In Greek mythology, Priapus was a minor rustic fertility god, protector of livestock, fruit plants and male genitalia. Priapus is marked by his oversized, permanent erection, which gave rise to the medical term priapism, he became a popular figure in Roman erotic art and Latin literature, is the subject of the humorously obscene collection of verse called the Priapeia. Priapus was described as the son of Aphrodite by Dionysus, or the son of Dionysus and Chione as the father or son of Hermes, the son of Zeus or Pan, depending on the source. According to legend, Hera cursed him with inconvenient impotence and foul-mindedness while he was still in Aphrodite's womb, in revenge for the hero Paris having the temerity to judge Aphrodite more beautiful than Hera; the other gods refused to allow him to live on Mount Olympus and threw him down to Earth, leaving him on a hillside. He was found by shepherds and was brought up by them. Priapus joined Pan and the satyrs as a spirit of fertility and growth, though he was perennially frustrated by his impotence.
In a ribald anecdote told by Ovid, he attempted to rape the goddess Hestia but was thwarted by an ass, whose braying caused him to lose his erection at the critical moment and woke Hestia. The episode gave him a lasting hatred of asses and a willingness to see them destroyed in his honour; the emblem of his lustful nature was his large penis. Another myth states that he pursued the nymph Lotis until the gods took pity on her and turned her into a lotus plant; the first extant mention of Priapus is in the eponymous comedy Priapus, written in the 4th century BC by Xenarchus. Worshipped by Greek colonists in Lampsacus in Asia Minor, the cult of Priapus spread to mainland Greece and to Italy during the 3rd century BC. Lucian tells that in Bithynia Priapus was accounted as a warlike god, a rustic tutor to the infant Ares, "who taught him dancing first and war only afterwards," Karl Kerenyi observed. Arnobius is aware of the importance accorded Priapus in this region near the Hellespont. Pausanias notes: This god is worshipped where goats and sheep pasture or there are swarms of bees.
In antiquity, his worship meant little more than a cult of sophisticated pornography. Outside his "home" region in Asia Minor, Priapus was regarded as something of a joke by urban dwellers. However, he played a more important role in the countryside, he was regarded as the patron god of sailors and fishermen and others in need of good luck, his presence was believed to avert the evil eye. Priapus does not appear to have had an organized cult and was worshiped in gardens or homes, though there are attestations of temples dedicated to the god, his sacrificial animal was the ass, but agricultural offerings were very common. Long after the fall of Rome and the rise of Christianity, Priapus continued to be invoked as a symbol of health and fertility; the 13th century Lanercost Chronicle, a history of northern England and Scotland, records a "lay Cistercian brother" erecting a statue of Priapus in an attempt to end an outbreak of cattle disease. In the 1980s, D. F. Cassidy founded the St. Priapus Church as a modern church centred on worship of the phallus.
Priapus' iconic attribute was his priapism. He was represented in a variety of ways, most as a misshapen gnome-like figure with an enormous erect phallus. Statues of Priapus were common in ancient Rome, standing in gardens; the Athenians conflated Priapus with Hermes, the god of boundaries, depicted a hybrid deity with a winged helmet and huge erection. Another attribute of Priapus was the sickle which he carries in his right hand; this too was used to threaten thieves, doubtless with castration: Horace writes: Olim truncus eram ficulnus, inutile lignum,cum faber, incertus scamnum faceretne Priapum,maluit esse deum. deus inde ego, furum aviumquemaxima formido. "Once I was a trunk of fig, a useless piece of wood,when a carpenter, unsure whether he should make a bench or a Priapus,decided to make a god. So I am a god, of thieves and birdsa great scarer. In these, Priapus threatens sexual assault against potential thieves: Percidere, moneo. "I warn you, you will be screwed. "If a woman steals from me, or a man, or a boy, let the first give me her cunt, the second his head, the third his buttocks."per medios ibit pueros mediasque puellas mentula.
"My dick will go through the middle of boys and the middle of girls, but with bearded men it will aim only for the top."A number of Roman paintings of Priapus have survived. One of the most fam
Cocaine known as coke, is a strong stimulant used as a recreational drug. It is snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein. Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate and large pupils. High doses can result in high blood pressure or body temperature. Effects begin within seconds to last between five and ninety minutes. Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery. Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. After a short period of use, there is a high risk, its use increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, sudden cardiac death. Cocaine sold on the street is mixed with local anesthetics, quinine, or sugar, which can result in additional toxicity. Following repeated doses a person may have decreased ability to feel pleasure and be physically tired.
Cocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin and dopamine. This results in greater concentrations of these three neurotransmitters in the brain, it can cross the blood–brain barrier and may lead to the breakdown of the barrier. Cocaine is a occurring substance found in the coca plant, grown in South America. In 2013, 419 kilograms were produced legally, it is estimated. With further processing crack cocaine can be produced from cocaine. Cocaine is the second most used illegal drug globally, after cannabis. Between 14 and 21 million people use the drug each year. Use is highest in North America followed by South America. Between one and three percent of people in the developed world have used cocaine at some point in their life. In 2013, cocaine use directly resulted in 4,300 deaths, up from 2,400 in 1990; the leaves of the coca plant have been used by Peruvians since ancient times. Cocaine was first isolated from the leaves in 1860. Since 1961, the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime.
Topical cocaine can be used as a local numbing agent to help with painful procedures in the mouth or nose. Cocaine is now predominantly used for lacrimal duct surgery; the major disadvantages of this use are cocaine's potential for cardiovascular toxicity and pupil dilation. Medicinal use of cocaine has decreased as other synthetic local anesthetics such as benzocaine, proparacaine and tetracaine are now used more often. If vasoconstriction is desired for a procedure, the anesthetic is combined with a vasoconstrictor such as phenylephrine or epinephrine; some ENT specialists use cocaine within the practice when performing procedures such as nasal cauterization. In this scenario dissolved cocaine is soaked into a ball of cotton wool, placed in the nostril for the 10–15 minutes before the procedure, thus performing the dual role of both numbing the area to be cauterized, vasoconstriction; when used this way, some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects.
An alternative method of administration for ENT surgery is mixed with adrenaline and sodium bicarbonate, as Moffett's solution. Cocaine is a powerful nervous system stimulant, its effects can last from 30 minutes to an hour. The duration of cocaine's effects depends on the route of administration. Cocaine can be in the form of fine white powder, bitter to the taste; when inhaled or injected, it causes a numbing effect. Crack cocaine is a smokeable form of cocaine made into small "rocks" by processing cocaine with sodium bicarbonate and water. Crack cocaine is referred to. Cocaine use leads to increases in alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria, increased energy and motor activity, increased feelings of competence and sexuality. Coca leaves are mixed with an alkaline substance and chewed into a wad, retained in the mouth between gum and cheek and sucked of its juices; the juices are absorbed by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be consumed like tea.
Ingesting coca leaves is an inefficient means of administering cocaine. Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not absorbed when ingested alone. Only when mixed with a alkaline substance can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach; the efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors. First, the drug is catabolized by the liver. Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which the drug can be absorbed. Cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects that have sipped one cup of coca leaf infusion. Orally administered cocaine takes 30 minutes to enter the bloodstream. Only a third of an oral dose is absorbed, although absorption has been shown to reach 60% in controlled settings. Given the slow rate of absorption, maximum physiological and psychotropic effects are attained 60 minutes after cocaine is administered by ingestion.
While the onset of these effects is slow, the effects are sustained for approxima
Emergency medicine known as accident and emergency medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with the care of illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention. Emergency physicians care for undifferentiated patients of all ages; as first-line providers, their primary responsibility is to initiate resuscitation and stabilization and to start investigations and interventions to diagnose and treat illnesses in the acute phase. Emergency physicians practice in hospital emergency departments, pre-hospital settings via emergency medical services, intensive care units, but may work in primary care settings such as urgent care clinics. Sub-specializations of emergency medicine include disaster medicine, medical toxicology, critical care medicine, hyperbaric medicine, sports medicine, palliative care, or aerospace medicine. Different models for emergency medicine exist internationally. In countries following the Anglo-American model, emergency medicine was the domain of surgeons, general practitioners, other generalist physicians, but in recent decades it has become recognised as a speciality in its own right with its own training programmes and academic posts, the specialty is now a popular choice among medical students and newly qualified medical practitioners.
By contrast, in countries following the Franco-German model, the speciality does not exist and emergency medical care is instead provided directly by anesthesiologists, specialists in internal medicine, cardiologists or neurologists as appropriate. In developing countries, emergency medicine is still evolving and international emergency medicine programs offer hope of improving basic emergency care where resources are limited. Emergency Medicine is a medical specialty—a field of practice based on the knowledge and skills required for the prevention and management of acute and urgent aspects of illness and injury affecting patients of all age groups with a full spectrum of undifferentiated physical and behavioral disorders, it further encompasses an understanding of the development of pre-hospital and in-hospital emergency medical systems and the skills necessary for this development. The field of emergency medicine encompasses care involving the acute care of internal medical and surgical conditions.
In many modern emergency departments, emergency physicians are tasked with seeing a large number of patients, treating their illnesses and arranging for disposition—either admitting them to the hospital or releasing them after treatment as necessary. They provide episodic primary care to patients during off hours and for those who do not have primary care providers. Most patients present to emergency departments with low-acuity conditions, but a small proportion will be critically ill or injured. Therefore, the emergency physician requires a broad field of knowledge and procedural skills including surgical procedures, trauma resuscitation, advanced cardiac life support and advanced airway management, they must have some of the core skills from many medical specialities—the ability to resuscitate a patient, manage a difficult airway, suture a complex laceration, set a fractured bone or dislocated joint, treat a heart attack, manage strokes, work-up a pregnant patient with vaginal bleeding, control a patient with mania, stop a severe nosebleed, place a chest tube, conduct and interpret x-rays and ultrasounds.
This generalist approach can obviate barrier-to-care issues seen in systems without specialists in emergency medicine, where patients requiring immediate attention are instead managed from the outset by speciality doctors such as surgeons or internal physicians. However, this may lead to barriers through acute and critical care specialties disconnecting from emergency care. Emergency medicine can be distinguished from urgent care, which refers to immediate healthcare for less emergent medical issues, but there is obvious overlap and many emergency physicians work in urgent care settings. Emergency medicine includes many aspects of acute primary care, shares with family medicine the uniqueness of seeing all patients regardless of age, gender or organ system; the emergency physician workforce includes many competent physicians who trained in other specialties. Physicians specializing in emergency medicine can enter fellowships to receive credentials in subspecialties such as palliative care, critical-care medicine, medical toxicology, wilderness medicine, pediatric emergency medicine, sports medicine, disaster medicine, tactical medicine, pain medicine, pre-hospital emergency medicine, or undersea and hyperbaric medicine.
The practice of emergency medicine is quite different in rural areas where there are far fewer other specialties and healthcare resources. In these areas, family physicians with additional skills in emergency medicine staff emergency departments. Rural emergency physicians may be the only health care providers in the community, require skills that include primary care and obstetrics. Patterns vary by region. In the United States, the employment arrangement of emergency physician practices are either private, corporate, or governmental
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group is bound to a carbon. The term alcohol referred to the primary alcohol ethanol, used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. An important class of alcohols, of which methanol and ethanol are the simplest members, includes all compounds for which the general formula is CnH2n+1OH, it is these simple monoalcohols. The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; when a higher priority group is present in the compound, the prefix hydroxy- is used in its IUPAC name. The suffix -ol in non-IUPAC names typically indicates that the substance is an alcohol. However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups have names which include neither the suffix -ol, nor the prefix hydroxy-. Alcohol distillation originated in India. During 2000 BCE, people of India used. Alcohol distillation was known to Islamic chemists as early as the eighth century.
The Arab chemist, al-Kindi, unambiguously described the distillation of wine in a treatise titled as "The Book of the chemistry of Perfume and Distillations". The Persian physician, alchemist and philosopher Rhazes is credited with the discovery of ethanol; the word "alcohol" is from a powder used as an eyeliner. Al- is the Arabic definite article, equivalent to the in English. Alcohol was used for the fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb2S3, it was considered to be the essence or "spirit" of this mineral. It was used as an antiseptic and cosmetic; the meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled substances in general, narrowed to ethanol, when "spirits" was a synonym for hard liquor. Bartholomew Traheron, in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo, introduces the word as a term used by "barbarous" authors for "fine powder." Vigo wrote: "the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or alcofoll, for moost fine poudre."The 1657 Lexicon Chymicum, by William Johnson glosses the word as "antimonium sive stibium."
By extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including "alcohol of wine," the distilled essence of wine. Libavius in Alchymia refers to "vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum". Johnson glosses alcohol vini as "quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat." The word's meaning became restricted to "spirit of wine" in the 18th century and was extended to the class of substances so-called as "alcohols" in modern chemistry after 1850. The term ethanol was invented 1892, combining the word ethane with the "-ol" ending of "alcohol". IUPAC nomenclature is used in scientific publications and where precise identification of the substance is important in cases where the relative complexity of the molecule does not make such a systematic name unwieldy. In naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds the suffix -ol, e.g. as in "ethanol" from the alkane chain name "ethane".
When necessary, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and the -ol: propan-1-ol for CH3CH2CH2OH, propan-2-ol for CH3CHCH3. If a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy-is used, e.g. as in 1-hydroxy-2-propanone. In cases where the OH functional group is bonded to an sp2 carbon on an aromatic ring the molecule is known as a phenol, is named using the IUPAC rules for naming phenols. In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.g. methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propane chain; as described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is indicated using the "hydroxy-" prefix. Alcohols are classified into primary and tertiary, based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group.
The primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH. The simplest primary alcohol is methanol, for which R=H, the next is ethanol, for which R=CH3, the methyl group. Secondary alcohols are those of the form RR'CHOH, the simplest of, 2-propanol. For the tertiary alcohols the general form is RR'R"COH; the simplest example is tert-butanol, for which each of R, R', R" is CH3. In these shorthands, R, R', R" represent substituents, alkyl or other attached organic groups. In archaic nomenclature, alcohols can be named as derivatives of methanol using "-carbinol" as the ending. For instance, 3COH can be named trimethylcarbinol. Alcohols have a long history of myriad uses. For simple mono-alcohols, the focus on this article, the following are most important industrial alcohols: methanol for the production of formaldehyde and as a fuel additive ethanol for alcoholic beverages, fuel additive, solvent 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutyl alcohol for use as a solvent a
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae. The number of species within the genus is disputed. Three species may be recognized: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, Cannabis ruderalis; the genus is accepted as being indigenous to and originating from Central Asia, with some researchers including upper South Asia in its origin. The plant is known as hemp, although this term is used to refer only to varieties of Cannabis cultivated for non-drug use. Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, hemp seeds and their oils, hemp leaves for use as vegetables and as juice, medicinal purposes, as a recreational drug. Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber. To satisfy the UN Narcotics Convention, some cannabis strains have been bred to produce minimal levels of tetrahydrocannabinol, the principal psychoactive constituent; some strains have been selectively bred to produce a maximum of THC, the strength of, enhanced by curing the flowers.
Various compounds, including hashish and hash oil, are extracted from the plant. Globally, in 2013, 60,400 kilograms of cannabis were produced legally. In 2014 there were an estimated 182.5 million cannabis users. This percentage has not changed between 1998 and 2014. Cannabis is an annual, flowering herb; the leaves are palmately digitate, with serrate leaflets. The first pair of leaves have a single leaflet, the number increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf, depending on variety and growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf; the lower leaf pairs occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant. The leaves have a peculiar and diagnostic venation pattern that enables persons poorly familiar with the plant to distinguish a cannabis leaf from unrelated species that have confusingly similar leaves; as is common in serrated leaves, each serration has a central vein extending to its tip.
However, the serration vein originates from lower down the central vein of the leaflet opposite to the position of, not the first notch down, but the next notch. This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close by the intervening notch. Sometimes the vein will pass tangent to the notch, but it will pass by at a small distance, when that happens a spur vein branches off and joins the leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch; this venation pattern varies among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell Cannabis leaves from superficially similar leaves without difficulty and without special equipment. Tiny samples of Cannabis plants can be identified with precision by microscopic examination of leaf cells and similar features, but that requires special expertise and equipment. All known strains of Cannabis are wind-pollinated and the fruit is an achene. Most strains of Cannabis are short day plants, with the possible exception of C. sativa subsp.
Sativa var. spontanea, described as "auto-flowering" and may be day-neutral. Cannabis is predominantly dioecious, having imperfect flowers, with staminate "male" and pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants. "At a early period the Chinese recognized the Cannabis plant as dioecious", the Erya dictionary defined xi 枲 "male Cannabis" and fu 莩 "female Cannabis". Male flowers are borne on loose panicles, female flowers are borne on racemes. Many monoecious varieties have been described, in which individual plants bear both male and female flowers. Subdioecy is widespread. Many populations have been described as sexually labile; as a result of intensive selection in cultivation, Cannabis exhibits many sexual phenotypes that can be described in terms of the ratio of female to male flowers occurring in the individual, or typical in the cultivar. Dioecious varieties are preferred for drug production. Dioecious varieties are preferred for textile fiber production, whereas monoecious varieties are preferred for pulp and paper production.
It has been suggested that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate licit crops of monoecious hemp from illicit drug crops. However, sativa strains produce monoecious individuals as a result of inbreeding. Cannabis has been described as having one of the most complicated mechanisms of sex determination among the dioecious plants. Many models have been proposed to explain sex determination in Cannabis. Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp, it was first reported by K. Hirata in 1924 that an XY sex-determination system is present. At the time, the XY system was the only known system of sex determination; the X:A system was first described in Drosophila spp in 1925. Soon thereafter, Schaffner disputed Hirata's interpretation, published results from his o
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension. Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Evidence suggests that reduction of the blood pressure by 5 mmHg can decrease the risk of stroke by 34%, of ischaemic heart disease by 21%, reduce the likelihood of dementia, heart failure, mortality from cardiovascular disease. There are many classes of antihypertensives. Among the most important and most used drugs are thiazide diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, beta blockers. Which type of medication to use for hypertension has been the subject of several large studies and resulting national guidelines; the fundamental goal of treatment should be the prevention of the important endpoints of hypertension, such as heart attack and heart failure. Patient age, associated clinical conditions and end-organ damage play a part in determining dosage and type of medication administered.
The several classes of antihypertensives differ in side effect profiles, ability to prevent endpoints, cost. The choice of more expensive agents, where cheaper ones would be effective, may have negative impacts on national healthcare budgets; as of 2018, the best available evidence favors low-dose thiazide diuretics as the first-line treatment of choice for high blood pressure when drugs are necessary. Although clinical evidence shows calcium channel blockers and thiazide-type diuretics are preferred first-line treatments for most people, an ACE inhibitor is recommended by NICE in the UK for those under 55 years old. Diuretics help the kidneys eliminate excess water from the body's tissues and blood. Loop diuretics: bumetanide ethacrynic acid furosemide torsemide Thiazide diuretics: epitizide hydrochlorothiazide and chlorothiazide bendroflumethiazide methyclothiazide polythiazide Thiazide-like diuretics: indapamide chlorthalidone metalozone Xipamide Clopamide Potassium-sparing diuretics: amiloride triamterene spironolactone eplerenoneIn the United States, the JNC8 recommends thiazide-type diuretics to be one of the first-line drug treatments for hypertension, either as monotherapy or in combination with calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor antagonists.
There are fixed-dose combination drugs, such as ACE thiazide combinations. Despite thiazides being cheap and effective, they are not prescribed as as some newer drugs; this is because they have been associated with increased risk of new-onset diabetes and as such are recommended for use in patients over 65 where the risk of new-onset diabetes is outweighed by the benefits of controlling systolic blood pressure. Another theory is that they are off-patent and thus promoted by the drug industry. Calcium channel blockers block the entry of calcium into muscle cells in artery walls. Dihydropyridines: amlodipine cilnidipine clevidipine felodipine isradipine lercanidipine levamlodipine nicardipine nifedipine nimodipine nisoldipine nitrendipine non-dihydropyridines: diltiazem verapamilJNC8 recommends calcium channel blockers to be a first-line treatment either as monotherapy or in combination with thiazide-type diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor antagonists for all patients regardless of age or race.
The ratio of CCBs' anti-proteinuria effect, non-dihydropyridine to dihydropyridine was 30 to -2. ACE inhibitors inhibit the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme, an enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Captopril enalapril fosinopril lisinopril moexipril perindopril quinapril ramipril trandolapril benazeprilA systematic review of 63 trials with over 35,000 participants indicated ACE inhibitors reduced doubling of serum creatinine levels compared to other drugs, the authors suggested this as a first line of defense; the AASK trial showed that ACE inhibitors are more effective at slowing down the decline of kidney function compared to calcium channel blockers and beta blockers. As such, ACE inhibitors should be the drug treatment of choice for patients with chronic kidney disease regardless of race or diabetic status. However, ACE inhibitors should not be a first-line treatment for black hypertensives without chronic kidney disease.
Results from the ALLHAT trial showed that thiazide-type diuretics and calcium channel blockers were both more effective as monotherapy in improving cardiovascular outcomes compared to ACE inhibitors for this subgroup. Furthermore, ACE inhibitors were less effective in reducing blood pressure and had a 51% higher risk of stroke in black hypertensives when used as initial therapy compared to a calcium channel blocker. There are fixed-dose combination drugs, such as ACE thiazide combinations. Notable side effects of ACE inhibitors include dry cough, fatigue, headaches, loss of taste and a risk for angioedema. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists work by antagonizing the activation of angiotensin receptors. Azilsartan candesartan eprosartan irbesartan losartan olmesartan telmisartan valsartan FimasartanIn 2004, an article in the BMJ examined the evidence for and against the suggestion that angiotensin receptor blockers may increase the risk of myocardial infarction; the matter was debated in 2006 in the medical journal of the American Heart Association.
To date, there is no consensus on whether ARBs have a tendenc