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Presidential Unit Citation (United States)

The Presidential Unit Citation called the Distinguished Unit Citation, is awarded to units of the uniformed services of the United States, those of allied countries, for extraordinary heroism in action against an armed enemy on or after 7 December 1941. The unit must display such gallantry and esprit de corps in accomplishing its mission under difficult and hazardous conditions so as to set it apart from and above other units participating in the same campaign. Since its inception by Executive Order on 26 February 1942, retroactive to 7 December 1941, to 2008, the Presidential Unit Citation has been awarded in conflicts such as World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, Iraq War, the War in Afghanistan; the collective degree of valor against an armed enemy by the unit nominated for the PUC is the same as that which would warrant award of the individual award of the Distinguished Service Cross, Air Force Cross or Navy Cross. In some cases, one or more individuals within the unit may have been awarded individual awards for their contribution to the actions for which their entire unit was awarded a Presidential Unit Citation.

The unit with the most Presidential Unit Citations is the submarine USS Parche with 9 citations. The Army citation was established by Executive Order 9075 on 26 February 1942, superseded by Executive Order 9396 on 2 December 1943, which authorized the Distinguished Unit Citation; as with other Army unit citations, the PUC is in a larger frame than other ribbons, is worn above the right pocket. All members of the unit may wear the decoration, whether or not they participated in the acts for which the unit was cited. Only those assigned to the unit at the time of the action cited may wear the decoration as a permanent award. For both the Army and Air Force, the emblem is a solid blue ribbon enclosed in a gold frame; the Air Force PUC was adopted from the Army Distinguished Unit Citation after the Air Force became a separate military branch in 1947. By Executive Order 10694, dated Jan. 10, 1957 the Air Force redesignated the Distinguished Unit Citation as the Presidential Unit Citation. The Air Force PUC is the same color and design as the Army PUC but smaller, so that it can be worn in alignment with other Air Force ribbons on the left pocket following personal awards.

As with the Army, all members of a receiving unit may wear the decoration while assigned to it, but only those assigned to the unit at the time of the action cited may wear the decoration as a permanent award. The Citation is carried on the receiving unit's colors in the form of a blue streamer, 4 ft long and 2.75 in wide. For the Army, only on rare occasions will a unit larger than battalion qualify for award of this decoration. Citations "to Naval and Marine Corps Units for Outstanding Performance in Action" was established by Executive Order 9050 on 6 February 1942; the Navy version has navy blue and red horizontal stripes, is the only Navy ribbon having horizontal stripes. To distinguish between the two versions of the Presidential Unit Citation, the Navy version, more referred to as the Presidential Unit Citation, is referred to as the Navy Presidential Unit Citation and sometimes as the "Navy and Marine Corps Presidential Unit Citation", the Army and Air Force version is referred to by the Army and Air Force as the Army Presidential Unit Citation and Air Force Presidential Unit Citation.

The ribbon is worn by only by those Navy and Marine service members who were assigned to the unit for the "award period" of the award. In the Army, those who join the unit after the "award period" may wear it while assigned to the unit. ALNan 137-43 states that the first award has a blue enameled star on the ribbon and additional stars for subsequent awards. In 1949, the award changed with no star for bronze stars for subsequent awards. To commemorate the first submerged voyage under the North Pole by the nuclear-powered submarine USS Nautilus in 1958, all members of her crew who made that voyage were authorized to wear their Presidential Unit Citation ribbon with a special clasp in the form of a gold block letter N. Currently, US Navy sailors assigned to the USS Nautilus memorial at the Submarine Force Museum in Groton, are permitted to wear the Navy Presidential Unit Citation; as of 2014, the same device may be awarded for the Nuclear Deterrence Operations Service Medal for those personnel who work in direct support of ICBM operations who serve 179 non-consecutive days dispatched to a missile complex.

To commemorate the first submerged circumnavigation of the world by the nuclear-powered submarine Triton during its shakedown cruise in 1960, all members of her crew who made that voyage were authorized to wear their Presidential Unit Citation ribbon with a special clasp in the form of a golden replica of the globe. United States Coast Guard units may be awarded either the Navy or Coast Guard version of the Presidential Unit Citation, depending on which service the Coast Guard was supporting when the citation action was performed; the current decoration is known as the "Department of Homeland Security Presidential Unit Citation". The original Coast Guard Presidential Unit Citation was established under the authority of Executive Order 10694, amended by Section 74 of Executive Order 13286 to transfer the award of the USCG

Wilshire Ward Chapel

The Wilshire Ward Chapel known as the Hollywood Stake Tabernacle, is a meetinghouse of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Los Angeles, California. The building is listed as a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument and on the Mormon Historic Sites Foundation registry; the Hollywood Stake Tabernacle was commissioned in the late 1927 after the division of the Los Angeles Stake and designed by architects Hyrum Pope and Harold W. Burton in an Art Deco and Modern style; the cornerstone was laid in 1928 by Stake President George W. McCune and the building was completed in 1929 at a cost of $250,000; the funds for the building were raised by church members in the area and matched one-to-one with church headquarters. Many local church members provided volunteered labor on the building; the building seats 2,100. Heber J. Grant, the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints at the time, dedicated the building and stated that it was "one of the finest buildings that we have erected in any of the stakes of Zion...".

Due to its construction and design, the tabernacle was considered the “finest cement building in America” by Architectural Concrete in 1933. The building was recommended for discontinuation of use in 1970, however local leaders fought to preserve the building, it went through major renovations that were completed in 2003 and the building was rededicated by another church president Gordon B. Hinckley; the building remains in use as a meetinghouse by three Wards, but no longer functions as a LDS tabernacle. List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in the Wilshire and Westlake areas

Gautama Buddha in Hinduism

In Vaishnava Hinduism, the historic Buddha or Gautama Buddha, is considered to be an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. Of the ten major avatars of Vishnu, Vaishnavites believe Gautama Buddha to be the ninth and most recent incarnation. Buddha's portrayal in Hinduism varies. In some texts such as the Puranas, he is portrayed as an avatar born to mislead those who deny the Vedic knowledge. In others, such as the 13th-century Gitagovinda of Vaishnava poet Jayadeva, Vishnu incarnates as the Buddha to teach and to end animal slaughter. In contemporary Hinduism, state Constance Jones and James D. Ryan, Buddha is revered by Hindus who consider "Buddhism to be another form of Hinduism"; the Buddha has been important to Hinduism since the ancient times, given his teachings and royal support. The Hindu views for the Buddha have neither been constant, they have ranged from contesting the Buddhist premises and theology to sharing or adopting terminology, concepts as well as more the persona of Siddhartha as someone, born in and matured into the Buddha in a Brahmanical system.

One such integration is through its mythology, where in Vaishnava Puranas, the Buddha is adopted as the ninth avatar of Vishnu. Buddha is considered by traditions within Hinduism. Buddhists traditionally do not accept the Buddha to be a Vishnu avatar; the adoption of Buddha may have been a way to assimilate Buddhism into the fold of Hinduism. Much like Hinduism's adoption of the Buddha as an avatar, Buddhism legends too adopted Krishna in their Jataka tales, claiming Krishna to be a character whom Buddha met and taught in his previous births; the adoption of the Buddha in texts relating to Hindu gods, of Hindu gods in Buddhist texts, is difficult to place chronologically. According to Alf Hiltebeitel and other scholars, some of the stories in Buddha-related Jataka tales found in Pali texts seem slanderous distortions of Hindu legends, but these may reflect the ancient local traditions and the complexities of early interaction between the two Indian religions. In contemporary Hinduism, state Constance Jones and James D. Ryan, Buddha is revered by Hindus.

They consider "Buddhism to be another form of Hinduism". However, regional Hindu texts over the centuries have presented a spectrum of views on Buddhism reflecting the competition between Buddhism and the Brahmanical traditions; some pre-13th-century Hindu texts portray the Buddha as born to mislead the asuras to the false path, some to stop all killing of animals. Some pre-14th-century Hindu temples include Buddha reliefs with the same reverence they show for other avatars of Vishnu. In recent and contemporary Hinduism in India, Buddha is considered a holy being and revered as one, awakened. Outside India, some contemporary Hindus revere the Buddha along with other gods during their festivals. Scholars contest whether the Hindu perceptions and apologetic attempts to rationalize the Buddha within their fold are correct. Though an avatar of Vishnu, the Buddha is worshipped like Krishna and Rama in Hinduism. According to John Holt, the Buddha was adopted as an avatar of Vishnu around the time the Puranas were being composed, in order to subordinate him into the Brahmanical ideology.

Further adds Holt, various scholars in India, Sri Lanka and outside South Asia state that the colonial era and contemporary attempts to assimilate Buddha into the Hindu fold are a nationalistic political agenda, where "the Buddha has been reclaimed triumphantly as a symbol of indigenous nationalist understandings of India's history and culture". According to Lars Tore Flåten, Hindu perceptions in the literature by Hindu nationalists, are that "Buddha did not break away from the spiritual ideas of his age and country", they claim that scholars such as Hermann Oldenberg, Thomas Rhys Davids and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan state there is much in common between "Buddhism and the contemporary Hinduism". These perceptions cite, for example, the Pali scholar Rhys Davids' analysis in Buddhism: Being a Sketch of the Life and Teachings of Gautama, the Buddha, where he wrote, "But the foregoing account will be sufficient, I hope, to remove at least one misconception – the prevalent notion that Gautama was an enemy to Hinduism, that his chief claim on the gratitude of his countrymen lies in his having destroyed a system of iniquity and oppression and fraud.

This is not the case. Gautama was born, brought up, lived, died a Hindu". In present-day scholarly consensus, Buddhism is considered different from pre-Buddhist Indian religion, however. For example, Indologist Richard Gombrich wrote that the Buddha was a radical religious reformer, making religious practice and salvation a more personal matter than it was before the arising of Buddhism; the Oxford professor and President of India, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan states that "as a matter of fact, nowhere did Buddha repudiate the Upanishad conception of Brahman, the absolute". Buddhologists like K. R. Norman and Richard Gombrich meanwhile, argue that the Buddha's anatta theory does indeed extend to the Brahmanical belief expounded in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad that the Self is the Universal Self, or Brahman, they point to the Pali Alagaddūpama-sutta, where the Buddha argues that an individual cannot experience the suffering of the entire world. Gombrich and other scholars have argued that the Buddha did not begin or pursue social reforms, nor was he against caste altogether, rather his aim was at the salvation of those who joined his monastic order.

According to Gombrich, modernists keep picking up these erroneous assumptions "from western authors". B. R. Ambedkar, the Dalit leader who in 1935 declared his intention to conver