The Philippine Star
The Philippine Star is an English language print and digital newspaper in the Philippines and the flagship brand of the PhilStar Media Group. First published on 28 July 1986 by veteran journalists Betty Go-Belmonte, Max Soliven and Art Borjal, it is one of several Philippine newspapers founded after the 1986 People Power Revolution; the newspaper is owned and published by Philstar Daily Inc. which publishes the monthly magazine People Asia and the Sunday magazines Starweek and Let's Eat. As part of the PhilStar Media Group, its sister publications include business newspaper BusinessWorld. In March 2014, the newspaper was acquired by MediaQuest Holdings, Inc. a media conglomerate subsidized by the PLDT Beneficial Trust Fund, after the company purchased a majority stake in Philstar Daily, Inc. The Philippine Star is among the Philippines' most circulated newspapers, with an average circulation of 266,000 copies daily, according to the Philippine Yearbook 2013; the Philippine Star was first published seven months after the 1986 People Power Revolution that toppled strongman Ferdinand Marcos and propelled Corazon Aquino to the Philippine presidency.
Before its establishment, founders Betty Go-Belmonte, Max Soliven and Art Borjal were veteran journalists involved in the "Mosquito Press", a collective name for the different newspapers critical of the Marcos administration that were published after the Martial Law era from 1972 to 1981. At that time, Belmonte was the publisher of a small, monthly magazine called The Star, a predecessor of The Philippine Star. On 9 December 1985, a few months before the 1986 People Power Revolution, Belmonte and Borjal, together with Eugenia Apostol, Louie Beltran, Florangel Braid, founded the English-language newspaper Philippine Daily Inquirer, which soon became the Marcos administration's most vocal critic. However, after the revolution, questions about finances and a divergence of priorities caused a rift among the Inquirer's founders, which led to Belmonte and Borjal's founding of The Philippine Star. Belmonte served as the founding chairman of the Board of Directors, while Soliven acted as the founding publisher and chairman of the Editorial Board.
Antonio Roces served as the first editor-in-chief until his resignation in 1989. The first issue of the newspaper on 28 July 1986 had eight pages, no advertisements and carried the headline, "Wear yellow and die" that featured the death of 23-year-old Stephen Salcedo, a bystander killed by a mob of Marcos loyalists during a rally at Manila's Luneta Park; the masthead of the newspaper carried the motto, "Truth Shall Prevail", reflecting its editorial policy of presenting both sides of the story instead of the prevailing "scoop mentality" of that time. Aside from the main news section, the first issue includes the World, Money and Sports sections; the first issue of The Philippine Star was printed at Philstar Daily, Inc.'s printing press in Port Area and made use of a blue and yellow color scheme, which became its signature colors. For its initial price of ₱1.75, the newspaper had an initial print run of “a few thousand copies”. At first, the newspaper was only published from Mondays to Saturdays because Belmonte prohibited work on Sundays.
To capitalize on Sunday readership, Philstar Daily, Inc. began publishing Starweek in 1987, which served as the Sunday magazine of The Philippine Star. In 1988, the newspaper added a Sunday issue in response to the demand for news on that day, while continuing its publication of Starweek. Aside from The Philippine Star, Philstar Daily, Inc. started publishing a Filipino-language tabloid Ang Pilipino Ngayon, which became Pilipino Star Ngayon. With the sudden death of Belmonte due to cancer on 28 January 1994, Soliven assumed chairmanship of the Board of Directors while retaining his position at publisher, he appointed Miguel Belmonte, as executive vice president. In the same year, the newspaper made use of the slogan "The only paper you read from cover to cover", in keeping with the new editorial policy of improving every single section of the paper so each can stand on its own without the main news section. On 4 August 1995, The Philippine Star became the first Philippine broadsheet newspaper to publish a colored front page.
In 1998, the Board of Directors unanimously appointed Miguel Belmonte as president and CEO, while Soliven remained as chairman of the Board of Directors and publisher. The following year, the newspaper introduced “Hotline 2000”, which made use of SMS as a means for opinion polling, thus becoming a pioneer in televoting in the Philippine print media industry, it was the beginning of other digital endeavors. In 2000, the newspaper debuted its website, philstar.com, thus becoming one of the first newspapers in the Philippines to have a presence in the Internet. In the same year, the company began using computer-to-plate printing system. In that year too, Miguel's brother, Isaac Belmonte, was appointed editor-in-chief of the newspaper. To further expand its readership, The Philippine Star entered into a partnership with fast food restaurant Jollibee in 2003 to become the first newspaper to be distributed free of charge in a fast food restaurant. A complimentary copy of the newspaper was given to Jollibee patrons nationwide for every purchase of a Jollibee breakfast meal.
The newspaper lost its founding publisher after Soliven died in Tokyo, Japan on 24 November 2006. Isaac Belmonte replaced him as publisher and chairman of the Editorial Board in 2012
Rodrigo Roa Duterte known as Digong and Rody, is a Filipino politician, the 16th and current President of the Philippines and the first from Mindanao, to hold the office. He is the chair of the ruling PDP–Laban party. Taking office at 71 years old in June 2016, Duterte is the oldest person to assume the Philippine presidency. Duterte studied political science at the Lyceum of the Philippines University, graduating in 1968, before obtaining a law degree from San Beda College of Law in 1972, he worked as a lawyer and was a prosecutor for Davao City, before becoming vice mayor and, mayor of the city in the wake of the Philippine Revolution of 1986. Duterte was among the longest-serving mayors in the Philippines, serving seven terms and totaling more than 22 years in office. Described as a populist and a nationalist, Duterte's political success has been aided by his vocal support for the extrajudicial killing of drug users and other criminals. Human rights groups have documented over 1,400 killings by death squads operating in Davao between 1998 and May 2016.
A 2009 report by the Philippine Commission on Human Rights confirmed the "systematic practice of extrajudicial killings" by the Davao Death Squad. Duterte has alternately denied his involvement; the Office of the Ombudsman closed an investigation in January 2016 stating that they found no evidence that the Davao Death Squad exists, no evidence to connect the police or Duterte with the killings. The case has since been reopened. Duterte has confirmed that he killed criminal suspects as mayor of Davao. On May 9, 2016, Duterte won the Philippine presidential election with 39.01% of the votes, defeating four other candidates, namely Mar Roxas of the Liberal Party, Senator Grace Poe, former vice president Jejomar Binay of the United Nationalist Alliance, the late Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago of the People's Reform Party. During his campaign, he promised to kill tens of thousands of criminals and end crime within six months, his domestic policy has focused on combating the illegal drug trade by initiating the Philippine Drug War.
According to the Philippine National Police the death total passed 7,000 in January 2017, after which the police stopped publishing data. Following criticism from United Nations human rights experts that extrajudicial killings had increased since his election, Duterte threatened to withdraw the Philippines from the UN and form a new organization with China and African nations, he has declared his intention to pursue an "independent foreign policy", sought to distance the Philippines from the United States and European nations and pursue closer ties with China and Russia. Duterte was born on March 1945, in Maasin, his father was Vicente G. Duterte, a Cebuano lawyer, his mother, Soledad Duterte, was a school teacher from Cabadbaran, Agusan and a civic leader of Maranao descent. Duterte's father was mayor of Danao and subsequently the provincial governor of Davao province. Rodrigo's cousin Ronald was mayor of Cebu City from 1983 to 1986. Ronald's father, Ramon Duterte held the position from 1957 to 1959.
The Dutertes consider the Cebu-based political families of the Durano and the Almendras clan as relatives. Duterte has relatives from the Roa clan in Leyte through his mother's side. Duterte's family lived in Maasin, in his father's hometown in Danao, until he was four years old; the Dutertes moved to Mindanao in 1948 but still went back and forth to the Visayas until 1949. They settled in the Davao Region in 1950. Vicente worked. Soledad worked as a teacher until 1952. Duterte went for a year, he spent his remaining elementary days at the Santa Ana Elementary School in Davao City, where he graduated in 1956. He finished his secondary education in the High School Department of the then-Holy Cross College of Digos in today's city of Digos in the now defunct Davao province, after being expelled twice from previous schools, including one in Ateneo de Davao University High School due to misconduct, he graduated in 1968 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science at the Lyceum of the Philippines in Manila.
He obtained a law degree from San Beda College of Law in 1972. In the same year, he passed the bar exam. Duterte became a Special Counsel at the City Prosecution Office in Davao City from 1977–79, Fourth Assistant City Prosecutor from 1979–81, Third Assistant City Prosecutor from 1981–83, Second Assistant City Prosecutor from 1983–86. Duterte has said. After he was challenged by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines and AdDU officials to name the priest and file a case against him, Duterte revealed the priest's name as Fr. Mark Falvey, SJ; the Jesuits of the Society of Jesus in the Philippines confirmed that according to press reports in the United States, in May 2007, the Society of Jesus agreed to a tentative payout of USD16 million to settle claims that Falvey sexually abused at least nine children in Los Angeles from 1959 to 1975. Accusations against Falvey began in 2002, he was never charged with a crime. Additionally in May 2008, the Diocese of Sacramento paid $100,000 settlement to a person raped and molested by Mark's brother, Fr.
Arthur Falvey. However, it was not indicated in the report if Mark Falvey was
A newsroom is the central place where journalists—reporters and producers, along with other staffs—work to gather news to be published in a newspaper and/or an online newspaper or magazine, or broadcast on radio, television, or cable. Some journalism organizations refer to the newsroom as the city room; the concept of "newsroom" may now be employed by some public relations practitioners, as representatives of companies and organizations, with the intent to influence or create their own "media". In a print publication's newsroom, reporters sit at desks, gather information, write articles or stories, in the past on typewriters, in the 1970s sometimes on specialized terminals after the early 1980s on personal computers or workstations; these stories are submitted to editors, who sit together at one large desk, where the stories are reviewed and rewritten. Reporters used the inverted pyramid method for writing their stories, although some journalistic writing used other methods. Once finished, editors write a headline for the story and begin to lay it out on a newspaper or magazine page.
Editors review photographs, charts or other graphics to be used with a story. At many newspapers, copy editors who review stories for publication work together at what is called a copy desk, supervised by a copy desk chief, night editor, or news editor. Assignment editors, including the city editor, who supervise reporters' work, may or may not work with the copy desk. How a newsroom is structured and functions depends in part on the size of the publication and when it is published if it is a daily newspaper, which can either be published in the morning or the evening. Most daily newspapers follow the a.m. cycle. In all newspaper newsrooms, editors customarily meet daily with the chief editor to discuss which stories will be placed on the front page, section front pages, other pages; this is called a "budget meeting" because the main topic of the meeting is the budgeting or allocation of space in the next issue. Newsrooms have an assignment desk where staffers monitor emergency scanners, answer telephone calls, faxes and e-mails from the public and reporters.
The assignment desk is responsible for assigning reporters to stories or deciding what is covered and what isn't. In many newsrooms, the assignment desk is raised a step or two above the rest of the newsroom, allowing staffers who work at the desk to see everyone in the newsroom. In some newsrooms, a teamwork-integrated system called the Maestro Concept has been applied to improve time management of the newsroom; this maestro system is a method to improve the presentation of stories to busy readers in today's media. Teamwork and collaboration bring a story to life from an initial idea by integrating reporting with photographs and information graphics. Broadcast newsrooms are similar to newspaper newsrooms; the two major differences are that these newsrooms include small rooms to edit video or audio and that they exist next to the radio or television studio. The modern American newsroom has gone through several changes in the last 50 years, with computers replacing typewriters and the Internet replacing Teletype terminals.
More ethnic minority groups as well as women are working as reporters and editors, including many managerial positions. Many newspapers have internet editions, at some, reporters are required to meet tighter deadlines to have their stories posted on the newspaper website before the print edition is printed and circulated. However, some things haven't changed; the American newsroom has been a location of many books and television shows about the newspaper and magazine business movies like His Girl Friday, All the President's Men or The Paper, television shows like The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Lou Grant, Murphy Brown. The newsroom of a Canadian television station is the location of the CBC Television comedy The Newsroom, it is shown on some public television stations in the United States. The 2004 film Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy, is set around a newsroom; the American television drama series The Newsroom is set in the newsroom of a cable news channel. Drop the Dead Donkey is a British sitcom set in a TV newsroom.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Malacañan Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines located in the capital city of Manila. The Palace is in fact a complex of buildings built in Bahay na bato and neoclassical style; the original structure was built in 1750 by Don Luís Rocha as a summer house along the Pasig River. It was purchased by the state in 1825 as the summer residence for the Spanish Governor-General. After the June 3, 1863 earthquake destroyed the Palacio del Gobernador in the walled city of Manila, it became the Governor-General's official residence. After sovereignty over the Islands was ceded to the United States in 1898, it became the residence of the American Governors, with General Wesley Merritt being the first. Since 1863, the Palace has been occupied by eighteen Spanish Governors-General, fourteen American Military and Civil Governors, the Presidents of the Philippines; the Palace had been enlarged and refurbished several times since 1750. Most the Palace complex was again drastically remodeled and extensively rebuilt during the term of Ferdinand Marcos.
Among the presidents of the present Fifth Republic, only Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo has lived in the main Palace, with all others residing in nearby properties that form part of the larger Palace complex. The Palace has been seized several times as the result of protests starting with the People Power Revolution, the 1989 coup attempt; the earliest document to address the building's roots was the Compendio de la Historia de Filipinas written in 1877 by Spanish historian Felipe de Govantes, in which he stated that the term Malacañán meant "place of the fisherman". This was again referenced in the 1895 Historia general de Filipinas by José Montero y Vidal and the Historia de Filipinas by Manuel Artigas y Cuerva in 1916. In 1972, Ileana Maramag in her work on Malacañan history supplied the Tagalog word: mamalakáya, which means fisherman; the original denomination for the location is believed to be Mamalakáya-han, with the Tagalog suffix -han meaning "place of" simplified by the Spanish colonial authorities as Malacañán and adapted according to the Spanish orthography.
During the Spanish colonial era, Spanish language books that were published at the time spelled the word as Malacañang. The name was changed to "Malacañan" during the American occupation of the Philippines from 1898 until 1946 for ease of pronunciation despite the fact that "-ng" as a final sound is familiar in the English language. However, after the inauguration of President Ramon Magsaysay on December 30, 1953, the Philippine government changed the name to Malacañang: Residence of the President of the Philippines in honor of Palace's historical roots. During the administration of Corazon Aquino, for historical reasons, government policy has been introduced to distinguish both terms; the heading Malacañan Palace is reserved for official documents signed by the President, while those delegated to and signed by subordinates use the heading Malacañang. The Spanish Captains-General and the Governors-General resided at the Palacio del Gobernador fronting the city square in the walled city of Intramuros in Manila.
Malacañang Palace was built as a casita in 1750 – made of adobe, with interiors panelled with finest narra and molave. It sits in a 16 hectare land owned by Spanish aristocrat Don Antonio V. Rocha, it was subsequently sold to Col. José Miguel Formento on November 16, 1802 for a sum of thousand pesos, it was sold to the government upon his death in January 1825. It became the temporary summer residence of the Governors-General when the heat became unbearable in Intramuros with its gardens and a verandah along the wide river. Rafael de Echague y Berminghan Governor of Puerto Rico, became the first Spanish Governor-General to reside in the Palace. Finding the place too small, a wooden two-story building was added to the back of the original structure, as well as smaller buildings for aides and porters, as well as stables, carriage sheds and a boat landing for river-borne visitors. Between 1875 and 1879, reconstruction and expansion resumed after the Palace was hit by more earthquakes and fire. An 1869 earthquake hit Malacañang, repairs were made urgent.
Posts and supports were replaced. Balconies are reinforced. Cornices are provided for the roof. Roofing was replaced with galvanized-iron roofing to lighten loads to the walls; the interior was refurbished. By the end of Spanish rule in 1898, Malacañang Palace was a rambling complex of wooden buildings that had sliding capiz windows and azoteas. In 1880, an earthquake occurred again. Porticos were added to the facade to shelter waiting carriages. In 1885, the flagpole was installed in front of the palace. Decaying woodwork, stuck shell windows, leaking roofs, loose kitchen tiles, drooped stables – these are some of the reflected deterioration due to numerous natural phenomena. A total of Php 22,000 was spent for reconstruction; when the Philippines came under the Amer
Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese and Korean. Registered users can post and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service or its mobile-device application software. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world. Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and launched in July of that year; the service gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet"; as of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.
Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. that day. It was a source of information on Brett Kavanaugh's Supreme Court nomination and the 2018 United States midterm elections. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group; the original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was in use, it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.
The developers considered "10958" as a short code, but changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time: "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word'twitter', it was just perfect. The definition was'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and'chirps from birds', and that's what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets — including Odeo.com and Twitter.com — from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.
Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview: With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility, it is that, in part, but the insight we came to was Twitter was more of an information network than it is a social network. The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.
Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, the bloggers in attendance touted it." Reaction at the conference was positive. Blogger Scott Beale said. Social software researcher danah boyd said. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less, and we just did!"The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. The company experienced rapid initial growth, it had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007.
This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications; as of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, about 140 million tweets posted daily; as noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat, the tenth President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. A leading member of the far-right New Society Movement, he ruled as a dictator under martial law from 1972 until 1981, his regime was infamous for its corruption and brutality. Marcos claimed an active part in World War II, including fighting alongside the Americans in the Bataan Death March and being the "most decorated war hero in the Philippines". A number of his claims were found to be false and the United States Army documents described Marcos's wartime claims as "fraudulent" and "absurd". Marcos started as an attorney served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965, he was elected President in 1965, presided over a growing economy during the beginning and intermediate portion of his 20-year rule, but ended in loss of livelihood, extreme poverty, a crushing debt crisis. Marcos placed the Philippines under martial law on September 23, 1972, during which he revamped the constitution, silenced the media, used violence and oppression against the political opposition, communist rebels, ordinary citizens.
Martial law was ratified by 90.77% of the voters during the Philippine Martial Law referendum, 1973 though the referendum was marred with controversy. Public outrage led to the snap elections of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil, human rights abuses led to the People Power Revolution in February 1986, which removed him from power. To avoid what could have been a military confrontation in Manila between pro- and anti-Marcos troops, Marcos was advised by US President Ronald Reagan through Senator Paul Laxalt to "cut and cut cleanly", after which Marcos fled to Hawaii. Marcos was succeeded by Corazon "Cory" Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. who had flown back to the Philippines to face Marcos. According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government, the Marcos family stole US$5–10 billion; the PCGG maintained that the Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle, taking away billions of dollars from the Philippines between 1965 and 1986.
His wife Imelda Marcos, whose excesses during the couple's conjugal dictatorship made her infamous in her own right, spawned the term "Imeldific". Two of their children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr. are still active in Philippine politics. Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born on September 11, 1917, in the town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, to Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin, he was baptized into the Philippine Independent Church, but was first baptized in the Roman Catholic Church at the age of three. Marcos studied law at the University of the Philippines, he excelled in both curricular and extra-curricular activities, becoming a valuable member of the university's swimming and wrestling teams. He was an accomplished and prolific orator and writer for the student newspaper. While attending the UP College of Law, he became a member of the Upsilon Sigma Phi, where he met his future colleagues in government and some of his staunchest critics; when he sat for the 1939 Bar Examinations, he received a near-perfect score of 98.8%, but allegations of cheating prompted the Philippine Supreme Court to re-calibrate his score to 92.35%.
He graduated cum laude. He was elected to the Pi Gamma Mu and the Phi Kappa Phi international honor societies, the latter giving him its Most Distinguished Member Award 37 years later. In Seagrave's book The Marcos Dynasty, he mentioned that Marcos possessed a phenomenal memory and exhibited this by memorizing complicated texts and reciting them forward and backward such as the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines. Senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago, in an interview with the Philippine Star on March 25, 2012, shared her experience as a speech writer to President Marcos: "One time, the Secretary of Justice forgot to tell me that the President had requested him to draft a speech that the President was going to deliver before graduates of the law school, and on the day the President was to deliver the speech, he remembered because Malacañang was asking for the speech, so he said,'This is an emergency. You just have to produce something.' And I just dictated the speech. He liked long speeches. I think, 20 or 25 pages.
And in the evening, I was there, of course. President Marcos recited the speech from memory." In December 1938, Ferdinand Marcos was prosecuted for the murder of Julio Nalundasan. He was not the only accused from the Marcos clan. Nalundasan, one of the elder Marcos's political rivals, had been shot and killed in his house in Batac on September 21, 1935 – the day after he had defeated Mariano Marcos a second time for a seat in the National Assembly. According to two witnesses, the four had conspired to assassinate Nalundasan, with Ferdinand Marcos pulling the trigger. In late January 1939, they were denied bail and in the year, they were convicted. Ferdinand and Lizardo received the death penalty for premeditated murder, while Mariano and Pio were found guilty of contempt of court; the Marcos family took their appeal to the Supreme Court of the Philippines, which overturned the lower court's decision on 22 October 1940, acquitting them of all charges except contempt. Marcos' military service during World War II has been the subject of debate and controversy, both in the Philippines and in international military circles.
Marcos, who had received ROTC training, was activate