Entertainment journalism is any form of journalism that focuses on popular culture and the entertainment business and its products. Like fashion journalism, entertainment journalism covers industry-specific news while targeting general audiences beyond those working in the industry itself. Common forms include lifestyle and film, theater music, video game, celebrity coverage. News journalism deals with information of current events or reports of events that have occurred; the main purpose of this type of journalism is to inform. Entertainment journalism deals with information of the entertainment industry such as films, television shows, music and video games among others; the main purpose of this type of journalism is to entertain. Journalists can skew facts in a particular matter that cause their story to come across as entertainment; this action can have a profound effect on the consumer, making the authenticity of the report questionable. Cases of this problem can occur in news articles and documentaries.
Entertainment has different news values from mainstream news. This is focused on celebrities and their lifestyles and feeds off television soap operas, reality television, members of royal families, the like. Red carpet reporting and interviewing of celebrities during film festivals and award shows are part of entertainment journalism. A review or analysis of a motion picture released to the public; the critic's review or analysis is subjective and informative, with a focus to inform and entertain the consumer. Film criticism is considered to have had a major impact on the integration of the cinema into mainstream media, it is stated that film criticism wasn't accepted as an art until film was accepted in the 1960s. The Internet has further advanced the acceptance of this entertainment journalism with the introduction of film blogs and film review sites; some popular film review sites and blogs include Rotten Tomatoes, IMDb, Metacritic. A form of journalism that covers all aspects of the video game industry.
The birth of the computer age in the 1990s forced media companies to release content that would attract consumers in the video game generation. Visually stimulating print magazines were introduced into the market, covering the video game industry; some popular video game review sites and print based magazines include IGN, Game Informer, Nintendo Power, GameSpot. The rise of the internet allowed many amateur and semi-professional personalities to start their own blogs relating to entertainment journalism; the Me Too movement can trace its roots to entertainment journalism as the centrepiece of it is Harvey Weinstein, a Hollywood mogul who not only produced independent and blockbuster films but has worked on television and theater. Infotainment Journal of Religion and Theatre
Music journalism is media criticism and reporting about music topics, including popular music, classical music and traditional music. Journalists began writing about music in the eighteenth century, providing commentary on what is now regarded as classical music. In the 1960s, music journalism began more prominently covering popular music like rock and pop after the breakthrough of The Beatles. With the rise of the internet in the 2000s, music criticism developed an large online presence with music bloggers, aspiring music critics, established critics supplementing print media online. Music journalism today includes reviews of songs and live concerts, profiles of recording artists, reporting of artist news and music events. Music journalism has its roots in classical music criticism, which has traditionally comprised the study, discussion and interpretation of music, composed and notated in a score and the evaluation of the performance of classical songs and pieces, such as symphonies and concertos.
Before about the 1840s, reporting on music was either done by musical journals, such as the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung and the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, in London journals such as The Musical Times. An influential English 19th-century music critic, for example, was James William Davison of The Times; the composer Hector Berlioz wrote reviews and criticisms for the Paris press of the 1830s and 1840s. Modern art music journalism is informed by music theory consideration of the many diverse elements of a musical piece or performance, including its form and style, for performance, standards of technique and expression; these standards were expressed, for example, in journals such as Neue Zeitschrift für Musik founded by Robert Schumann, are continued today in the columns of serious newspapers and journals such as The Musical Times. Several factors—including growth of education, the influence of the Romantic movement and in music, among others—led to an increasing interest in music among non-specialist journals, an increase in the number of critics by profession of varying degrees of competence and integrity.
The 1840s could be considered a turning point, in that music critics after the 1840s were not practicing musicians. However, counterexamples include Alfred Brendel, Charles Rosen, Paul Hindemith, Ernst Krenek. In the early 1980s, a decline in the quantity of classical criticism began occurring "when classical-music criticism visibly started to disappear" from the media. At that time, magazines such as Time and Vanity Fair employed classical music critics, but by the early 1990s, classical critics were dropped in many magazines, in part due to "a decline of interest in classical music among younger people". Of concern in classical music journalism was how American reviewers can write about ethnic and folk music from cultures other than their own, such as Indian ragas and traditional Japanese works. In 1990, the World Music Institute interviewed four New York Times music critics who came up with the following criteria on how to approach ethnic music: A review should relate the music to other kinds of music that readers know, to help them understand better what the program was about.
"The performers be treated as human beings and their music be treated as human activity rather than a mystical or mysterious phenomenon." The review should show an understanding of the music's cultural intentions. A key finding in a 2005 study of arts journalism in America was that the profile of the "average classical music critic is a white, 52-year old male, with a graduate degree". Demographics indicated that the group was 74% male, 92% white, 64% had earned a graduate degree. One critic of the study pointed out that because all newspapers were included, including low-circulation regional papers, the female representation of 26% misrepresented the actual scarcity, in that the "large US papers, which are the ones that influence public opinion, have no women classical music critics", with the notable exceptions of Anne Midgette in the New York Times and Wynne Delacoma in the Chicago Sun-Times. In 2007, The New York Times wrote that classical music criticism, which it characterized as "a high-minded endeavor, around at least as long as newspapers", had undergone "a series of hits in recent months" with the elimination, downgrading, or redefinition of critics' jobs at newspapers in Atlanta and elsewhere, citing New York magazine's Peter G. Davis, "one of the most respected voices of the craft, said he had been forced out after 26 years".
Viewing "robust analysis and reportage as vital to the health of the art form", The New York Times stated in 2007 that it continued to maintain "a staff of three full-time classical music critics and three freelancers", noting that classical music criticism had become available on blogs, that a number of other major newspapers "still have full-time classical music critics", including the Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, The Baltimore Sun, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Boston Globe. Music writers only started "treating pop and rock music seriously" in 1964 "after the breakthrough of the Beatles". In their
Sports journalism is a form of writing that reports on sporting topics and competitions. Sports journalism is the essential element of many news media organizations. While the sports department within some newspapers has been mockingly called the toy department, because sports journalists do not concern themselves with the'serious' topics covered by the news desk, sports coverage has grown in importance as sport has grown in wealth and influence; some media organizations are devoted to sports reporting — newspapers and magazines such as L'Equipe in France, La Gazzetta dello Sport in Italy, Marca in Spain, the defunct Sporting Life in Britain, American Sports Illustrated and Sporting News. Sports. Major League Baseball gave print journalists a special role in its games, they were named official scorers and kept statistics that were considered part of the official record of league. Active sportswriters were removed from this role in 1980. Although their statistical judgment calls could not affect the outcome of a game in progress, the awarding of errors and wins/saves were seen as powerful influences on pitching staff selections and play lists when coach decisions seemed unusual.
The removal of writers, who could benefit fiscally from sensational sports stories, was done to remove this perception of a conflict of interest, to increase statistics volume and accuracy. Sports stories transcend the games themselves and take on socio-political significance: Jackie Robinson breaking the color barrier in baseball is an example of this. Modern controversies regarding the hyper-compensation of top athletes, the use of anabolic steroids and other, banned performance-enhancing drugs, the cost to local and national governments to build sports venues and related infrastructure for Olympic Games demonstrates how sports can intrude on to the news pages. Sportswriters face more deadline pressure than other reporters because sporting events tend to occur late in the day and closer to the deadlines many organizations must observe, yet they are expected to use the same tools as news journalists, to uphold the same professional and ethical standards. They must take care not to show bias for any team.
The tradition of sports reporting attracting some of the finest writers in journalism can be traced to the coverage of sport in Victorian England, where several modern sports – such as association football, cricket and rugby – were first organized and codified into something resembling what we would recognize today. Andrew Warwick has suggested that The Boat Race provided the first mass spectator event for journalistic coverage; the Race, an annual rowing event between the University of Cambridge and University of Oxford, has been held annually from 1856. Cricket because of its esteemed place in society, has attracted the most elegant of writers; the Manchester Guardian, in the first half of the 20th century, employed Neville Cardus as its cricket correspondent as well as its music critic. Cardus was knighted for his services to journalism. One of his successors, John Arlott, who became a worldwide favorite because of his radio commentaries on the BBC, was known for his poetry; the first London Olympic Games in 1908 attracted such widespread public interest that many newspapers assigned their best-known writers to the event.
The Daily Mail had Sir Arthur Conan Doyle at the White City Stadium to cover the finish of the Marathon. Such was the drama of that race, in which Dorando Pietri collapsed within sight of the finishing line when leading, that Conan Doyle led a public subscription campaign to see the gallant Italian, having been denied the gold medal through his disqualification, awarded a special silver cup, presented by Queen Alexandra, and the public imagination was so well caught by the event that annual races in Boston and London, at future Olympics, were henceforward staged over the same, 26-mile, 385-yard distance used for the 1908 Olympic Marathon, the official length of the event worldwide to this day. The London race, called the Polytechnic Marathon and staged over the 1908 Olympic route from outside the royal residence at Windsor Castle to White City, was first sponsored by the Sporting Life, which in those Edwardian times was a daily newspaper which sought to cover all sporting events, rather than just a betting paper for horse racing and greyhounds that it became in the years after the Second World War.
The rise of the radio made sports journalism more focused on the live coverage of the sporting events. The first sports reporter in Great Britain, one of the first sports reporters in the World, was an English writer Edgar Wallace, who made a report on The Derby on June 6, 1923 for the British Broadcasting Company. In France, L'Auto, the predecessor of L'Equipe, had played an influential part in the sporting fabric of society when it announced in 1903 that it would stage an annual bicycle race around the country; the Tour de France was born, sports journalism's role in its foundation is still reflected today in the leading rider wearing a yellow jersey - the color of the paper on which L'Auto was published. After the Second World War, the sports sections of British national daily and Sunday newspapers continued to expand, to the point where many paper
New Journalism is a style of news writing and journalism, developed in the 1960s and 1970s, which uses literary techniques deemed unconventional at the time. It is characterized by a subjective perspective, a literary style reminiscent of long-form non-fiction and emphasizing "truth" over "facts", intensive reportage in which reporters immersed themselves in the stories as they reported and wrote them; this was in contrast to traditional journalism where the journalist was "invisible" and facts are reported as objectively as possible. The phenomenon of New Journalism is considered to have ended by the early 1980s; the term was codified with its current meaning by Tom Wolfe in a 1973 collection of journalism articles he published as The New Journalism, which included works by himself, Truman Capote, Hunter S. Thompson, Norman Mailer, Joan Didion, Terry Southern, Robert Christgau, Gay Talese and others. Articles in the New Journalism style tended not to be found in newspapers, but rather in magazines such as The Atlantic Monthly, Harper's, CoEvolution Quarterly, New York, The New Yorker, Rolling Stone, for a short while in the early 1970s, Scanlan's Monthly.
Contemporary journalists and writers questioned the "newness" of New Journalism, as well as whether it qualified as a distinct genre. The subjective nature of New Journalism received extensive exploration. Criticism has been leveled at numerous individual writers in the genre, as well. Various people and tendencies throughout the history of American journalism have been labeled "new journalism". Robert E. Park, for instance, in his Natural History of the Newspaper, referred to the advent of the penny press in the 1830s as "new journalism"; the appearance of the yellow press—papers such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World in the 1880s—led journalists and historians to proclaim that a "New Journalism" had been created. Ault and Emery, for instance, said "Industrialization and urbanization changed the face of America during the latter half of the Nineteenth century, its newspapers entered an era known as that of the'New Journalism.'" John Hohenberg, in The Professional Journalist, called the interpretive reporting which developed after World War II a "new journalism which not only seeks to explain as well as to inform.
Although James E. Murphy noted that "...most uses of the term seem to refer to something more specific than vague new directions in journalism", Curtis D. MacDougal devoted the preface of the sixth edition of his Interpretative Reporting to New Journalism and cataloged many of the contemporary definitions: "Activist, participatory, tell-it-as-you-see-it, investigative, humanistic, reformist and a few more."The Magic Writing Machine—Student Probes of the New Journalism, a collection edited and introduced by Everette E. Dennis, came up with six categories, labelled new nonfiction, alternative journalism, advocacy journalism, underground journalism and precision journalism. Michael Johnson's The New Journalism addresses itself to three phenomena: the underground press, the artists of nonfiction, changes in the established media. In 1887, Matthew Arnold was credited with coining the term "New Journalism", a term that went on to define an entire genre of newspaper history Lord Northcliffe's turn-of-the-century press empire.
However, at the time, the target of Arnold's irritation was not Northcliffe, but the sensational journalism of Pall Mall Gazette editor, William Thomas Stead. He disapproved of the muck-raking Stead, declared that, under Stead, "the P. M. G. Whatever may be its merits, is fast ceasing to be literature." W. T. Stead called his brand of journalism'Government by Journalism' How and when the term New Journalism began to refer to a genre is not clear. Tom Wolfe, a practitioner and principal advocate of the form, wrote in at least two articles in 1972 that he had no idea of where it began. Trying to shed light on the matter, literary critic Seymour Krim offered his explanation in 1973. "I'm certain." In about April of 1965 he called me at Nugget Magazine, where I was editorial director, told me he wanted to write an article about new New Journalism. It was to be about the exciting things being done in the old reporting genre by Talese and Jimmy Breslin, he never wrote the piece, so far as I know, but I began using the expression in conversation and writing.
It was picked up and stuck." But wherever and whenever the term arose, there is evidence of some literary experimentation in the early 1960s, as when Norman Mailer broke away from fiction to write Superman Comes to the Supermarket. A report of John F. Kennedy's nomination that year, the piece established a precedent which Mailer would build on in his 1968 convention coverage and in other nonfiction as well. Wolfe wrote that his first acquaintance with a new style of reporting came in a 1962 Esquire article about Joe Louis by Gay Talese. "'Joe Louis at Fifty'a wasn't like a magazine article at all. It was like a short story, it began with a scene, an intimate confrontation between Louis and his third wife..." Wolfe said Talese was the first to apply fiction techniques to reporting. Esquire claimed credit as the seedbed for these new techniques. Esquire editor Harold Hayes wrote that "in the Sixties, events seemed to move too swiftly to allow the osmotic process of art to keep abreast, wh
Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism that employs images in order to tell a news story. It is now understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work be both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media, help communities connect with one other. Photojournalists must be well informed and knowledgeable about events happening right outside their door, they deliver news in a creative format, not only informative, but entertaining. Timeliness The images have meaning in the context of a published record of events. Objectivity The situation implied by the images is a fair and accurate representation of the events they depict in both content and tone. Narrative The images combine with other news elements to make facts relatable to audiences.
Like a writer, a photojournalist is a reporter, but he or she must make decisions and carry photographic equipment while exposed to significant obstacles. The practice of illustrating news stories with photographs was made possible by printing and photography innovations that occurred in the mid 19th century. Although early illustrations had appeared in newspapers, such as an illustration of the funeral of Lord Horatio Nelson in The Times, the first weekly illustrated newspaper was the Illustrated London News, first printed in 1842; the illustrations were printed with the use of engravings. The first photograph to be used in illustration of a newspaper story was a depiction of barricades in Paris during the June Days uprising taken on 25 June 1848. During the Crimean War, the ILN pioneered the birth of early photojournalism by printing pictures of the war, taken by Roger Fenton. Fenton was the first official war photographer and his work included documenting the effects of the war on the troops, panoramas of the landscapes where the battles took place, model representations of the action, portraits of commanders, which laid the groundwork for modern photojournalism.
Other photographers of the war included Carol Szathmari. The American Civil War photographs of Mathew Brady were engraved before publication in Harper's Weekly. Disaster, including train wrecks and city fires, was a popular subject for illustrated newspapers in the early days; the printing of images in newspapers remained an isolated occurrence in this period. Photos were used to enhance the text rather than to act as a medium of information in its own right; this began to change with the work of one of the pioneers of photojournalism, John Thomson, in the late 1870s. In collaboration with the radical journalist Adolphe Smith, he began publishing a monthly magazine, Street Life in London, from 1876 to 1877; the project documented in photographs and text, the lives of the street people of London and established social documentary photography as a form of photojournalism. Instead of the images acting as a supplement to the text, he pioneered the use of printed photographs as the predominant medium for the imparting of information combining photography with the printed word.
On March 4, 1880, The Daily Graphic published the first halftone reproduction of a news photograph. In March 1886, when General George Crook received word that the Apache leader Geronimo would negotiate surrender terms, photographer C. S. Fly attached himself to the military column. During the three days of negotiations, Fly took about 15 exposures on 8 by 10 inches glass negatives, his photos of Geronimo and the other free Apaches, taken on March 25 and 26, are the only known photographs taken of American Indians while still at war with the United States. Fly coolly posed his subjects, asking them to move and turn their heads and faces, to improve his composition; the popular publication Harper's Weekly published six of his images in their April 1886 issue. In 1887, flash powder was invented, enabling journalists such as Jacob Riis to photograph informal subjects indoors, which led to the landmark work How the Other Half Lives. By 1897, it became possible to reproduce halftone photographs on printing presses running at full speed.
In France, agencies such as Rol and Chusseau-Flaviens syndicated photographs from around the world to meet the need for timely new illustration. Despite these innovations, limitations remained, many of the sensational newspaper and magazine stories in the period from 1897 to 1927 were illustrated with engravings. In 1921, the wirephoto made it possible to transmit pictures as as news itself could travel; the "Golden Age of Photojournalism" is considered to be the 1930s through the 1950s. It was made possible by the development of the compact commercial 35mm Leica camera in 1925, the first flash bulbs between 1927 and 1930, which allowed the journalist true flexibility in taking pictures. A new style of magazine and newspaper appeared; the Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung was the first to pioneer the format of the illustrated news magazine. Beginning in 1901, it began to print photographs inside a revolutionary innovation. In the su
Political journalism is a broad branch of journalism that includes coverage of all aspects of politics and political science, although the term refers to coverage of civil governments and political power. Political journalism aims to provide voters with the information to formulate their own opinion and participate in community, local or national matters that will affect them. According to Edward Morrissey in an opinion article from theweek.com, political journalism includes opinion journalism, as current political events can be biased in their reporting. The information provided includes facts, its perspective is subjective and leans towards one viewpoint. Brendan Nyhan and John Sides argue that "Political journalists who report on politics are unfamiliar with political science research or question its relevance to their work". Journalists covering politics who are unfamiliar with information that would provide context to their stories can enable the story to take a different spin on what is being reported.
Political journalism is provided through different mediums, in print, broadcast, or online reporting. Digital media use has increased and it provides instant coverage of campaign, event news and an accessible platform for the candidate. Media outlets known for their political journalism like The New York Times and the Washington Post, have increased their use of this medium as well. Printed and broadcast political humor presented as entertainment has been used to provide updates on aspects of government status, political news and election updates. According to Geoffrey Baym, the information provided may not be considered "fake news" but the lines between entertainment and factual news may seem blurred or biased while providing political updates; this type of journalism is analyzed and discussed by news media pundits and editorialists. It can lack objectivity; the reporting of news with a bias view point can take away the audience's ability to form their own opinion or beliefs of what has been reported.
This type of reporting is subjective with a possible political purpose. Election journalism or electoral journalism is a subgenre of political journalism which focuses upon and analyzes developments related to an approximate election and political campaigns; this type of journalism provides information to the electorate that can educate and help form opinion that empowers a specific vote. This subgenre, like data journalism, makes use of numerical data, such as statistics and historic data in regards to a candidate's chance of success for office, or a party's change in size in a legislature, it provides knowledge. Information added to the reports are of political events. A politician's strategy can be provided without context or historical perspective. Trends on each party candidate are at times compared to previous party candidates; the news on the status of the elections, like other political reporting's, are provided in different mediums. The election report coverage has taken full advantage of the digital era in providing instant access to news.
Defense journalism or military journalism is a subgenre which focuses upon the current status of a nation's military and other defense-related faculties. Interest in defense journalism tends to increase during times of violent conflict, with military leaders being the primary actors. During the course of military journalism, news reporters are sometimes assigned to military units to report news taking place in areas of conflict; the term embedded journalism was used when the media was involved in the reporting of the war in Iraq. Embedded journalism can be biased because it is one sided. Information reported has been collected from the area the journalist has been stationed with the possibility to lean towards the agenda of the group they have been assigned to; this subgenre of political journalism is applied to media coming from journalists embedded in a particular campaign or candidate. Like military assignments, reports can be influenced by the message the campaign or candidate is trying to bring across.
Chart – Real and Fake News /Vanessa Otero Chart – Real and Fake News /Pew Research Center
Collaborative journalism is a growing practice in the field of journalism. One definition is "a cooperative arrangement between two or more news and information organizations, which aims to supplement each organization’s resources and maximize the impact of the content produced." It is practiced by both amateur reporters. It is not to be confused with citizen journalism. Collaborative journalism can take many forms. One way to categorize collaborations is by duration, or by the level of integration among collaborators. Most collaborations can be placed within a matrix defined by these two variables, as here: Depending on the system of collaboration, individuals may provide feedback or vote on whether an article is newsworthy. A single collaborative news story, may encompass multiple authors, varying articles, ranged perspectives. Professional and amateur reporters may work together to develop collaborative news articles, or mainstream media sites may gather amateur blog posts to complement reporting.
Collaborative journalists either contribute directly to stories, sometimes through a wiki-style collaboration platform, or build upon the story externally through personal blogs. Through combined authorship, collaborative journalism is thought by some to offer an increased independence of thought and experience unavailable to traditional media. Successful collaborative journalism projects require a participatory ethos with respect for content. Collaboration among reporters or between newsrooms has been practiced in different forms for more than one hundred years. One of the earliest journalism collaborations was among the newsrooms that made up “the wires” in the mid-nineteenth century, yet through most of the twentieth century after the advent of the penny papers, competition between outlets was the norm. Yet during the height of profitability in the late twentieth century, when competition, not collaboration, was the most salient relationship between newsrooms, it was common practice for journalists on the same beat to collaborate by sharing notes, swapping tips, in general helping each other out.
Formal collaboration during that period was most common within an organization, rather than between. For example, Cable News Network was formed in 1980, codified intra-newsroom sharing – between the national headquarters and its television news affiliates – with CNN NewsSource, in 1988. However, there is a qualitative difference in the consciousness and intentionality with which collaborations are now being undertaken; the current excitement about collaborative journalism began in the mid-2000s, when publishers, journalism scholars, foundations began to look at the opportunities made possible by digital networking. The Panama Papers project may be the largest example of a journalistic consortium to date, it began sometime in 2015 when Bastian Obermayer, an investigative reporter with the south German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung, was contacted by an anonymous source and offered the trove of 11.5 million electronic documents from Mossack Fonseca, the world’s fourth biggest offshore law firm detailing a web of secret offshore deals and loans worth billions of dollars, details of tax avoidance designs in numerous countries.
The newspaper's editors decided they could not handle the massive volume of information alone and initiated a collaborative journalistic consortium including more than 140 journalists and the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, a project of the nonprofit Center for Public Integrity. The European Investigative Collaborations working with "over 60 journalists in 14 countries" published a "series of articles called Football Leaks—the "largest leak in sports history". Football Leaks "led to the prosecution of football superstar Cristiano Ronaldo and coach Jose Mourinho." EIC was established in the fall of 2015 with founding members that include Der Spiegel, El Mundo, Médiapart, the Romanian Centre for Investigative Journalism, Le Soir. Collaborative journalism should not be confused with citizen journalism, practiced only by amateur reporters who develop stories by reporting, collecting and disseminating news and information through blogs on the internet, it is not community journalism or civic journalism, which are practiced only by professionals: In community journalism, professional reporters focus their coverage on smaller communities, such as neighborhoods, suburbs, or small towns Civic journalism is the philosophy and practice of professional journalists and newspapers acting as participants within a community, rather than detached spectators.
Collaborative journalism is similar, but not identical, to interactive journalism, in which consumers contribute to a professional news story through commenting and conversing with the reporter. Wiki journalism is a type of collaborative journalism. "Link journalism", a phrase coined by Scott Karp in 2008, is "a form of collaborative journalism in which a news story's writer provides external links within the story to reporting or other sources on the web." These links are meant to enhance, or add context to the original reporting. Jeff Jarvis, from the Graduate School of Journalism's new media program at the City University of New York, has said that link journalism creates a "new architecture of news." Collaborative journalism has been implemented in several different ways. Wikinews, the "free-content online news source," lets any user edit or create a news story, similar in style to Wikipedia. Several mainstream news sites have adopted a collaborative journalism approach toward news, through use