Thomas de Cantilupe
Thomas de Cantilupe was Lord Chancellor of England and Bishop of Hereford and was canonised in 1320 by Pope John XXII. Cantilupe was born at Hambleden in Buckinghamshire, a son of William de Cantilupe, an Anglo-Norman magnate and a minister of King John, nephew of Walter de Cantilupe, Bishop of Worcester. Cantilupe was educated at Oxford and Orléans, was a teacher of canon law at the University of Oxford, where he became Chancellor in 1261. During the Second Barons' War, Cantilupe favoured the baronial party, he represented the barons before King Louis IX of France at Amiens in 1264. On 25 February 1264, when he was Archdeacon of Stafford, Cantilupe was made Lord Chancellor of England, but was deprived of the office after de Montfort's death at the Battle of Evesham, lived abroad for a while. Following his return to England, he was again appointed Chancellor of Oxford University, where he lectured on theology and held several ecclesiastical appointments. In 1274 Cantilupe attended the Second Council of Lyons and on 14 June 1275 he was appointed Bishop of Hereford, being consecrated on 8 September 1275.
Cantilupe was now a trusted adviser of King Edward I and when attending royal councils at Windsor Castle or at Westminster he lived at Earley in Berkshire. When differing from the king's opinions, he did not forfeit his favour. Cantilupe had a "great conflict" in 1290 with the "Red Earl", Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 6th Earl of Hertford, concerning hunting rights in Malvern, a ditch dug by de Clare; the issue was settled by costly litigation. After the death in 1279 of Robert Kilwardby, Archbishop of Canterbury, a friend of Cantilupe's, his confessor, a series of disputes arose between him and John Peckham, the new archbishop; the disagreements culminated in Peckham excommunicating Cantilupe, who proceeded to Rome to pursue the matter with the pope. Cantilupe died at Ferento, near Orvieto, in Italy, on 25 August 1282 He is buried in Hereford Cathedral. Part of the evidence used in his cause of canonisation was the supposed raising from the dead of William Cragh, a Welsh rebel, hanged in 1290, eight years after Cantilupe's death.
A papal inquiry was convened in London on 20 April 1307 to determine whether or not Cantilupe had died excommunicate, since this would have precluded his being canonised. Forty-four witnesses were called and various letters produced, before the commissioners of the inquiry concluded that Cantilupe had been absolved in Rome before his death, it was difficult for his cause of death to be determined. After a papal investigation lasting 13 years, Cantilupe was canonised by Pope John XXII on 17 April 1320, his feast day was fixed on 2 October. His shrine became a popular place of pilgrimage, but only its base survived the Reformation until a new upper section was recreated under the guidance of architect Robert Chitham; the new section is in vivid colours with a painted scene of the Virgin & Child holding the Mappa Mundi. A reliquary containing his skull has been held at Downside Abbey in Somerset since 1881. In the current Latin edition of the Roman Martyrology, Cantilupe is listed under 25 August as follows: "At Montefiascone in Tuscia, the passing of Saint Thomas Cantelupe, Bishop of Hereford in England, resplendent with learning, severe toward himself, to the poor however showed himself a generous benefactor".
Cantilupe appears to have been an exemplary bishop in both spiritual and secular affairs. His charities were large and his private life blameless, he was visiting his diocese, correcting offenders and discharging other episcopal duties, he compelled neighbouring landholders to restore estates which rightly belonged to the see of Hereford. Cantilupe has been lauded as the "Father of Modern Charity," and is cited as an inspiration by Mother Teresa and Melinda Gates; the Cantilupe Society was founded in 1905 to publish the episcopal registers of the See of Hereford, of which Cantilupe's is the first in existence. Royal Berkshire History: St. Thomas Cantilupe of Hereford Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online Saints and Angels Pilgrimage page at Hereford Cathedral Stirnet: CZmisc02
Methodism known as the Methodist movement, is a group of related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley were significant early leaders in the movement, it originated as a revival movement within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate denomination after Wesley's death. The movement spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, beyond because of vigorous missionary work, today claiming 80 million adherents worldwide. Wesley's theology focused on the effect of faith on the character of a Christian. Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include the new birth, an assurance of salvation, imparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety, the primacy of Scripture. Most Methodists teach that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for all of humanity and that salvation is available for all; this teaching rejects the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people.
However and several other early leaders of the movement were considered Calvinistic Methodists and held to the Calvinist position. Methodism emphasises charity and support for the sick, the poor, the afflicted through the works of mercy; these ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, soup kitchens, schools to follow Christ's command to spread the gospel and serve all people. The movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition are less ritualistic, while American Methodism is more so, the United Methodist Church in particular. Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition, Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy, but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside organised religion at that time.
In Britain, the Methodist Church had a major effect in the early decades of the developing working class. In the United States, it became the religion of many slaves who formed black churches in the Methodist tradition; the Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century. The Wesley brothers founded the "Holy Club" at the University of Oxford, where John was a fellow and a lecturer at Lincoln College; the club met weekly and they systematically set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving Communion every week, fasting abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners; the fellowship were branded as "Methodist" by their fellow students because of the way they used "rule" and "method" to go about their religious affairs. John, leader of the club, took the attempted mockery and turned it into a title of honour.
In 1735, at the invitation of the founder of the Georgia Colony, General James Oglethorpe, both John and Charles Wesley set out for America to be ministers to the colonists and missionaries to the Native Americans. Unsuccessful in their work, the brothers returned to England conscious of their lack of genuine Christian faith, they looked for help to other members of the Moravian Church. At a Moravian service in Aldersgate on 24 May 1738, John experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his "heart strangely warmed", he records in his journal: "I felt I did trust in Christ alone, for salvation. Charles had reported a similar experience a few days previously. Considered a pivotal moment, Daniel L. Burnett writes: "The significance of Wesley's Aldersgate Experience is monumental … Without it the names of Wesley and Methodism would be nothing more than obscure footnotes in the pages of church history."The Wesley brothers began to preach salvation by faith to individuals and groups, in houses, in religious societies, in the few churches which had not closed their doors to evangelical preachers.
John Wesley came under the influence of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. Arminius had rejected the Calvinist teaching that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally. Conversely, George Whitefield, Howell Harris, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon were notable for being Calvinistic Methodists. George Whitefield, returning from his own mission in Georgia, joined the Wesley brothers in what was to become a national crusade. Whitefield, a fellow student of the Wesleys at Oxford, became well known for his unorthodox, itinerant ministry, in which he was dedicated to open-air preaching—reaching crowds of thousands. A key step in the development of John Wesley's ministry was, like Whitefield, to preach in fields and churchyards to those who did not attend parish church services. Accordingly, many Methodist converts were those disconnected from the Church of England. Faced with growing evangelistic and pastoral responsibilities and Whitefield appointed lay preachers and leaders.
Moccas is a village and civil parish in the English county of Herefordshire. It is located 14 miles west of Hereford; the population of the civil parish taken at the 2011 census was 105. The parish is farmland with a number of woods, including Woodbury Hill Wood and the Moccas Park Deer Park; the parish church of St Michael is well known as the site of the early Welsh Moccas Monastery, founded by Saint Dubricius in the 6th century, as recorded in the Book of Llandaff. The church has a notable monument to lords of the manor in the 14th century. Moccas Court, north of the village, replaced the old manor house which once stood next to the church, it is a fine Georgian country house, now a hotel, built between 1776 and 1783 for the Cornewall family by the architect Anthony Keck. Nikolaus Pevsner. Herefordshire. Buildings of England. 25. Penguin Books. Pp. 253–254. Photos of Moccas and surrounding area on geograph History of Moccas in Herefordshire Moccas Court
An Internet café is a café that provides Internet access to the public. The fee for using a computer is charged as a time-based rate; the first online café in South Korea called Electronic Café opened in front of Hongik University in March 1988 by Ahn Sang-Su and Keum Nuri in Seoul. It had two 16bit computers connected to Online service networks through telephone lines. Online service users’ offline meetings were held in the Electronic Café, which served as a place that connected online and offline activities; the opening of the online café in Korea was 2–3 years ahead of other countries. The online café phenomenon in the United States was started in July 1991 by Wayne Gregori in San Francisco when he began SFnet Coffeehouse Network. Gregori designed and installed 25 coin-operated computer terminals in coffeehouses throughout the San Francisco Bay Area; the café terminals dialed into a 32 line Bulletin Board System that offered an array of electronic services including FIDOnet mail and, in 1992, Internet mail.
The concept of a café with full Internet access was invented in early 1994 by Ivan Pope. Commissioned to develop an Internet event for an arts weekend at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London, inspired by the SFnet terminal based cafes, Pope wrote a proposal outlining the concept of a café with Internet access. After an initial run in late 1993 as a café showcasing computers, a bar called CompuCafé was established in Helsinki, Finland in the spring of 1994 featuring both Internet access and a robotic beer seller. Around June 1994, The Binary Cafe, Canada's first Internet café, opened in Ontario. Inspired by the ICA event, a commercial establishment of this type, called Cyberia, opened on September 1, 1994, in London, England. In January 1995, CB1 Café in Cambridge, installed an Internet connection and is the longest running Internet Café in the UK, still operating today; the first public, commercial American Internet café was conceived and opened by Jeff Anderson and Alan Weinkrantz in August 1994, at Infomart in Dallas and was called The High Tech Cafe.
The Scottish Bar is the first Internet café in French-speaking Switzerland, connected on June 27, 1995, by Pierre Hemmer and his company MC Management & Communication. Three Internet cafés subsequently opened in the East Village neighborhood of New York City: Internet Cafe, opened by Arthur Perley, the @Cafe, the Heroic Sandwich. In 1996, the Internet café Surf City opened in downtown Alaska. A variation of Internet café called PC bang became popular in South Korea when StarCraft was released in 1998. Although computer and broadband penetration per capita were high, young people went to PC bangs to play multiplayer games. Internet cafés are located worldwide, many people use them when traveling to access webmail and instant messaging services to keep in touch with family and friends. Apart from travelers, in many developing countries Internet cafés are the primary form of Internet access for citizens as a shared-access model is more affordable than personal ownership of equipment and/or software.
A variation on the Internet café business model is the LAN gaming center, used for multiplayer gaming. These cafés have several computer stations connected to a LAN; the connected computers are custom-assembled for gameplay, supporting popular multiplayer games. This is reducing the need for video arcades and arcade games, many of which are being closed down or merged into Internet cafés; the use of Internet cafés for multiplayer gaming is popular in certain areas of Asia like India, Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea and the Philippines. In some countries, since all LAN gaming centers offer Internet access, the terms net cafe and LAN gaming center have become interchangeable. Again, this shared-access model is more affordable than personal ownership of equipment and/or software since games require high end and expensive PCs. There are Internet kiosks, Internet access points in public places like public libraries, airport halls, sometimes just for brief use while standing. Many hotels and cruise ships offer Internet access for the convenience of their guests.
As with telephone service, in the US most mid-price hotels offer Internet access from a computer in the lobby to registered guests without charging an additional fee, while fancier hotels are more to charge for the use of a computer in their "business center." For those traveling by road in North America, many truck stops have Internet kiosks, for which a typical charge is around 20 cents per minute. Internet cafés come in a wide range of styles, reflecting their location, main clientele, sometimes, the social agenda of the proprietors. In the early days they were important in projecting the image of the Internet as a'cool' phenomenon. Internet cafés are a natural evolution of the traditional café. Cafés started as places for information exchange, have always been used as places to read the paper, send postcards home, play traditional or electronic games, chat to friends, find out local information; as Internet access is in increasing demand, many pubs and cafés have terminals, so the distinction between the Internet café and normal café is eroded.
In some European countries, the number of pure Internet cafés is decreasing since more and more normal cafés offer the same services. H
Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a
For people with the surname, see Madley. Madley is a village and civil parish in the English county of Herefordshire, it is located six miles west of the city of Hereford. The population of the civil parish at the 2011 census was 1,200; the parish includes the hamlets of Canon Bridge, Winmoor, Upper & Lower Chilstone, Upper & Lower Shenmore, Great & Little Brampton and Webton Court. Madley is the second largest parish in the county of Herefordshire. Madley is most famous as the birthplace of Saint Dubricius, the 6th century evangelist of South Wales, he was born at Chilstone, named after the'Child Stone' that marked the spot. The parish has a fine medieval Church of England parish church which replaced that founded by St Dubricius; the church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary is one of the best known local examples of Norman architecture with gargoyles carved into the tower itself. It is a Grade I listed building; the British Telecom's Madley Communications Centre is on part of the disused World War II airfield RAF Madley.
It was built in 1940 by Welsh contractors and opened as a training centre for aircrew and ground wireless operators on 27 August 1941. In 1943 the grass airfield was reinforced with Sommerfeld Tracking and the centre's population rose to about 5,000; the site was visited in 1944 prior to D-Day by US General George S. Patton, by Rudolf Hess on his way to the Nuremberg trials in 1946. Today only a few hangars remain; the Red Lion in Madley is an old coaching inn dating back to the 16th century and is a grade II listed building. Here mail was delivered by mail coach from Londonand distributed to recipients in the locality; the pub itself is built on a well, situated under the hallway by the pub cellar. A stream runs under the rear car park and flows under the land of the Red Lion Garage; the Red Lion Garage was built in the 1940s by Johnathan Edwards and was run as a successful family business until 1986 when it was taken over by Martin Edwards and redeveloped in 2003. The old traditional butchers' shop in Madley was run by Audrey Cresswell in the 1960s.
It was owned by Gordon Watkins and is now demolished with a garage on the site. Media related to Madley at Wikimedia Commons
Book of Llandaff
The Book of Llandaff, is the Chartulary, or Register Book of the Cathedral Church of Llandaff, a 12th-century compilation of documents relating to the history of the diocese of Llandaff in Wales. It is written in Latin but contains a significant amount of Old and Middle Welsh names and marginalia; the work was compiled around 1125 by an unknown official at Llandaff Cathedral. It contains numerous records covering five hundred years of the diocese's history, including the biographies or Lives of Saints Dubricius and Oudoceus and, most for historical research, 149 land-grant charters; these Llandaff Charters give details of property transfers to the cathedral from various local kings and other notaries, from the late 6th to the late 11th century. The manuscript includes the document Fraint Teilo, in the original Middle Welsh with facing Latin version, an important source for the study of early Middle Welsh; the book was compiled from a pre-existing collection of nine charter groups entered in Gospel Books, appears to have been produced to help in Bishop Urban's diocesan boundary disputes with the dioceses of St David's and Hereford.
Many of the supposed early charters have therefore been'edited' to serve Llandaff's interests. They are undated and many are corrupt. However, through her exhaustive study of these documents, Professor Wendy Davies has reconstructed much of the original text and calculated probable time-frames; this work has been criticized in some non-academic quarters. The manuscript fell into the hands of the Davies family of Llanerch in the 17th century, until being acquired by the National Library of Wales in 1959, it is a double-columned 168 page volume bound between oak boards. The Book of Llandaff is bound in square edged oak boards with sunken centre panels; the lower board, the twelfth-century original, bears evidence of having been covered in a thin layer of silver and is all that remains of the earliest binding. The gilt-bronze figure of Christ in Majesty that adorned the lower cover was a mid-thirteenth century addition which has, since 1981, been kept separate from the volume in its own box. Fragments of the thin silver plate are preserved along with the figure and nail holes in the board indicate that had once been covered.
The outline of a mandorla with associated holes in the sunken panel suggest that an earlier ornament was attached to it. In 1696, Robert Davies of Gwysaney had the Book of Llandaff rebound. There is an inscription on the upper board formed of small brass nails that bear a few traces of enamel; the inscription reads: "Librum hunc temporis injurias passum novantiquo tegmine muniri curavit / R. D. / A° 1696". The gilt-bronze Christ in Majesty measures. Neil Stratford, Keeper of Medieval and Later Antiquities at the British Museum, described the Llandaff figure as "a unique survival of major English bronze-casting of the third quarter of the 13th century...". Rhys, J. and Evans, J. G; the Text of The Book of Llandâv Oxford 1893 Davies, W. An Early Welsh Microcosm: Studies in the Llandaff Charters Royal Historical Society 1978 ISBN 978-0-901050-33-5 Davies, W; the Llandaff Charters National Library of Wales 1980 ISBN 978-0-901833-88-4 Davies, J. R; the Book of Llandaf and the Norman church in Wales The Boydell Press 2003 ISBN 978-1-84383-024-5 Liber Landavensis: digital version, National Library of Wales The Liber landavensis, Llyfr Teilo, or, The ancient register of the cathedral church of Llandaff, William Jenkins Rees