British Aerospace BAe 146-200 jets and Fokker F27 Friendship turboprops nonstop to Chicago O'Hare from Akron/Canton, Appleton, Cedar Rapids, Illinois, Fort Wayne, Green Bay, Kalamazoo, La Crosse, Lansing, Lexington, Moline/Quad Cities, Wisconsin, Illinois, Virginia, South Bend and Wausau, with BAe 146-200 jets and Short 360 turboprops nonstop to Washington Dulles from Charleston, West Virginia, Charlottesville and Richmond, Virginia, as well as Harrisburg and State College, Pennsylvania. In 1990 Air Wisconsin acquired Denver-based Aspen Airways and was itself bought by United Airlines a year later. At one point, Air Wisconsin operated British Aerospace ATP turboprop aircraft as well as BAe 146-100, BAe 146-200, BAe 146-300 jet aircraft on United Express services; these were all large aircraft types when compared to other regional aircraft in operation at the time. Air Wisconsin was the only U. S. operator of the BAe ATP turboprop and the BAe 146-300, the largest member of the BAe 146 family of jet aircraft.
United Airlines sold Air Wisconsin and the BAe 146 fleet to CJT Holdings in 1993. Air Wisconsin was renamed Air Wisconsin Airlines Corporation as UAL retained the rights to the Air Wisconsin name and logo. In April 1995 during the late ski season, Air Wisconsin was operating British Aerospace BAe 146 jet shuttle service as United Express on the former Aspen Airways route between Aspen and Denver with at least fourteen daily nonstop flights in each direction. In February 1998 AWAC acquired the assets of Mountain Air Express including Dornier 328 turboprop aircraft which were used to expand United Express service in the west. In the fall of 2003 AWAC acquired ten Canadair CRJ regional jet aircraft from bankrupt Midway Airlines and became a feeder for AirTran Airways under the name AirTran JetConnect, but this relationship was discontinued in July 2004. Towards the end of the co
Regional airlines are airlines that operate regional aircraft to provide passenger air service to communities without sufficient demand to attract mainline service. There are two main ways for a regional airline to do business: As an affiliated airline, contracting with a major airline, operating under their brand name, filling two roles: delivering passengers to the major airline's hubs from surrounding towns, increasing frequency of service on mainline routes during times when demand does not warrant use of large aircraft, known as commuter flights. Operating as an independent airline under their own brand providing service to small and isolated towns, for whom the airline is the only reasonable link to a larger town. Examples of this are PenAir, which links the remote Aleutian Islands to Anchorage and Mokulele Airlines, which operates in the Hawaiian islands. Small regional airlines operating in the U. S. during the 1960s and 1970s were known as commuter airlines and were classified as such in the Official Airline Guide.
Regional airlines began by operating propeller-driven aircraft over short routes, sometimes on flights of less than 100 miles. In the early days of commercial aviation few aircraft had ranges greater than this, airlines were formed to serve the area in which they formed; that is, there was no strong distinction between a regional airline and any other airline. This changed with the introduction of long-range aircraft, which led to the development of the flag carrier airlines, such as British Overseas Airways Corporation and Trans-Canada Airlines; as the flag carriers grew in importance with increasing long-range passenger traffic, the smaller airlines found a niche flying passengers over short routes to the flag carrier's airport. This arrangement was formalized, forming the regional airlines. Through the 1960s and 1970s, war surplus designs, notably the DC-3, were replaced by much more capable turboprop or jet-powered designs like the Fokker F27 Friendship or BAC One-Eleven; this extended the range of the regionals causing a wave of consolidations between the now overlapping airlines.
In the United States, regional airlines were an important building block of today's passenger air system. The U. S. Government encouraged the forming of regional airlines to provide services from smaller communities to larger towns, where air passengers could connect to a larger network; some of the original regional airlines sanctioned by the Civil Aeronautics Board in the 1940s and 1950s include: None of these airlines survive today. A history and study of regional airlines was published by the Smithsonian Institution Press in 1994 under the title Commuter Airlines of the United States, by R. E. G. Davies and I. E. Quastler. One of the first independently owned and managed airlines in the world that rebranded its aircraft to match a larger airline's brand was Air Alpes of France. During 1974, Air Alpes painted its newly delivered short range regional jets in the livery of Air France. NLM's KLM style branding does however pre-date the Air France efforts though by a number of years; the success of the "rebranding" or "pseudo branding" of a much smaller airline into the name recognition of a much larger one soon became clear as passenger numbers soared at Air Alpes, it was soon decided to paint other aircraft such as the Fokker F-27 into full Air France colours as well.
Since the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, the US federal government has continued support of the regional airline sector to ensure many of the smaller and more isolated rural communities remain connected to air services. This is encouraged with the Essential Air Service program that subsidizes airline service to smaller U. S. communities and suburban centers, aiming to maintain year-round service. Although regional airlines in the United States are viewed as small, not lucrative "no name" subsidiaries of the mainline airlines, in terms of revenue, many would be designated major airline carrier status based on the only actual definition of "major airline," in the United States, the definition from the U. S. Department of Transportation; this definition is based on annual revenue and not on any other criterion such as average aircraft seating capacity, pilot pay, or number of aircraft in the fleet. It is common in the U. S. to incorrectly associate aircraft size with the Department of Transportation's designation of major and regional airline.
The only corollary is the Regional Airline Association, an industry trade group, defines "regional airlines" as "...operat short and medium haul scheduled airline service connecting smaller communities with larger cities and connecting hubs. The airlines' fleet consists of 19 to 68 seat turboprops and 30 to 100 seat regional jets." To be clear there is no distinction in the Department of Transportation definition of major and regional airlines by aircraft size. The definition is based on revenue; the clash of definitions has led to confusion in the public. Beginning around 1985, a number of trends have become apparent. Regional aircraft are getting larger and are flying longer ranges. Additionally, the vast majority of regionals within the United States with more than ten aircraft within their fleet, have lost their individual identities and now serve only as feeders, to Alaska Airlines, American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, or United Airlines major hubs. Regional aircraft in the US have been getting more comfortable with the addition of better ergonomically designed aircraft cabins, the addition of varying travel classes aboard these aircraft.
From small, less than 50-sea
Sun Country Airlines
Sun Country Airlines is a United States-based ultra-low cost airline headquartered in Eagan and based at nearby Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport. The airline operates 86 routes between destinations in the United States, Central America and the Caribbean; the airline operates focus cities at Dallas/Fort Worth and Portland. Sun Country began flight operations in January 1983 with a single Boeing 727-200 jetliner; the airline's original staff consisted of sixteen pilots, sixteen flight attendants, three mechanics and one office person. A number of the original employees had worked for Braniff International Airways which ceased operations on May 12, 1981; the company's founder and first President/CEO was Captain Jim Olsen, who acted as Chief Pilot. His wife, Joan Smith-Olsen, acted as Chief Flight Head of Inflight Operations. Olsen retired from Sun Country in 2007. In 1986 the company placed into service its first wide-body aircraft, a 380-seat McDonnell Douglas DC-10-40 leased from future competitor Northwest Airlines.
The aircraft's intercontinental range enabled the company to fly international charters and accommodate high demand on the company's popular Minneapolis to Las Vegas route that the Boeing 727-200 fleet could not handle. In 1988, its headquarters were located on the grounds of the Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport. Sun Country provided ad-hoc charter lift. In 1989 Sun Country became a member of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet and flew many charters to support the Desert Storm operation from 1990 to 1991. After earning profits of $9.7 million for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1991, the airline acquired additional Boeing 727 and DC-10 aircraft. In the mid 1990s, Mark Travel Group, led by Bill LaMacchia, Jr. acquired Sun Country and began changing the focus of the airline. As the DC-10 aircraft aged and required expensive maintenance, the airline reduced the fleet retiring the final DC-10 in early 2001. In June 1999, the management of Sun Country launched a transformation from a charter carrier into a scheduled airline.
New service from Minneapolis and Milwaukee began to destinations including Los Angeles, Detroit, Washington, D. C. and Phoenix. The airline started a frequent flyer program, Smile Awards. In 2001, Sun Country began to replace its entire fleet with Boeing 737 aircraft; as Sun Country reinvented itself, heavy competition from local incumbent carrier Northwest Airlines and the September 11 attacks caused a sharp decrease of traffic and revenue. The airline was losing large amounts of money by the summer of 2001. After fighting to stay operational by cutting flights and planes, the company closed on December 8, 2001. During bankruptcy, Sun Country lost all of its 727 fleet and four delivered 737 aircraft. Sun Country retained one 737 as well as its operating certificate. In the following months, a local group of investors organized as MN Airlines, LLC purchased the remaining assets in bankruptcy court and restarted the airline; the airline operated combined charter-scheduled services from Minneapolis to casinos in Laughlin and added more charter destinations as finances allowed.
Sun Country acquired new aircraft in 2004 and 2005 and was profitable in 2004. In July 2006, the airline was acquired by Petters Group Whitebox Advisors; the acquisition was complete on October 31, 2006. Following the replacement of interim CEO Jay Salmen by Stan Gadek, former CFO of AirTran Airways, Sun Country was nearly finished by the major recession of 2008 and the revelation of financial fraud on a massive scale; the airline furloughed 45 of its 156 pilots and scaled back its summer schedule due to rising fuel costs. Sun Country indicated it had hoped to get up to $50 million in loans or other financial help from the state of Minnesota and the airports commission. In September 2008 the carrier reduced, in some cases eliminated, flights to San Francisco and Los Angeles, it began charging for the first checked bag. At the end of September 2008, Gadek called for a 50% pay-deferral to all remaining employees. Tom Petters resigned after an FBI probe discovered that the airline had suffered financial fraud on a massive scale.
Following this, the airline filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection for the second time, on October 6, 2008. On Christmas Eve, full pay was restored to all employees. Employees were promised back-pay with interest. In July 2011, Sun Country Airlines was purchased out of bankruptcy for $34 million by the Davis family, owners of Cambria, a Minnesota-based countertop company. Marty Davis, CEO of Cambria, became Chairman of Sun Country Airlines. In 2015, the board hired Zarir Erani as CEO of Sun Country; the airline had a net income of $27 million in 2015, followed by a 41% drop to $16 million in 2016. In July 2017, after more than a year of missed monthly earnings projections, Davis replaced Erani as interim President and CEO, with Erani moving to other duties within the Davis family of companies. Jude Bricker of Allegiant Air, was appointed as CEO one week after Erani stepped down. On December 14, 2017, the Davis brothers announced they would be selling the airline to New York Based Apollo Global Management for an undisclosed amount.
As part of its strategy Sun Country moved towards being a "no frills" airline. As part of their plans to increase service and gain revenue, the airline plans to carry 40% more passengers in 2019 over 2018, they recently completed a three-month venture to re-configure their 737-800 series aircraft into an "all coach" high density configuration with three different economy seating options. These new seats are slimline seats, with about 30% more padding than other american Ultra-low-cost car
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body. Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines with double decker airplanes. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, regional, or international, may be operated as scheduled services or charters; the largest airline is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft I was the world's first airline, it was founded on November 16, 1909, with government assistance, operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. Its headquarters were in Frankfurt; the first fixed wing scheduled airline was started on January 1, 1914, from St. Petersburg, Florida, to Tampa, Florida.
The four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Netherlands' KLM, Colombia's Avianca, Australia's Qantas, the Czech Republic's Czech Airlines. The earliest fixed wing airline in Europe was Aircraft Transport and Travel, formed by George Holt Thomas in 1916. Using a fleet of former military Airco DH.4A biplanes, modified to carry two passengers in the fuselage, it operated relief flights between Folkestone and Ghent. On 15 July 1919, the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, despite a lack of support from the British government. Flown by Lt. H Shaw in an Airco DH.9 between RAF Hendon and Paris – Le Bourget Airport, the flight took 2 hours and 30 minutes at £21 per passenger. On 25 August 1919, the company used DH.16s to pioneer a regular service from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome to Le Bourget, the first regular international service in the world. The airline soon gained a reputation for reliability, despite problems with bad weather, began to attract European competition.
In November 1919, it won the first British civil airmail contract. Six Royal Air Force Airco DH.9A aircraft were lent to the company, to operate the airmail service between Hawkinge and Cologne. In 1920, they were returned to the Royal Air Force. Other British competitors were quick to follow – Handley Page Transport was established in 1919 and used the company's converted wartime Type O/400 bombers with a capacity for 12 passengers, to run a London-Paris passenger service; the first French airline was Société des lignes Latécoère known as Aéropostale, which started its first service in late 1918 to Spain. The Société Générale des Transports Aériens was created in late 1919, by the Farman brothers and the Farman F.60 Goliath plane flew scheduled services from Toussus-le-Noble to Kenley, near Croydon, England. Another early French airline was the Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes, established in 1919 by Louis-Charles Breguet, offering a mail and freight service between Le Bourget Airport and Lesquin Airport, Lille.
The first German airline to use heavier than air aircraft was Deutsche Luft-Reederei established in 1917 which started operating in February 1919. In its first year, the D. L. R. Operated scheduled flights on routes with a combined length of nearly 1000 miles. By 1921 the D. L. R. Network was more than 3000 km long, included destinations in the Netherlands and the Baltic Republics. Another important German airline was Junkers Luftverkehr, which began operations in 1921, it was a division of the aircraft manufacturer Junkers, which became a separate company in 1924. It operated joint-venture airlines in Austria, Estonia, Hungary, Norway, Poland and Switzerland; the Dutch airline KLM made its first flight in 1920, is the oldest continuously operating airline in the world. Established by aviator Albert Plesman, it was awarded a "Royal" predicate from Queen Wilhelmina, its first flight was from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam, using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel DH-16, carrying two British journalists and a number of newspapers.
In 1921, KLM started scheduled services. In Finland, the charter establishing Aero O/Y was signed in the city of Helsinki on September 12, 1923. Junkers F.13 D-335 became the first aircraft of the company, when Aero took delivery of it on March 14, 1924. The first flight was between Helsinki and Tallinn, capital of Estonia, it took place on March 20, 1924, one week later. In the Soviet Union, the Chief Administration of the Civil Air Fleet was established in 1921. One of its first acts was to help found Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs A. G. a German-Russian joint venture to provide air transport from Russia to the West. Domestic air service began around the same time, when Dobrolyot started operations on 15 July 1923 between Moscow and Nizhni Novgorod. Since 1932 all operations had been carried under the name Aeroflot. Early European airlines tended to favor comfort – the passenger cabins were spacious with luxurious interiors – over speed and efficiency; the basic navigational capabilities of pilots at the time meant that delays due to the weather were commonplace.
By the early 1920s, small airlines were struggling to compete, there was a movement towards increased rationalization and consolidation. In 1924, Imperial Airways was formed from the merger of Instone Air Line Company, British Marine Air Navigation, Daimler Airway and Handley Page Transport Co Ltd. to allow British airlines to compete with stiff competition from French and German airlines that were enjoying heavy government subsidies. The ai
The Sikorsky S-61L and S-61N are civil variants of the successful Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King helicopter. They are two of the most used airliner and oil rig support helicopters built. In September 1957, Sikorsky won a United States Navy development contract for an amphibious anti-submarine warfare helicopter capable of detecting and attacking submarines; the XHSS-2 Sea King prototype flew on 11 March 1959. Production deliveries of the HSS-2 began in September 1961, with the initial production aircraft being powered by two 930 kW General Electric T58-GE-8B turboshafts. Sikorsky was quick to develop a commercial model of the Sea King; the S-61L first flew on 2 November 1961, was 4 ft 3 in longer than the HSS-2 in order to carry a substantial payload of freight or passengers. Initial production S-61Ls were powered by two 1350shp GE CT58-140 turboshafts, the civil version of the T58; the S-61L features a modified landing gear without float stabilisers. Los Angeles Airways was the first civil operator of the S-61, introducing them on 11 March 1962, for a purchased price of $650,000 each.
From 1962 to 1966, PIA operated its Sikorsky S-61 helicopters for services within East Pakistan Helicopter Service used Four S-61s. The helicopter route to Khulna reduced. 20 towns and cities covered by the network, including Bogra, Chittagong, Kushtia, Chandpur and Hatia. The average price of a ticket was 25 rupees, it was the world's largest commercial helicopter network at the time. On 7 August 1962, the S-61N made its first flight. Otherwise identical to the S-61L, this version is optimized for overwater operations oil rig support, by retaining the SH-3's floats. Both the S-61L and S-61N were subsequently updated to Mk II standard with improvements including more powerful CT58-110 engines giving better hot and high performance, vibration damping and other detail refinements; the Payloader, a stripped down version optimized for aerial crane work, was the third civil model of the S-61. The Payloader features the fixed undercarriage of the S-61L, but with an empty weight 2,000 lb less than the standard S-61N.
Carson Helicopters was the first company to shorten a commercial S-61. The fuselage is shortened by 50 in to increase single-engine performance and external payload. A unique version is the S-61 Shortsky conversion of S-61Ns by Helipro International. VIH Logging was the launch customer for the HeliPro Shortsky conversion, which first flew in February 1996. One modification for the S-61 is the Carson Composite Main Rotor Blade; these blades replace the original Sikorsky metal blades, which are prone to fatigue, permit a modified aircraft to carry an additional 2,000 lb load, fly 15 kn faster and increase range 61 nmi. The latest version is the modernized S-61T helicopter; the United States Department of State has signed a purchase agreement for up to 110 modernized S-61T aircraft for passenger and cargo transport missions in support of its worldwide operations. The first two modernized S-61 aircraft will support missions for the U. S. Embassy in Afghanistan. S-61L Non-amphibious civil transport version.
It can seat up to 30 passengers S-61L Mk II Improved version of the S-61L helicopter, equipped with cargo bins. S-61N Amphibious civil transport version. S-61N Mk II Improved version of the S-61N helicopter. S-61NM An L model in an N configuration. S-61T Triton S-61 modernized upgrade by Carson. On 10 December 1966, operated by a Sikorsky S-61 helicopter registration AP-AOA, crashed on a scheduled domestic flight in Dhaka East Pakistan. On 22 May 1968, Los Angeles Airways Flight 841 crashed near Paramount, resulting in the loss of 23 lives; the accident aircraft, N303Y, serial number 61060, was a Sikorsky S-61L en route to Los Angeles International Airport from the Disneyland Heliport in Anaheim, California. On 14 August 1968, Los Angeles Airways Flight 417 crashed in Compton, while en route to the Disneyland Heliport in Anaheim, California from Los Angeles International Airport, resulting in the loss of 21 lives; the accident aircraft, N300Y, serial number 61031, was the prototype of the Sikorsky S-61L.1970s On 25 October 1973, a Greenlandair S-61N, OY-HAI "Akigssek" crashed about 40 km south of Nuuk, resulting in the loss of 15 lives.
It was en route to Paamiut from Nuuk. The same aircraft had an emergency landing on the Kangerlussuaq fjord two years earlier, due to flameout on both engines because of ice in the intake. On 10 May 1974 KLM Helikopters S-61N PH-NZC crashed en ro
CASA C-212 Aviocar
The CASA C-212 Aviocar is a turboprop-powered STOL medium cargo aircraft designed and built by CASA in Spain for civil and military use. During the late 1960s, the Spanish Air Force was still operating a number of outdated piston-engined transports, including the three-engined Junkers Ju 52 and two-engined Douglas C-47. In order to meet the Spanish Air Force's needs to modernise its transport force, CASA proposed the C-212, a twin engined 18 seat transport aircraft that would be capable of fulfilling a variety of military roles, including passenger transport, ambulance aircraft and paratroop carrier, while being suitable for civil use; the first prototype flew on 26 March 1971. In 1974, the Spanish Air Force decided to acquire the Aviocar to update its fleet. Airlines took note of the type's success with the military, so CASA developed a commercial version, the first examples of which were delivered in July 1975. In August 2006 a total of 30 CASA C-212 aircraft remain in airline service around the world.
The -400 was introduced in 1997 with more powerful engines. In 2010, Airbus Military said it could no longer afford to produce the C212 in Europe and after production in Seville slowed to four in two years, the last C-212 produced in Spain was delivered in late December 2012 to the Vietnam Marine Police. Over 42 years, 477 aircraft have been produced for 92 operators. IPTN and Nurtanio assembled the type under license at Bandung, during the 1970s and 1980s. In mid-2011 Airbus agreed to collaborate with their successor PTDI, which holds a license to sell the C212 in Asia. PTDI built the NC-212-200 and the -400 upgrade, with new digital avionics and autopilot, a cabin for up to 28 passengers. In 2014, PTDI moved production to the improved NC-212i model; the C-212 has a high-mounted wing, a boxy fuselage, a conventional tail. The tricycle undercarriage is non-retractable, it has space for 21–28 passengers depending on configuration. Since the C-212 does not have a pressurized fuselage, it is limited to low-flight-level airline usage.
It is thus ideal for regional airline service. The C-212 is used as a transport, for rain-making, surveillance or search and rescue, in 2013, 290 C-212s were flying in 40 countries with the most in Indonesia with 70, it has seen wide employment as a commuter airliner and a military aircraft, with its operators including numerous charter and short-haul aviation companies and several national air forces. The C-212 is in the service of the United States Army Special Operations Command with the designation C-41A, which utilizes the aircraft for troop infiltration and ex-filtration, supply drops, airborne operations. Due to the presence of a rear ramp, the C-212 has gained popularity among skydivers and smokejumpers. C-212A Original military production version. Known as C-212-5, C-212-5 series 100M, by the Spanish Air Force as the T-12B and D-3A, 129 built. C-212AV VIP transport version, T-12C. C-212B Six pre-production C-212As converted for photo-reconnaissance missions, TR-12A. C-212C Original civil version C-212D Two pre-production C-212As converted for use as navigational trainers, TE-12B.
NC-212-100 Manufactured under licence in Indonesia since 1976, IPTN producing 28 NC-212-100s before switching to NC-212-200. Stretched version with updated engines, introduced in 1979; the CASA C-212-200 is a popular skydiving aircraft, known for its large capacity, fast climb, large tailgate exit ramp. C-212 series 200M Military version known as T-12D in Spanish service and Tp 89 for the Swedish Air Force. Specialised ASW and maritime patrol aircraft have been built from this version. NC-212-200 C-212-200 built under licence by IPTN. NC-212-200 MPA C-212-200 built under licence by IPTN, Designed as Maritime Patrol Aircraft Standard production version from 1987 on. Engines were Honeywell TPE331-10R-513C rated at 900 shp continuous; the propellers were changed from four-bladed Hartzell composite blade propellers to four-bladed Dowty-Rotol all-metal propellers. Winglets and a larger vertical stabilizer area provide improved performance, the addition of a nose baggage compartment gives the nose a more streamlined look than the Series 200.
Various systems have been incrementally upgraded, including the addition of an integrated autopilot system. C-212-M series 300 Military version. C-212 series 300 airliner 26 seat regional airliner. C-212 series 300 utility 23 seat civil utility version. C-212 series 300P Civil utility version with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65 engines Upgraded version with 925 shp TPE331-12JR-701C engines, increased payload and upgraded avionics moved from under the floor to the nose. First flew 4 April 1997, replacing Series 300 in production from 1998; the C-212-400 received Spanish certification in 1998. Between 2004 and 2008, production jigs and fixtures for the NC212-400 were relocated to Bandung from San Pablo, Spain and PTDI became the sole manufacturer of the NC212 family. In 2014, NC212-200 and NC212-400 production ended and production moved to the improved NC212i version. Improved version of -400 series, using two Honeywell TPE331-12JR-701C turboprop engines, with maximum output of 970 hp; the rotor is four-bladed Dowty Rotol R334/4-82-F/13 constant speed propeller with a 2.75 m in diameter.
AustraliaAustralian Antarctic Division Bosnia and HerzegovinaB&H Airlines – former operator IndonesiaNusantara Buana Air Merpati Nusantara Airlines United StatesAir Miami Bar Harbor Airlines Bighorn Airways Chaparral Airlines – operating code share service as American Eagle on behalf of Amer
Southwest Airlines Co. is a major United States airline headquartered in Dallas, is the world's largest low-cost carrier. The airline was established in 1967 by Herb Kelleher as Air Southwest Co. and adopted its current name, Southwest Airlines Co. in 1971, when it began operating as an intrastate airline wholly within the state of Texas, first flying between Dallas and San Antonio. The airline has about 58,000 employees as of September 2018 and operates about 4,000 departures a day during peak travel season; as of April 2019, Southwest carries the most domestic passengers of any United States airline. The airline has scheduled services to 100 destinations in the United States and ten additional countries. Service to Hawaii has started in March 2019. Southwest Airlines was founded in 1966 by Herbert Kelleher and Rollin King, in 1967 it was incorporated as Air Southwest Co. Three other airlines took legal action to try to prevent the company from its planned strategy of undercutting their prices by flying only within Texas and thus being exempt from various regulations.
The lawsuits were resolved in 1970, in 1971 the airline began operating scheduled flights between Dallas Love Field and Houston and between Love Field and San Antonio, adopted the name Southwest Airlines Co. In 1975, Southwest began operating flights to various additional cities within Texas, in 1979 it began flying to neighboring states. Service to the East and the Southeast started in the 1990s; as of April 2019, Southwest Airlines has scheduled flights to 102 destinations in 41 states, Puerto Rico, Central America and the Caribbean. It operates crew bases at the following airports: Atlanta, Chicago–Midway, Dallas–Love, Houston–Hobby, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Oakland and Phoenix–Sky Harbor. Southwest does not use the "hub and spoke" system of other major airlines, preferring the "point-to-point" system, combined with a "rolling hub" model in its larger cities. In 2018, Gary Kelly – the airline's chief executive – suggested that the airline may be considering potential route expansions to Canada and Europe.
Southwest does not partner with any other airline. Icelandair: In 1997, Southwest and Icelandair entered into interline and marketing agreements allowing for joint fares, coordinated schedules, transfer of passenger luggage between the two airlines in Baltimore and a place connecting passengers between several U. S. cities and several European cities. The frequent flyer programs were not included in the agreement; this arrangement lasted for several years but ended when Icelandair's service from BWI to KEF ended in January 2007. ATA Airlines: In a departure from its traditional "go it alone" strategy, Southwest entered into its first domestic codesharing arrangement with ATA, which enabled Southwest Airlines to serve ATA markets in Hawaii, Washington, D. C. and New York City. At the time of ATA's demise in April 2008, the airline offered over 70 flights a week to Hawaii from Southwest's focus cities in PHX, LAS, LAX and OAK with connections available to many other cities across the United States.
The ATA/Southwest codeshare was terminated when ATA filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on April 3, 2008. Southwest acquired the operating certificate and some of the landing rights of ATA in the ensuing proceedings. WestJet: On July 8, 2008, Southwest Airlines signed a codeshare agreement with WestJet of Canada, giving the two airlines the ability to sell seats on each other's flights; the partnership was to be finalized by late 2009, but had been postponed due to economic conditions. On April 16, 2010, Southwest and WestJet airlines amicably agreed to terminate the implementation of a codeshare agreement between the two airlines. Volaris: Southwest signed its second international codeshare agreement on November 10, 2008, with Mexican low-cost carrier Volaris; the agreement allowed Southwest to sell tickets on Volaris flights. However, on February 22, 2013, the connecting agreement was terminated, it was said to be mutual between the airlines. Most industry experts believe that the expansion of the subsidiary of Southwest, AirTran Airways, into more Mexican markets, was a main reason for the termination of the agreement.
AirTran Airways: After acquiring AirTran Airways in 2011, Southwest Airlines and AirTran Airways took the first step in connecting their networks on January 26, 2013, by offering a small number of shared itineraries in five markets. The agreement ended after AirTran became integrated into Southwest on December 28, 2014. Southwest Airlines has only operated Boeing 737 jetliner models, except for a period from 1979 to 1987 when it leased and operated several Boeing 727-200s from Braniff International Airways. Southwest is the largest operator of the Boeing 737 worldwide, with 750 in service, each averaging six flights per day. While most U. S. airlines now charge passengers for checked luggage, Southwest continues to permit 2 free checked bags per passenger. Regarding last-minute itinerary changes, Southwest does not charge any change fees. In the event of a cancellation, passengers are refunded a travel credit in the amount spent on their ticket, the credit may be used toward any other Southwest Airlines or Southwest Vacations purchase within a year of the original ticket purchase.
Southwest offers free in-flight non-alcoholic beverages and offers alcoholic beverages for sale for $6–7/beverage, with Rapid Rewards members eligible to receive drinks vouchers with their tickets. Free alcoholic drinks are offered on popular holidays su