Head of state
A head of state is the public persona who represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, there is a separate de facto leader with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation. In countries with parliamentary systems, the head of state is a ceremonial figurehead who does not guide day-to-day government activities or is not empowered to exercise any kind of political authority. In countries where the head of state is the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch. Former French president Charles de Gaulle, while developing the current Constitution of France, said that the head of state should embody l'esprit de la nation.
Some academic writers discuss states and governments in terms of "models". An independent nation state has a head of state, determines the extent of its head's executive powers of government or formal representational functions. In protocolary terms, the head of a sovereign, independent state is identified as the person who, according to that state's constitution, is the reigning monarch, in the case of a monarchy, or the president, in the case of a republic. Among the different state constitutions that establish different political systems, four major types of heads of state can be distinguished: The parliamentary system, with three subset models; the non-executive model, in which the head of state has either none or limited executive powers, has a ceremonial and symbolic role. The Parliamentary-Presidential model, or South African Method, where Parliament chooses the President, who acts as both Head of State and Head of Government; some argue this is unfair, becouse citizens dont get a direct say in their executive leadership.
However, this method makes it impossible for a dictator to come to power. The semi-presidential system, in which the head of state shares key executive powers with a head of government or cabinet. In a federal constituent or a dependent territory, the same role is fulfilled by the holder of an office corresponding to that of a head of state. For example, in each Canadian province the role is fulfilled by the Lieutenant Governor, whereas in most British Overseas Territories the powers and duties are performed by the Governor; the same applies to Indian states, etc.. Hong Kong's constitutional document, the Basic Law, for example, specifies the Chief Executive as the head of the special administrative region, in addition to their role as the head of government; these non-sovereign-state heads have limited or no role in diplomatic affairs, depending on the status and the norms and practices of the territories concerned. In parliamentary systems the head of state may be the nominal chief executive officer, heading the executive branch of the state, possessing limited executive power.
In reality, following a process of constitutional evolution, powers are only exercised by direction of a cabinet, presided over by a head of government, answerable to the legislature. This accountability and legitimacy requires that someone be chosen who has a majority support in the legislature, it gives the legislature the right to vote down the head of government and their cabinet, forcing it either to resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution. The executive branch is thus said to be responsible to the legislature, with the head of government and cabinet in turn accepting constitutional responsibility for offering constitutional advice to the head of state. In parliamentary constitutional monarchies, the legitimacy of the unelected head of state derives from the tacit approval of the people via the elected representatives. Accordingly, at the time of the Glorious Revolution, the English parliament acted of its own authority to name a new king and queen. In monarchies with a written constitution, the position of monarch is a creature of the constitution and could quite properly be abolished through a democratic procedure of constitutional amendment, although there are significant procedural hurdles imposed on such a procedure.
In republics with a parliamentary system the head of state is titled president and the principal functions of such presidents are ceremonial and symbolic, as opposed to the presidents in a presidential or semi-presidential system. In reality, numerous variants exist to the position of a head of state within a parliamentary system; the older the cons
1991 Russian presidential election
The 1991 Russian presidential election was held in the Russian SFSR on 12 June 1991. This was the first presidential election in the country's history; the election was held three months after Russians voted in favor of establishing a presidency and holding direct elections in a referendum held in March that year. The result was a victory for Boris Yeltsin. In the election of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation's lower chamber members in the 1990 legislative election anti-communist candidates won nearly two-thirds of the seats. On 31 May 1990 Boris Yeltsin was elected Chair of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation in a vote by the body's members; this made him the de facto leader of the Russian SFSR. The vote had been close, as Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev had unsuccessfully tried to convince enough members of the Supreme Soviet to vote against Yeltsin. Yelstin made an active effort to push for the creation of an office of president and for a popular election to be held to fill it.
Many saw this as a desire by Yelstin to have a mandate and power separate from the tensely divided legislature. He succeeded in having Russia hold a referendum on 14 March 1991 on whether Russia should create offices of President and Vice President and hold elections to fill them. Russians voted in favor of holding elections to these offices. Following the referendum, there was a period of more than a week in which a stalemate had caused the Congress of People's Deputies to go without deciding whether or not to vote on whether the Russian Federation should have a directly-elected president. On 4 April the Congress of People's Deputies ordered the creation of legislation to authorize the election. While still failing to set an official date for the election, the Congress of People's Deputies provisionally scheduled the election for 12 June; this provisional date would become the official date of the election. The Congress of People's Deputies would approve for an election to be held, scheduling its initial round of voting to be held three months after the referendum had been decided.
The election would jointly elect individuals to serve five-year terms as President and Vice President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Several sub-national elections were scheduled to coincide with the first round of the presidential election; this included mayoral elections in Moscow and Leningrad, executive elections in federal subjects such as Tatarstan. There were sub-national referendums scheduled to coincide with the presidential election; these included a number of referendums in which cities were determining whether or not residents wanted to revert to their historic city names, such as in Sverdlovsk and Leningrad. In difference from subsequent Russian presidential elections, a vice presidential candidate stood for election alongside with the presidential candidate. To the US presidential election system, the candidature of Vice President was exhibited along with the candidacy of the President as a joint entry on the ballot paper. Preliminary legislation outlining the rules of the election was passed on 24 April by the Supreme Soviet of Russia.
However, it took the Supreme Soviet until three weeks before the day of the election to finalize the rules that would govern the election. Any citizen of the RSFSR between the ages of 35 and 65 were eligible to be elected president. Any citizen of the RSFSR over the age of 18 was eligible to vote. 50% turnout was required in order to validate the election. The winner would need to have captured 50% of the votes cast; the president would be elected to a 5-year term, could serve a maximum of two terms. The election law stipulated that, once sworn-in, the president would be required to renounce their membership of any political parties. However, on 23 May, the parliament voted to remove this requirement. All candidates needed to be nominated. Candidates could be nominated by RSFSR political parties, trade unions, public organizations. There were two ways for candidates to achieve ballot registration; the first was by providing proof of the having the support of 100,000 voters. The second way for candidates to obtain registration is if they received the support of 25% of the members of the Congress of People's Deputies.
On 6 May it was announced. This was the deadline for nominating a vice-presidential running mate. Candidates were provided 200,000 rubles in public financing for their campaigns. In May 1991 there were some calls to postpone the election; those urging the postponement of the elections argued that the time before the scheduled 12 June election day provided too brief of a period for nominating candidates and campaigning. In response to these calls, election commission chairman Vasilii Kazakov argued that that the law stipulated that the election would be held on 12 June and that the proposed postponement of the election would only serve to "keep Russia seething" for another three months. In mid-May election commission chairman Vasilii Kazakov announced that the election would be budgeted at 155 million rubles; the results of the first round were to be announced by a 22 June deadline. It had been determined that, if needed, a runoff would be scheduled to be held within two weeks after the first round.
Due to the rushed circumstances behind the creation of the office and organization the election, many aspects of the office of President were not clear. Sufficient legislative debates were no
Gabriel Narutowicz was a Polish professor of hydroelectric engineering and politician who served as the 1st President of Poland from 11 December 1922 until his assassination on 16 December, five days after assuming office. He served as the Minister of Public Works from 1920 to 1921 and as Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1922. A renowned engineer and politically independent, Narutowicz was the first elected head of state following Poland's regained sovereignty from partitioning powers. Born into a noble family with strong patriotic sentiment, Narutowicz studied at the University of St. Petersburg before relocating to Zurich Polytechnic and completing his studies in Switzerland. An engineer by profession, he was a pioneer of electrification and his works were presented at exhibitions across Western Europe. Narutowicz directed the construction of the first European hydroelectric power plants in Monthey, Mühleberg and Andelsbuch. In 1907 he was nominated a professor of hydroelectric and water engineering in Zurich, was subsequently assigned in maintaining the Rhine.
In September 1919 Narutowicz was invited by the Polish authorities in rebuilding the nation's infrastructure after devastation caused by World War I. On 23 June 1920 Narutowicz became the Minister of Public Works in Władysław Grabski’s government. Following his successful conduct of the Polish delegation at the Genoa Conference, on 28 June 1922 he became the Minister of Foreign Affairs in Artur Śliwiński’s cabinet. During the elections in 1922, Narutowicz was supported by the center-left, most notably the Polish People's Party "Wyzwolenie", by national minorities, but gained harsh criticism from the right wing National Democratss. Far-right zealots, ultra-Catholic unions and nationalists targeted him for sympathy towards Polish Jews. Upon defeating the other candidate, Maurycy Zamoyski, Gabriel Narutowicz was elected the first president of the Second Polish Republic. After only five days in office he was assassinated by oppositionist Eligiusz Niewiadomski while viewing paintings at the Zachęta Art Gallery.
His funeral, attended by 500,000 people, was a manifestation of peace which diminished the power of the far-right movement in the upcoming years. Narutowicz was buried with honors on 22 December 1922 in the vault of St. John's Cathedral in Warsaw. Narutowicz was an active Freemason. Gabriel Józef Narutowicz was born into a Polish-Lithuanian noble family in Telsze part of the Russian Empire after the partitioning of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, his father, Jan Narutowicz, was a local district judge and landholder in the Samogitian village of Brewiki. As a result of his participation in the January 1863 Uprising against Imperial Russia, he was sentenced to a year in prison. Gabriel’s mother, Wiktoria Szczepkowska, was Jan's third wife. Following her husband's death she raised the sons herself. An educated woman, intrigued by the philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment, she had a great influence on the development of Gabriel and his siblings' world view. In 1873 she moved to Liepāja, Latvia, so that her children would not be forced to attend a Russian school.
An illustration of the dual nature of the family's identity is Gabriel Narutowicz’s brother, Stanisław Narutowicz, after Lithuania regained independence in 1918, became a Lithuanian, not Polish, citizen. Earlier, towards the end of World War I, Stanisław had become a member of the Council of Lithuania, the provisional Lithuanian parliament, he was a signatory of the Lithuanian Act of Independence of 16 February 1918. Narutowicz finished his secondary education at the gymnasium in Latvia, he enrolled at the University of St. Petersburg, in the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics. Illness, caused him to suspend those studies and to transfer to the Zurich Polytechnic in Switzerland, where he studied from 1887 to 1891. Narutowicz helped exiled Poles on the run from the Russian authorities during his time in Switzerland, he was connected with a Polish émigré socialist party, "Proletariat". As a result of his associations he was banned from returning to Russia, had a warrant issued for his arrest. In 1895 Narutowicz became a Swiss citizen and, after completing his studies, he was employed as an engineer during the construction of the St. Gallen railway.
Narutowicz proved to be an excellent engineering expert and in 1895 became a chief of works on the River Rhine. He was hired by the Kurstein technical office, his works were exhibited at the International Exhibition in Paris and he would become a famous pioneer of electrification in Switzerland. Narutowicz directed the construction of many hydroelectric power plants in Western Europe, in Monthey, Mühleberg and Andelsbuch. In 1907 he became a professor in the water construction institute in Zurich, he was dean of that institute from 1913 to 1919. He was a member of the Swiss Committee for Water Economy. In 1915 he was chosen chairman of the International Committee for regulation of the River Rhine. During World War I he cooperated with the General Swiss Committee tasked with helping victims of the war in Poland and was a member of La Pologne et la Guerre, located in Lausanne. A follower of the ideas of Józef Piłsudski, in September 1919 Narutowicz was invited by the Polish government to return to Poland to take part in the rebuilding of the nation's infrastructure.
After coming back to Poland, on 23 June 1920 Narutowicz became the Minister of Public Wo
1994 South African general election
General elections were held in South Africa between 26 and 29 April 1994. The elections were the first in which citizens of all races were allowed to take part, were therefore the first held with universal adult suffrage; the election was conducted under the direction of the Independent Electoral Commission, marked the culmination of the four-year process that ended apartheid. Millions queued in lines over a four-day voting period. Altogether 19,726,579 votes were counted and 193,081 were rejected as invalid; as expected, the African National Congress, whose slate incorporated the labour confederation COSATU and the South African Communist Party, won a sweeping victory, taking 62 percent of the vote, just short of the two-thirds majority required to unilaterally amend the Interim Constitution. As required by that document, the ANC formed a Government of National Unity with the National Party and the Inkatha Freedom Party, the two other parties that won more than 20 seats in the National Assembly.
The new National Assembly's first act was to elect Nelson Mandela as President, making him the country's first black chief executive. The date 27 April is now a public holiday in Freedom Day; the 400 members of the National Assembly were chosen from party lists in proportion to each party's share of the national ballot. The 90 members of the Senate were chosen, 10 from each province, by the newly elected provincial legislatures; each province's Senate seats were allocated in proportion to the parties' representation in the provincial legislature. In 1997, on the adoption of the final Constitution, the Senate became the National Council of Provinces. Members of the provincial legislatures were elected from party lists in proportion to each party's share of the provincial ballot; the following table summarises the result. The majority party in each legislature is indicated in bold; the following tables detail the results in each province. The Inkatha Freedom Party entered the election late, it was added to the already-printed ballot papers by means of a sticker.
In rural areas with limited infrastructure, people queued "for days". In a Sunday Independent article on the 20th anniversary of the election, Steven Friedman, who headed the IEC's information analysis department during the election, stated that the lack of a voters roll made verifying the results of the election difficult, there were widespread accusations of cheating. Friedman characterised the election as a "technical disaster but a political triumph", intimated that the final results were as a result of a negotiated compromise, rather than being an accurate count of the votes cast, stating that it was impossible to produce an accurate result under the circumstances that the election was held, he wrote that he believed that the result of the election, which gave KwaZulu-Natal to the IFP. Denel Dynamics Seeker unmanned aerial vehicles were used to monitor the elections. Following the elections, 27 April subsequently became Freedom Day. In 2014, the election was commemorated on its 20th anniversary due to its historic importance.
US Department of the Army, South Africa Country Study, "The 1994 Elections" IEC results for 1994 election Proportional representation and alternative systems
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Rodrigo Roa Duterte known as Digong and Rody, is a Filipino politician, the 16th and current President of the Philippines and the first from Mindanao, to hold the office. He is the chair of the ruling PDP–Laban party. Taking office at 71 years old in June 2016, Duterte is the oldest person to assume the Philippine presidency. Duterte studied political science at the Lyceum of the Philippines University, graduating in 1968, before obtaining a law degree from San Beda College of Law in 1972, he worked as a lawyer and was a prosecutor for Davao City, before becoming vice mayor and, mayor of the city in the wake of the Philippine Revolution of 1986. Duterte was among the longest-serving mayors in the Philippines, serving seven terms and totaling more than 22 years in office. Described as a populist and a nationalist, Duterte's political success has been aided by his vocal support for the extrajudicial killing of drug users and other criminals. Human rights groups have documented over 1,400 killings by death squads operating in Davao between 1998 and May 2016.
A 2009 report by the Philippine Commission on Human Rights confirmed the "systematic practice of extrajudicial killings" by the Davao Death Squad. Duterte has alternately denied his involvement; the Office of the Ombudsman closed an investigation in January 2016 stating that they found no evidence that the Davao Death Squad exists, no evidence to connect the police or Duterte with the killings. The case has since been reopened. Duterte has confirmed that he killed criminal suspects as mayor of Davao. On May 9, 2016, Duterte won the Philippine presidential election with 39.01% of the votes, defeating four other candidates, namely Mar Roxas of the Liberal Party, Senator Grace Poe, former vice president Jejomar Binay of the United Nationalist Alliance, the late Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago of the People's Reform Party. During his campaign, he promised to kill tens of thousands of criminals and end crime within six months, his domestic policy has focused on combating the illegal drug trade by initiating the Philippine Drug War.
According to the Philippine National Police the death total passed 7,000 in January 2017, after which the police stopped publishing data. Following criticism from United Nations human rights experts that extrajudicial killings had increased since his election, Duterte threatened to withdraw the Philippines from the UN and form a new organization with China and African nations, he has declared his intention to pursue an "independent foreign policy", sought to distance the Philippines from the United States and European nations and pursue closer ties with China and Russia. Duterte was born on March 1945, in Maasin, his father was Vicente G. Duterte, a Cebuano lawyer, his mother, Soledad Duterte, was a school teacher from Cabadbaran, Agusan and a civic leader of Maranao descent. Duterte's father was mayor of Danao and subsequently the provincial governor of Davao province. Rodrigo's cousin Ronald was mayor of Cebu City from 1983 to 1986. Ronald's father, Ramon Duterte held the position from 1957 to 1959.
The Dutertes consider the Cebu-based political families of the Durano and the Almendras clan as relatives. Duterte has relatives from the Roa clan in Leyte through his mother's side. Duterte's family lived in Maasin, in his father's hometown in Danao, until he was four years old; the Dutertes moved to Mindanao in 1948 but still went back and forth to the Visayas until 1949. They settled in the Davao Region in 1950. Vicente worked. Soledad worked as a teacher until 1952. Duterte went for a year, he spent his remaining elementary days at the Santa Ana Elementary School in Davao City, where he graduated in 1956. He finished his secondary education in the High School Department of the then-Holy Cross College of Digos in today's city of Digos in the now defunct Davao province, after being expelled twice from previous schools, including one in Ateneo de Davao University High School due to misconduct, he graduated in 1968 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science at the Lyceum of the Philippines in Manila.
He obtained a law degree from San Beda College of Law in 1972. In the same year, he passed the bar exam. Duterte became a Special Counsel at the City Prosecution Office in Davao City from 1977–79, Fourth Assistant City Prosecutor from 1979–81, Third Assistant City Prosecutor from 1981–83, Second Assistant City Prosecutor from 1983–86. Duterte has said. After he was challenged by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines and AdDU officials to name the priest and file a case against him, Duterte revealed the priest's name as Fr. Mark Falvey, SJ; the Jesuits of the Society of Jesus in the Philippines confirmed that according to press reports in the United States, in May 2007, the Society of Jesus agreed to a tentative payout of USD16 million to settle claims that Falvey sexually abused at least nine children in Los Angeles from 1959 to 1975. Accusations against Falvey began in 2002, he was never charged with a crime. Additionally in May 2008, the Diocese of Sacramento paid $100,000 settlement to a person raped and molested by Mark's brother, Fr.
Arthur Falvey. However, it was not indicated in the report if Mark Falvey was
The Knesset is the unicameral national legislature of Israel. As the legislative branch of the Israeli government, the Knesset passes all laws, elects the President and Prime Minister, approves the cabinet, supervises the work of the government. In addition, the Knesset elects the State Comptroller, it has the power to waive the immunity of its members, remove the President and the State Comptroller from office, dissolve the government in a constructive vote of no confidence, to dissolve itself and call new elections. The Prime Minister may dissolve the Knesset. However, until an election is completed, the Knesset maintains authority in its current composition; the Knesset is located in Jerusalem. The term "Knesset" is derived from the ancient Knesset HaGdola or "Great Assembly", which according to Jewish tradition was an assembly of 120 scribes and prophets, in the period from the end of the Biblical prophets to the time of the development of Rabbinic Judaism – about two centuries ending c. 200 BCE.
There is, however, no organisational continuity and – aside from the number of members – little similarity, as the ancient Knesset was a religious unelected body. As the legislative branch of the Israeli government, the Knesset passes all laws, elects the president, approves the cabinet, supervises the work of the government through its committees, it has the power to waive the immunity of its members, remove the President and the State Comptroller from office, to dissolve itself and call new elections. The Knesset has de jure parliamentary supremacy, can pass any law by a simple majority one that might arguably conflict with the Basic Laws of Israel, unless the basic law includes specific conditions for its modification. In addition to the absence of a formal constitution, with no Basic Law thus far being adopted which formally grants a power of judicial review to the judiciary, the Supreme Court of Israel has in recent years asserted its authority, when sitting as the High Court of Justice, to invalidate provisions of Knesset laws it has found to be inconsistent with a Basic Law.
The Knesset is presided over by a Deputy Speaker. The Knesset is divided into committees. Committee chairpersons are chosen by their members, on recommendation of the House Committee, their factional composition represents that of the Knesset itself. Committees may elect sub-committees and delegate powers to them, or establish joint committees for issues concerning more than one committee. To further their deliberations, they invite government ministers, senior officials, experts in the matter being discussed. Committees may request explanation and information from any relevant ministers in any matter within their competence, the ministers or persons appointed by them must provide the explanation or information requested. There are four types of committees in the Knesset. Permanent committees amend proposed legislation dealing with their area of expertise, may initiate legislation. However, such legislation may only deal with Basic Laws and laws dealing with the Knesset, elections to the Knesset, Knesset members, or the State Comptroller.
Special committees function in a similar manner to permanent committees, but are appointed to deal with particular manners at hand, can be dissolved or turned into permanent committees. Parliamentary inquiry committees are appointed by the plenum to deal with issues viewed as having special national importance. In addition, there are two types of committees that convene only when needed: the Interpretations Committee, made up of the Speaker and eight members chosen by the House Committee, deals with appeals against the interpretation given by the Speaker during a sitting of the plenum to the Knesset rules of procedure or precedents, Public Committees, established to deal with issues that are connected to the Knesset. Permanent committees: House Committee Finance Committee Economic Affairs Committee Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee Interior and Environment Committee Immigration and Diaspora Affairs Committee Education and Sports Committee Constitution and Justice Committee Labour and Health Committee Science and Technology Committee State Control Committee Committee on the Status of WomenSpecial committees: Committee on Drug Abuse Committee on the Rights of the Child Committee on Foreign Workers Israeli Central Elections Committee Public Petitions CommitteeThe other committees are the Arrangements Committee and the Ethics Committee.
The Ethics Committee is responsible for jurisdiction over Knesset members who violate the rules of ethics of the Knesset, or involved in illegal activities outside the Knesset. Within the framework of responsibility, the Ethics Committee may place various sanctions on a member, but is not allowed to restrict a members' right to vote; the Arrangements Committee proposes the makeup of the permanent committees following each election, as well as suggesting committee chairs, lays down the sitting arrangements of political parties in the Knesset, the distribution of rooms in the Knesset building to members and parties. Knesset members join together in formal or informal groups known as "lobbies" or "caucuses", to advocate for a particular topic. There are hundreds of such caucuses in the Knesset; the Knesset Christian Allies Caucus and the Knesset Land of Israel Caucus are two of the largest and mo