China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
East Germany, formally the German Democratic Republic, was an Eastern Bloc state during the Cold War period. The Soviet zone surrounded West Berlin, but did not include it, as a result, the German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet Zone, while the Federal Republic was established in the three western zones. East Germany, which lies culturally in Central Germany, was a state of the Soviet Union. Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, Soviet forces, remained in the country throughout the Cold War. Until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party, though other parties participated in its alliance organisation. The economy was centrally planned, and increasingly state-owned, prices of basic goods and services were set by central government planners, rather than rising and falling through supply and demand. Although the GDR had to pay war reparations to the USSR. Nonetheless it did not match the growth of West Germany.
Emigration to the West was a significant problem—as many of the emigrants were well-educated young people, the government fortified its western borders and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to flee were killed by guards or booby traps. In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the fall of the Berlin Wall, the following year open elections were held, and international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty on the status and borders of Germany. The GDR was dissolved and Germany was unified on 3 October 1990, the GDR bordered the Soviet sector of Allied-occupied Berlin known as East Berlin which was administered as the states de facto capital. It bordered the three sectors occupied by the United States, United Kingdom and France known collectively as West Berlin. The three sectors occupied by the Western nations were sealed off from the rest of the GDR by the Berlin Wall from its construction in 1961 until it was brought down in 1989, the official name was Deutsche Demokratische Republik, usually abbreviated to DDR.
West Germans, the media and statesmen purposely avoided the official name and its abbreviation, instead using terms like Ostzone, Sowjetische Besatzungszone. The centre of power in East Berlin was referred to as Pankow. Over time, the abbreviation DDR was used colloquially by West Germans. However, this use was not always consistent, for example, before World War II, Ostdeutschland was used to describe all the territories east of the Elbe, as reflected in the works of sociologist Max Weber and political theorist Carl Schmitt
Workers' Party of Korea
The Workers Party of Korea is the founding and ruling political party of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, and the largest party represented in the Supreme Peoples Assembly. The WPK is the governing party of North Korea, although it coexists de jure with two other legal parties making up the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland. It was founded in 1949 with the merger of the Workers Party of North Korea, the WPK controls the worlds 5th largest armed force - Korean Peoples Army. This political party remains illegal in South Korea under the countrys National Security Act, the WPK is organized according to the Monolithic Ideological System and the Great Leader, a system and theory conceived by Kim Yong-ju and Kim Jong-il. The highest body of the WPK is formally the Congress, between 1980 and 2016, there were no congresses held. Although the WPK is, organizationally similar to communist parties, in practice it is far less institutionalized, Kim Jong-un is the current WPK leader, serving as Chairman and CMC chairman.
The WPK is committed to Juche, and at the 4th Conference the party charter was amended to state that Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism was the guiding idea of the party. Party ideology has recently focused on perceived imperialist enemies of the party and state, the Partys emblem is an adaptation of the communist hammer and sickle, with a traditional Korean calligraphy brush symbolizing the working intellectual. On 13 October 1945 the North Korean Bureau of the Communist Party of Korea was established, the NKB–CPK remained subordinate to the CPK Central Committee. Two months later, at the 3rd Plenum of the NKB, in spring 1946 the North Korean Bureau became the Communist Party of North Korea, with Kim Il-sung its elected chairman. On 22 July 1946 Soviet authorities in North Korea established the United Democratic National Front, the Communist Party of North Korea soon merged with the New Peoples Party of Korea, a party primarily composed of communists from China. On 28 July 1946 a special commission of the two parties ratified the merger, and it became official the following day, one month the party held its founding congress, establishing the Workers Party of North Korea.
The congress elected former leader of the New Peoples Party of Korea Kim Tu-bong as the first WPNK chairman, despite his formal downgrade in the partys hierarchy Kim Il-sung remained its leader. Party control increased throughout the country after the congress, from 27–30 March 1948, the WPNK convened its 2nd Congress. While Kim Tu-bong was still the formal head, Kim Il-sung presented the main report to the congress. In it he claimed that North Korea was a base of democracy, on 28 April 1948 a special session of the Supreme Peoples Assembly approved the constitution, which led to the official establishment of an independent North Korea. It did not call for the establishment of an independent North Korea, but for a unified Korea, Kim Il-sung was the appointed head of government of the new state, with Kim Tu-bong heading the legislative branch. A year later, on 30 June 1949, the Workers Party of Korea was created with the merger of the WPNK and the Workers Party of South Korea
Bangladesh, officially the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It shares land borders with India and Myanmar, Nepal and China are located near Bangladesh but do not share a border with it. The countrys maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is roughly equal to the size of its land area, Bangladesh is the worlds eighth most populous country. Dhaka is its capital and largest city, followed by Chittagong which has the countrys largest port, Bangladesh forms the largest and eastern part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people of different ethnic groups and religions, who speak the official Bengali, make up 98% of the population. The politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the worlds third largest Muslim-majority country, most of Bangladesh is covered by the Bengal delta, the largest delta on Earth. The country has 700 rivers and 8,046 km of inland waterways, highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country.
Bangladesh has many islands and a coral reef and it is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The countrys biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including critically endangered Bengal tigers, the Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which had trade links for millennia. The Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries, the region was home to many principalities which had inland naval prowess. It was a center of the worldwide muslin and silk trade. As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance, the Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan, and was renamed as East Pakistan. The region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, after independence, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy, the country has been affected by poverty, natural disasters, dominant party systems and military coups.
Bangladesh is a power and a major developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, it has the 46th largest economy and it is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, India, Malaysia, with its strategically vital location between Southern and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation
President of the Bundestag
The President of the Bundestag presides over the sessions of the Bundestag, the parliament of Germany, with functions similar to that of a speaker in other countries. In the German order of precedence, his office is ranked second after the President, the current President of the Bundestag is Norbert Lammert, since October 18,2005. The president has to be a member of the Bundestag, until the election of the president, the session is chaired by the Father of the House, the so-called Alterspräsident, the oldest member of the Bundestag. Usually, the President of the Bundestag is a member of the largest parliamentary group and this custom had emerged already in times of the Weimar Republic, but this is not required by law. The term ends with the period, and there is no provision for an early deposition. He can be reelected in the election period provided he becomes a member of the Bundestag again. Traditionally, the President of the Bundestag is elected uncontested, after the unexpected death of Hermann Ehlers, Ernst Lemmer competed with the official CDU/CSU candidate Eugen Gerstenmaier and lost after three ballots with a difference of 14 votes.
The President of the Bundestag has several deputies, the Vice Presidents of the Bundestag, the number of vice presidents was not fixed in the Bundestags Geschäftsordnung until 1994, when it was decided that each parliamentary group should be represented by one vice president. This move was opposed by the other parties, in 2009 there were 5 Vice Presidents and in 20136 once again. Due to a 1952 Federal Constitutional Court decision, the Geschäftsordnung has to be enacted afresh in every election period, the Geschäftsordnung regulates the duties of the President of the Bundestag and his vice presidents as well as their number. The presidents most important duty is to chair the sessions of the Bundestag and he determines the order of speakers and opens and closes the debates, and ensures that debates take place in an orderly fashion. In the case of disruption, he may exclude a member of parliament for up to 30 session days. All draft legislation initiated by the Federal Government, the Bundestag or the Bundesrat is addressed to him as well as all submissions and petitions from within or addressed to the Bundestag.
The President of the Bundestag chairs the Council of Elders, for the election of a new Federal President, the President of the Bundestag convenes and chairs the Bundesversammlung. Additionally, he receives the statements of account of the parties, monitors party financing. Political Party CDU SPD The Presidium of the German Bundestag consists of the President of the Bundestag, the president is elected by all members of the Bundestag during its first meeting, he almost always comes from the largest Fraktion in the Bundestag. His administration ends with the end of a legislature, he can, however, be re-elected, in 1994 it was decided that every Fraktion in the Bundestag should be represented by a Vice President. The most important role of the president is the direction of the Bundestag sittings, to demonstrate the importance of the parliament in Germanys democracy, the parliaments president receives a higher salary than the Chancellor and the Federal President
NCIS: Los Angeles
The series follows the exploits of the Los Angeles-based Office of Special Projects, an elite division of the Naval Criminal Investigative Service that specializes in undercover assignments. NCIS, Los Angeles is the first spin-off of the successful series NCIS, on March 25,2016, CBS renewed the series for an eighth season, which premiered on September 25,2016. On March 23,2017, CBS renewed the series for a ninth season, NCIS, Los Angeles follows Special Agent G. Callen, a legend assigned to the fictional Naval Criminal Investigative Service branch known as the Office of Special Projects. Callen leads a team of undercover operatives as they battle enemies both foreign and domestic under the watchful eye of Operational Manager Henrietta Lange. The team is composed of Agent Kensi Blye, a combat specialist and forensic whiz, Sam Hanna, a former Navy Seal and Gs partner. G. Callen is the Lead Senior Special Agent and undercover operative attached to the NCIS Office of Special Projects and he speaks several languages fluently, including Russian.
Callen is a skilled field agent having worked numerous overseas undercover assignments. Placed in the system at a young age, G. does not know his first name but is determined to find out about his family. As G. lives somewhat of a nature, Los Angeles is Gs most stable home. He is partnered with Sam Hanna, Kensi Blye is the daughter of a Marine and, the only female Special Agent attached to OSP. Her father died at an age, after which Kensi spent some time living on the streets. Estranged from her mother, Kensi is an undercover operative. She is romantically linked to partner Marty Deeks, Nate Getz is an Operational Psychologist originally attached to OSP in order to monitor the teams emotional well-being. Valued as both an agent and a doctor, Getz is drafted to a cover operation. Despite his career change, Getz still returns to Los Angeles when needed, dominic Vail is a probationary agent and a technical specialist who was assigned to OSP straight out of training. Sam Hanna is the teams Senior Field Agent and Gs partner, Sam has the most stable home life of the team as he is married with children.
He met his wife on the job and still lives for the thrill of undercover work, Henrietta Hetty Lange is a Supervisory Special Agent and the teams Operational Manager. As a veteran undercover operative, Hetty has achieved an unbelievable amount during her life, during her younger years, she took in several orphans from the streets in order to mold them into undercover operatives
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated in English as CPSU, was the founding and ruling political party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The party was founded in 1912 by the Bolsheviks, a group led by Vladimir Lenin which seized power in the aftermath of the October Revolution of 1917. The party was dissolved on 29 August 1991 on Soviet territory soon after a failed coup détat and was abolished on 6 November 1991 on Russian territory. The highest body within the CPSU was the party Congress, which convened every five years, when the Congress was not in session, the Central Committee was the highest body. Because the Central Committee met twice a year, most day-to-day duties and responsibilities were vested in the Politburo, the Secretariat, and the Orgburo. The party leader was the head of government and held the office of either General Secretary, Premier or head of state, or some of the three offices concurrently—but never all three at the same time. The CPSU, according to its party statute, adhered to Marxism–Leninism, a based on the writings of Vladimir Lenin and Karl Marx.
The party pursued state socialism, under which all industries were nationalized, a number of causes contributed to CPSUs loss of control and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Some historians have written that Gorbachevs policy of glasnost was the root cause, Gorbachev maintained that perestroika without glasnost was doomed to failure anyway. Others have blamed the stagnation and subsequent loss of faith by the general populace in communist ideology. The Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the worlds first constitutionally socialist state, was established by the Bolsheviks in the aftermath of the October Revolution. Immediately after the Revolution, the new, Lenin-led government implemented socialist reforms, including the transfer of estates, in this context, in 1918, RSDLP became Russian Communist Party and remained so until 1997. Lenin supported world revolution he sought peace with the Central Powers. The treaty was voided after the Allied victory in World War I, in 1921, Lenin proposed the New Economic Policy, a system of state capitalism that started the process of industrialization and recovery from the Civil War.
On 30 December 1922, the Russian SFSR joined former territories of the Russian Empire in the Soviet Union, on 9 March 1923, Lenin suffered a stroke, which incapacitated him and effectively ended his role in government. He died on 21 January 1924 and was succeeded by Joseph Stalin, after emerging victorious from a power struggle with Trotsky, Stalin obtained full control of the party and Stalinism was installed as the only ideology of the party. The partys official name was All-Union Communist Party in 1925, Stalins political purge greatly affected the partys configuration, as many party members were executed or sentenced for slave labour. Happening during the timespan of the Great Purge, fascism had ascened to power in Italy, seeing this as a potential threat, the Party actively sought to form collective security alliances with Anti-fascist western powers such as France and Britain
Supreme People's Assembly
The Supreme Peoples Assembly is the unicameral legislature of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, commonly known as North Korea. It consists of one deputy from each of 687 constituencies, elected to five-year terms, the constitution recognizes the Workers Party as the leading party of the state. Elections are held in intervals, the most recent taking place in 2014. Although the Supreme Peoples Assembly is the legislative body of the DPRK, it ordinarily delegates authority to the smaller and more powerful Presidium. The last convention during Kim Il-sungs government took place in April 1994, during the mourning period the assembly did not meet, nor did elections take place. The next meeting convened in September 1998, four years after Kims death, Kim Jong-il did not make a speech at the first session of the 10th SPA in 1998. Instead, members listened to a speech of the late Kim Il Sung. The enhanced status of the Korean Peoples Army was anticipated by the SPA election July 1998 and this was a large increase from the 57 military officials elected during the 9th SPA in 1990.
Kim Yong-nam has been president of the Assembly Presidum and de jure head of state of North Korea since 1998, choe Thae-bok, Kim Wan-su and Hong Son Ok are the Vice-Chairmen. On April 14,2012, during the session of the 12th Supreme Peoples Assembly Kim Jong Un was elected as the countrys supreme leader. His status as leader was reaffirmed when he was elected unopposed by the people on March 9,2014 in a record turn-out of voters, Kim had nominated to represent his district, the symbolic Mount Paekduto, in the assembly election. Voters could vote yes or no with all voting in the affirmative, under the Constitution of North Korea, all citizens 17 and older, regardless of party affiliation, political views, or religion, are eligible to be elected to the legislature and vote in elections. The Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland is a popular front dominated by the Korean Workers Party, elections are ostensibly by secret ballot. However, only one candidate who has been selected by the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland appears on the ballot, a voter may cross off the candidates name to vote against them, but must do so in a special booth without any secrecy.
Many North Korean defectors claimed that such an act of defiance is too risky to even attempt, according to the Constitution of North Korea, it is the highest organ of state power in the country. In practice, like former Eastern Bloc legislatures, it does more than rubber-stamp decisions already made by the countrys executive organs. The Assembly is convened once or twice a year in sessions of several days each. At all other times, the Presidium acts for the Assembly, extraordinary sessions of the Assembly can meet when called by the Presidium or by one third of the Assembly deputies
Bundesrat of Germany
The German Bundesrat is a legislative body that represents the sixteen Länder of Germany at the national level. The Bundesrat meets at the former Prussian House of Lords in Berlin and its second seat is located in the former West German capital of Bonn. For its similar function, it is described as an upper house of parliament along the lines of the US Senate. Bundesrath was the name of similar bodies in the North German Confederation and its predecessor in the Weimar Republic was the Reichsrat. The political makeup of the Bundesrat is affected by changes in power in the states of Germany, each state delegation in the Bundesrat is essentially a representation of the state government and reflects the political makeup of the ruling majority or plurality of each state legislature. The German Bundesrat was first founded, together with the North German Confederation and it was continued under the same name and with the same functions by the German Empire, in 1871. Under the Weimar Constitution,1919, it was replaced by the Reichsrat, whilst appointed by state governments just as today, the delegates of the original Bundesrat—as those of the Reichsrat—were usually high-ranking civil servants, not cabinet members.
The original Bundesrat was very powerful, every bill needed its consent and it could also, with the Emperors agreement, dissolve the Reichstag. The Reichsrat of the Weimar Republic had considerably less influence, since it could only veto bills—and even be overruled by the Reichstag, overruling the Reichsrat needed a majority of two-thirds in the Reichstag, which consisted of many parties differing in opinion. So, in most cases, bills vetoed by the Reichsrat failed due to the lack of unity among the Reichstags constituent parties. The Bundesrat met in the building as the Reichstag and Bundestag from 1871 until 2000. The composition of the Bundesrat, 1871–1919, was as follows, Bundesrat members are not elected—either by popular vote or by the state parliaments—but are delegated by the respective state government. Normally, a state consists of the Minister President and other cabinet ministers. The state cabinet may appoint as many delegates as the state has votes, in any case, the state has to cast its votes en bloc, i. e. without vote splitting.
As state elections are not coordinated across Germany and can occur at any time, the number of votes a state is allocated is based on a form of degressive proportionality according to its population. This way, smaller states have more votes than a proportional to the population would grant. The allocation of votes is regulated by the German constitution, all of a states votes are cast en bloc—either for or against or in abstention of a proposal. Each state is allocated at least three votes, and a maximum of six, states with more than 2 million inhabitants have 4 votes,6 million inhabitants have 5 votes,7 million inhabitants have 6 votes