The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year. It intends to reflect the degree of freedom that journalists, news organisations, netizens have in each country, the efforts made by authorities to respect this freedom. Reporters Without Borders is careful to note that the index only deals with press freedom and does not measure the quality of journalism nor does it look at human rights violations in general; the report is based on a questionnaire which asks questions about pluralism, media independence and self-censorship, legislative framework and infrastructure. The questionnaire takes account of the legal framework for the media and the level of independence of the public media, it includes violations of the free flow of information on the Internet. Violence against journalists and media assistants, including abuses attributable to the state, armed militias, clandestine organisations or pressure groups, are monitored by RSF staff during the year and are part of the final score.
A smaller score on the report corresponds to greater freedom of the press as reported by the organisation. The questionnaire is sent to Reporters Without Borders's partner organisations: 18 freedom of expression non-governmental organisations located in five continents, its 150 correspondents around the world and journalists, researchers and human rights activists. Based on the data collected, a score and a position or rank, complementary indicators that together assess the state of media freedom are assigned to each country in the final report; some countries confirmed information. Because the questions and calculations upon which the scores are based have changed over the years, scores are only used to compare countries within a given year. To follow a country’s evolution from year to year its rank in the index is compared rather than its score; each report intends to reflect the situation during a specific period. The year of the report is the year the report was released and intends to reflect events in the prior year.
No report was released in 2011. The 2011–2012 report, labelled 2012 in the table below, was published on 20 January 2012 and intends to reflect events between 1 December 2010 and 30 November 2011; the 2013 World Press Freedom Index was published on 30 January 2013, intends to reflect events between 1 December 2011 and 30 November 2012. Data for each year are presented as a country's rank, giving its position relative to other countries over its score. A smaller score on the report corresponds to greater freedom of the press as reported by the organisation. In 2012 the smallest scores could be negative; the first map uses five colours, while the map directly above use seven. Color key: Notes: List of freedom indices Freedom of the Press published by Freedom House each year since 1980 Censorship by country Internet censorship by country Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders The World Press Freedom Index
The Virtual Library museums pages formed an early leading directory of online museums around the world. The resource was founded by Jonathan Bowen in 1994 at the Oxford University Computing Laboratory in the United Kingdom, It has been supported by the International Council of Museums and Museophile Limited; as part of the World Wide Web Virtual Library, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee and managed by Arthur Secret. The main VLmp site moved to London South Bank University in the early 2000s and is now hosted as a wiki on Wikia; the directory was developed and organised in a distributed manner by country, with around twenty people in different countries maintaining various sections. Canada, through the Canadian Heritage Information Network, was the first country to become involved; the MDA maintained the United Kingdom section of museums the Collections Trust. The Historisches Centrum Hagen hosted pages for Germany. Other countries participating included Romania. In total, around 20 countries were involved.
The directory was influential in the museum field during the 2000s. It was used as a standard starting point to find museums online, it was useful for monitoring the growth of museums internationally online. It was used for online museum surveys, it included a search facility. Library and Archival Exhibitions on the Web List of museums Virtual Museum of Computing Virtual Library museums pages
Brice Meuleman, S. J. D. D. was a Jesuit priest, a missionary in British India, the second Archbishop of Calcutta. Brixius Meuleman was born on 1 March 1862 in Ghent, one of the six sons of Desiderius Meuleman, a soapmaker, his wife, Maria Coleta De Smet, but his parents came from Sint-Lievens-Houtem, a Dutch speaking village 10 miles southeast of Ghent in East Flanders, where their families had been living for several generations. Brixius was named in honor of St. Brixius, the 4th Bishop of Tours, whose feast day was on 13 November. But, like the saint’s name, his name was spelled, in his years as the Archbishop, by the reports and magazines as Brice in English and French, Brixius in Dutch and Latin, Brizio in Italian and Brictius in German, the dominant languages of the Archdiocese of Calcutta. Meuleman joined the Society of Jesus on 23 September 1879 with a novitiate in Belgium, he proceeded with his Juniorate in Tronchiennes and his studies of philosophy at the University of Louvain. Having finished his studies, he left Europe at the end of 1886 to join the Mission of the West Bengal in India.
In Calcutta, at the College of St. Francis Xavier, Meuleman was the Lecturer of Philosophy and History from 1888 to 1889 and upheld the Magisterium as a professor and an inspector from 1889 to 1892. In 1892, he moved to Kurseong for the first time to continue his studies of theology. Kurseong was where he was ordained as a priest in 1895, he spent his Third Year in Ranchi. In 1897 he returned to the College of St. Francis Xavier as the Professor of Logic and Political Economy. On 15 August 1895, in Calcutta, he took his Profession of the Fourth Vow becoming a full-fledged member of the Society of Jesus. In 1898, Meuleman returned to Kurseong to be the Minister of Theology and Professor of Holy Scripture at the Seminary of the Society of Jesus. A year he was promoted to the office of the Rector there but he continued to teach classes on the Holy Scripture and work as the Prefect of Studies. In November 1900 he was appointed as the Superior Regular of the West Bengal Mission, it was the last stop of his journey to Calcutta.
Two years on 21 March 1902, Meuleman was nominated to succeed the late Paul Goethals as the Archbishop of Calcutta. Two months on Trinity Sunday, 25 May 1902, he was consecrated and enthroned at the Cathedral of Our Blessed Lady of the Rosary in Calcutta by Dr. Godefroid Pelckmans, O. F. M. Cap; the bishop of Lahore, with assistance from Bishop Francesco Pozzi, P. I. M. E. of Krishnagar and Bishop Teotonio Emanuele Ribeiro Vieira de Castro of Mylapore. As the Archbishop, Meuleman was active in establishing missions in the 24 Parganas District and the Chota Nagpur Division. During the 1910s, he opened several schools, including St. Albert’s Seminary in Bankuli in 1914, in the Ranchi district to educate and prepare the tribal Indians for the religious life as priests and monks. According to legend, these schools were his response to the declaration of the Apostolic Delegate to British India that the Catholic Church in the West Bengal would need a hundred years to have its own native priests. So Archbishop Meuleman formed the plan to “start a Primary School in every village, an Upper Primary School in every parish, a Middle School in every station and a High School in Ranchi” and to make the education of girls as important as the education of boys.
Archbishop Meuleman had the reputation of being kind and mild-mannered, always concerned with the souls and welfare of the Indians. On 21 December 1921, Meuleman promoted a Jesuit from Antwerp, Ferdinand Perier, the former Superior Regular of the West Bengal Mission, in India since 1906, to the rank of Coadjutor Bishop; the Archbishop’s health began to fail. In June 1924 he moved to France in the hopes of recovering his health but his hopes were not realized. So, on 23 June 1924, he resigned from his offices; as the Coadjutor Bishop, Monsignor Périer automatically succeeded him as the third Archbishop of Calcutta. Three weeks on 15 July 1924, Meuleman died in Marseilles. A street in St.-Lievens-Houtem, bears the name of Monseigneur Meulemanstraat in honor of the Archbishop. "The Most Reverend Dr. Brice Meuleman, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Calcutta", The Cyclopedia of India: Biographical — Historical — Administrative — Commercial, Volume 1, page 140 Angel Santos Hernández, S. J. "2.4. Brice Meuleman, Arzobispo de Calcutta", Jesuitas y obispados: Los Jesuitas Obispos Misioneros y los Obispos Jesuitas de la extinción, Tomo II, pages 184-185 Henri Josson, S.
J. La Mission du Bengale occidental ou Archidiocèse de Calcutta. Province belge de la Compagnie de Jésus, Volume II, pages 254-261 J. Meunier, S. J. Funeral oration preached at the funeral service for His Grace Dr. B. Meuleman S. J. Archbishop of Calcutta on July 21st 1924 at the Metropolitan Church, Calcutta, 1924 Memorabilia of the Society of Jesus, Volume II, pages 173 & 220 Les Missions Belges de la Compagnie de Jésus, 1924, pages 29