Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
Cry Tuff Dub Encounter Chapter 1
Cry Tuff Dub Encounter Chapter 1 is a 1978 dub album by Prince Far I, credited on its release to his backing band The Arabs. It was produced by Prince Far I, engineered by Dennis Bovell and Mark Lusardi, mixed by Adrian Sherwood; the album saw its first CD release in 1991 by Danceteria as part of their "ROIR Sessions" series. It was subsequently reissued on CD in 1997 by Pressure Sounds. "A Message" "The Visitor" "The Right Way" "Long Life" "The Encounter" "Ghardaia Dub" "Mansion of the Almighty" "Mozabites" "Prince of Peace" "Abderrahane" Prince Far I - vocalsThe Arabs Eric "Fish" Clarke - drums Sly Dunbar - drums Clinton Jack - bass guitar Flabba Holt - bass guitar, guitar Bingy Bunny - guitar Antonio "Crucial Tony" Phillips - guitar Noel "Sowell" Bailey - guitar Chinna - guitar Theo Beckford - piano Clifton "Bigga" Morrison - piano Creation Rebel - percussion Sucker - percussion Sticky - percussion
Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s. The term denotes the modern popular music of Jamaica and its diaspora. A 1968 single by Toots and the Maytals, "Do the Reggay" was the first popular song to use the word "reggae," naming the genre and introducing it to a global audience. While sometimes used in a broad sense to refer to most types of popular Jamaican dance music, the term reggae more properly denotes a particular music style, influenced by traditional mento as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues the New Orleans R&B practiced by Fats Domino and Allen Toussaint, evolved out of the earlier genres ska and rocksteady. Reggae relates news, social gossip, political comment. Reggae spread into a commercialized jazz field, being known first as ‘Rudie Blues’ ‘Ska’ ‘Blue Beat’, ‘Rock Steady’, it is recognizable from the counterpoint between the bass and drum downbeat, the offbeat rhythm section. The immediate origins of reggae were in rocksteady. Reggae is linked to the Rastafari, an Afrocentric religion which developed in Jamaica in the 1930's, aiming at promoting Pan Africanism.
Soon after the Rastafarian movement appeared, the international popularity of reggae music became associated with and increased the visibility of Rastafarianism spreading the Rastafari gospel throughout the world. Reggae music is an important means of transporting vital messages of Rastafarianism; the musician becomes the messenger, as Rastafarians see it,"the soldier and the musician are tools for change."Stylistically, reggae incorporates some of the musical elements of rhythm and blues, mento and draws influence from traditional African folk rhythms. One of the most recognizable elements is offbeat rhythms; the tempo of reggae is slower paced than ska but faster than rocksteady. The concept of call and response can be found throughout reggae music; the genre of reggae music is led by the bass. Some key players in this sound are Jackie Jackson from Toots and the Maytals, Carlton Barrett from Bob Marley and the Wailers, Lloyd Brevett from The Skatalites, Paul Douglas from Toots and the Maytals, Lloyd Knibb from The Skatalites, Winston Grennan, Sly Dunbar, Anthony "Benbow" Creary from The Upsetters.
The bass guitar plays the dominant role in reggae. The bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized; the guitar in reggae plays on the off beat of the rhythm. It is common for reggae to be sung in Jamaican Patois, Jamaican English, Iyaric dialects. Reggae is noted for its tradition of social criticism and religion in its lyrics, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love and socializing. Reggae has spread to many countries across the world incorporating local instruments and fusing with other genres. Reggae en Español spread from the Spanish speaking Central American country of Panama to the mainland South American countries of Venezuela and Guyana to the rest of South America. Caribbean music in the United Kingdom, including reggae, has been popular since the late 1960s, has evolved into several subgenres and fusions. Many reggae artists began their careers in the UK, there have been a number of European artists and bands drawing their inspiration directly from Jamaica and the Caribbean community in Europe.
Reggae in Africa was boosted by the visit of Bob Marley to Zimbabwe in 1980. In Jamaica, authentic reggae is one of the biggest sources of income; the 1967 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English lists reggae as "a estab. Sp. for rege", as in rege-rege, a word that can mean either "rags, ragged clothing" or "a quarrel, a row". Reggae as a musical term first appeared in print with the 1968 rocksteady hit "Do the Reggay" by The Maytals which named the genre of Reggae for the world. Reggae historian Steve Barrow credits Clancy Eccles with altering the Jamaican patois word streggae into reggae. However, Toots Hibbert said: There's a word we used to use in Jamaica called'streggae'. If a girl is walking and the guys look at her and say'Man, she's streggae' it means she don't dress well, she look raggedy; the girls would say that about the men too. This one morning me and my two friends were playing and I said,'OK man, let's do the reggay.' It was just something. So we just start. People tell me that we had given the sound its name.
Before that people had called it blue-beat and all kind of other things. Now it's in the Guinness World of Records. Bob Marley is said to have claimed that the word reggae came from a Spanish term for "the king's music"; the liner notes of To the King, a compilation of Christian gospel reggae, suggest that the word reggae was derived from the Latin regi meaning "to the king". Although influenced by traditional mento and calypso music, as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues, reggae owes its direct origins to the ska and rocksteady of 1960s Jamaica; the generic title for Jamaican music recorded between 1961 and 1967, ska emerged from Jamaican R&B, based on American R&B and doo-wop. Rastafari entered some countries through reggae music; the Rastafari moveme
Sly and Robbie
Sly and Robbie are a prolific Jamaican rhythm section and production duo, associated with the reggae and dub genres. Drummer Sly Dunbar and bassist Robbie Shakespeare teamed up in the mid-1970s after establishing themselves separately in Jamaica as professional musicians. Sly Dunbar drumming for Skin Flesh and Bones, Robbie Shakespeare, playing bass and guitar with the Aggrovators, discovered they had the same ideas about music in general, reggae production in particular. Speaking on his influences, Sly explains "My mentor was the drummer for Lloyd Knibb, and I used to listen a lot to the drummer for Booker T. & the M. G.'s, a lot of Philadelphia. And there are other drummers in Jamaica, like Santa and Carly from The Wailers Band, Winston Bennett, Paul Douglas, Mikey Boo. I have learnt a lot from them. From them, I created my own style, they played some things I copied, other things I recreated.” Sly and Robbie first worked together with The Revolutionaries for the newly created Channel One studio and label, operated by the Hoo Kim brothers.
According to The Independent, their breakthrough album was The Mighty Diamonds' 1976 release Right Time, which helped to establish them as the "masters of groove and propulsion." The drum beat on the title song was tricky. When it go to number 1 and stay there, everybody started trying for that style and it soon become establish." The duo changed the face of reggae several times: in 1976, they introduced a harder beat called "Rockers", which replaced the then-prevalent "One Drop" style introduced the "Rub A Dub" sound in the early 1980s. Sly and Robbie were important in developing the trend towards computer-assisted music and programming in the mid-1980s. Chris Blackwell made them the core of the Compass Point All Stars, the Nassau recording band based at Compass Point Studios, to produce classic records for Grace Jones, Joe Cocker and Gwen Guthrie among many others, their 1987 funk and dance album Rhythm Killers was produced by Bill Laswell with an ensemble of musicians and showcased the duo's branching outside of the reggae market and experimenting with electronic sounds.
It produced a number 12 hit on the UK Singles Chart in 1987 with "Boops" which Robbie Williams sampled for his single "Rudebox". In the early 1990s, Sly and Robbie introduced a novel sound with the hits "Bam Bam" and "Murder She Wrote" by Chaka Demus & Pliers. Chaka Demus' rough DJ vocals were matched with Pliers' sweet, soul-influenced singing; this formula has since been used with great success by the likes of Shaggy, Shabba Ranks, Maxi Priest and others. This predates the trend in some rap music where a song's "hook" or chorus is sung by a guest, while the verses are rapped. In the "Bam Bam" style, Dunbar introduced Indian tabla sounds in his drum beats, while Shakespeare altogether stopped playing bass on this particular project. Sly & Robbie continued to innovate during the late 1990s and early 2000s, fusing dancehall and Latin music sounds or dancehall and hip hop/R&B, they had a second UK top 40 hit in 1997, with the collaboration with Simply Red on a cover of Gregory Isaacs' "Night Nurse", reaching number 13.
In 1999, their Strip to the Bone album paired them with Scottish electro producer Howie B, together they explored new dub territories. Their 1999 single "Superthruster" from this album became a mainstream hit, whose music video was played on MTV frequently; the animated video depicted Sly and Robbie in battlesuits chasing a harlequin through a technological complex. As the video progresses, the harlequin turns out to be a marionette directed by the real villain; the early scene involving the Harlequin marionette bears at least a passing resemblance to Sven Väth's 1994 animated cult-video "Harlequin". "Superthruster" was released on vinyl and as a DVD single, its February 1999 release date making it one of or the first DVD single to go on sale. They won a Grammy Award in 1999 for the album Friends. In 2003 they compiled and mixed a DJ mix album, Late Night Tales: Sly & Robbie, as part of the Late Night Tales series for Azuli Records. Far from restricting themselves to the Jamaican scene, they have played with and produced artists such as Madonna, Bob Dylan, Mick Jagger, The Rolling Stones, Grace Jones, Joan Armatrading, Gilberto Gil, Joe Cocker, Serge Gainsbourg, Simply Red, Michael Franti, Khaled, Mey Vidal, Doug E. Fresh, Carlos Santana, Sinéad O'Connor, others.
Sly and Robbie produced No Doubt's international hits "Hey Baby" and "Underneath It All". They produced some tracks for Suggs' 1996 debut solo album The Lone Ranger including the hit version of "Cecilia" featuring Louchie Lou & Michie One which sold over 500,000 copies in the UK alone and reached number 4 on the UK Singles Chart. After 35 years together, they still record relentlessly. In early 2005, they toured with Half Pint. During the summer of 2005, they toured Europe and the UK with Bunny Rugs, lead singer for Third World. During the fall of 2005 they were on the roa
Horace Andy is a Jamaican roots reggae songwriter and singer, known for his distinctive vocals and hit songs such as "Government Land", as well as "Angel", "Spying Glass" and "Five Man Army" with English trip hop duo Massive Attack. He is famous for a cover version of "Ain't No Sunshine". Andy is described as one of the most respected and influential singers in Jamaica. Born in Kingston, Hinds recorded his first single, "This is a Black Man's Country," in 1967 for producer Phil Pratt. "This is a Black Man's Country" failed to make an impact, it wouldn't be until 1970 that he achieved a breakthrough. After unsuccessfully auditioning at Coxsone Dodd's Studio One as a duo along with Frank Melody, he auditioned on his own a few days later. Dodd decided Hinds should record as Horace Andy to capitalise on the popularity of Bob Andy, to avoid comparisons with his cousin, Justin Hinds, with whom his singing style at the time showed a resemblance. "Got To Be Sure", the song he had auditioned with, became his first release for Studio One.
The following two years saw the release of further singles such as "See a Man's Face", "Night Owl", "Fever", "Mr. Bassie". One of Andy's most enduring songs, "Skylarking", first appeared on Dodd's Jamaica Today compilation album, but after proving a sound system success, it was released as a single, going on to top the Jamaican chart; the next few years saw Andy in the reggae charts with further singles for Dodd such as "Something on My Mind", "Love of a Woman", "Just Say Who", "Every Tongue Shall Tell", as well as singles for other producers such as "Lonely Woman", "Girl I Love You", "Love You to Want Me" and "Delilah", "Get Wise", "Feel Good", "Money Money" for Phil Pratt. Andy had a second Jamaican number one single in 1973 with "Children of Israel". Andy's most successful association with a producer, was with Bunny Lee in the middle part of the 1970s; this era produced a series of singles now regarded as classics such as a re-recorded "Skylarking", "Just Say Who", "Don't Try To Use Me", "You Are My Angel", "Zion Gate", "I've Got to Get Away", a new version of "Something on My Mind".
In 1977, Andy moved to Hartford, with his first wife, where he recorded for Everton DaSilva, including the In The Light album and its associated dub album, singles such as "Do You Love My Music" and "Government Land". Andy set up his own Rhythm label; the association with the producer was brought to an abrupt end when DaSilva was murdered in 1979. Andy's 1978 album Pure Ranking had anticipated the rise of dancehall reggae, he was a key figure in the early development of the genre, confirmed by 1982's Dance Hall Style album. Andy continued to record with a variety of producers in the first half of the 1980s. In 1985, with his second wife Caroline, he relocated to Ladbroke Grove, he recorded in the United Kingdom as well as visiting Jamaica for further recording work. 1990 saw Andy's profile further raised when he began collaborating with Bristol trip hop pioneers Massive Attack, going on to contribute to all five of their albums, most notably with "Angel" released on their third album and most on their 2010 release Heligoland, on the tracks "Splitting the Atom" and "Girl I Love You".
In the mid-1990s he worked with Mad Professor, releasing the albums Life Is For Living and Roots and Branches. He continues to record new music, with the album Living in the Flood released in 1999 on Massive Attack's Melankolic record label, Mek It Bun in 2002, he featured on the world music project, 1 Giant Leap, on the Easy Star All-Stars 2006 album, Radiodread. Andy is a Rastafarian; some of his lyrics have been criticized as being homophobic. Andy stated that Trojan Records only agreed to release his album On Tour after removing a track containing the lyrics, "The Father never make Adam and Steve, he make Adam and Eve". AlbumsSkylarking Studio One You Are My Angel Trojan Earth Must Be Hell Atra aka The Kingston Rock Earth Must Be Hell – Dub Atra In The Light Hungry Town In The Light Dub Hungry Town Pure Ranking Clocktower Bim Sherman Meets Horace Andy and U Black Inna Rub a Dub Style Yard International Natty Dread a Weh She Want New Star Unity Showcase Pre Dance Hall Style Wackies aka Exclusively Solid Groove Showcase Vista Sounds Confusion Music Hawk Sings For You and I Striker Lee Clash of the Andy's Thunderbolt Elementary Rough Trade – Horace Andy & Rhythm Queen Reggae Superstars Meet Striker Lee From One Extreme To Another Beta Haul & Jack Up Live & Love Fresh Island in the Sun Shame and Scandal Everyday People Wackies Rude Boy Shanachie Jah Shaka Meets Horace Andy Jah Shaka Music Dub Salute 1 Featuring Horace Andy Jah Shaka Music Seek and You Will Find Blackamix International Seek and You Will Find – The Dub Pieces Blackamix International Life Is For Living Ariwa Roots and Branches Ariwa See and Blind Heartbeat Living in the Flood Melankolic Mek It Bun Wrasse From the Roots: Horace Andy Meets Mad Professor RAS This World Attack Livin' It Up Medium On Tour Sanctuary Two Phazed People dontTouch Serious Times Broken Beats, Echo BeachContributin