Bromborough Pool known as Bromborough Pool Village and Price's Village, is a village within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, England, to the north of Bromborough. It is situated to the south of Bebington and to the north of Eastham. Before local government reorganisation on 1 April 1974, it was part of the urban district of Bebington, within the county of Cheshire. Bromborough Pool was developed from 1853–58 as a "model village" for the workers at the factory of Price's Patent Candle Company; the completed village comprised 142 houses with a church, institute and library for Price's workforce. It predates the nearby model village of Port Sunlight just to its north, started in the 1880s. Listed buildings in Bromborough Pool Darley, Gillian. Villages of Vision: A Study of Strange Utopias. London: Five Leaves Publications. ISBN 9780907123507. Watson, Alan. Price's Village: A Study of a Victorian Industrial and Social Experiment. Price's Village and Port Sunlight A History of Price's Candles
Sulfuric acid known as vitriol, is a mineral acid composed of the elements sulfur and hydrogen, with molecular formula H2SO4. It is a colorless and syrupy liquid, soluble in water, in a reaction, exothermic, its corrosiveness can be ascribed to its strong acidic nature, and, if at a high concentration, its dehydrating and oxidizing properties. It is hygroscopic absorbing water vapor from the air. Upon contact, sulfuric acid can cause severe chemical burns and secondary thermal burns. Sulfuric acid is a important commodity chemical, a nation's sulfuric acid production is a good indicator of its industrial strength, it is produced with different methods, such as contact process, wet sulfuric acid process, lead chamber process and some other methods. Sulfuric acid is a key substance in the chemical industry, it is most used in fertilizer manufacture, but is important in mineral processing, oil refining, wastewater processing, chemical synthesis. It has a wide range of end applications including in domestic acidic drain cleaners, as an electrolyte in lead-acid batteries, in various cleaning agents.
Although nearly 100% sulfuric acid can be made, the subsequent loss of SO3 at the boiling point brings the concentration to 98.3% acid. The 98.3% grade is more stable in storage, is the usual form of what is described as "concentrated sulfuric acid". Other concentrations are used for different purposes; some common concentrations are: "Chamber acid" and "tower acid" were the two concentrations of sulfuric acid produced by the lead chamber process, chamber acid being the acid produced in the lead chamber itself and tower acid being the acid recovered from the bottom of the Glover tower. They are now obsolete as commercial concentrations of sulfuric acid, although they may be prepared in the laboratory from concentrated sulfuric acid if needed. In particular, "10M" sulfuric acid is prepared by adding 98% sulfuric acid to an equal volume of water, with good stirring: the temperature of the mixture can rise to 80 °C or higher. Sulfuric acid reacts with its anhydride, SO3, to form H2S2O7, called pyrosulfuric acid, fuming sulfuric acid, Disulfuric acid or oleum or, less Nordhausen acid.
Concentrations of oleum are either expressed in terms of % SO3 or as % H2SO4. Pure H2S2O7 is a solid with melting point of 36 °C. Pure sulfuric acid has a vapor pressure of <0.001 mmHg at 25 °C and 1 mmHg at 145.8 °C, 98% sulfuric acid has a <1 mmHg vapor pressure at 40 °C. Pure sulfuric acid is a viscous clear liquid, like oil, this explains the old name of the acid. Commercial sulfuric acid is sold in several different purity grades. Technical grade H2SO4 is impure and colored, but is suitable for making fertilizer. Pure grades, such as United States Pharmacopeia grade, are used for making pharmaceuticals and dyestuffs. Analytical grades are available. Nine hydrates are known, but four of them were confirmed to be tetrahydrate and octahydrate. Anhydrous H2SO4 is a polar liquid, having a dielectric constant of around 100, it has a high electrical conductivity, caused by dissociation through protonating itself, a process known as autoprotolysis. 2 H2SO4 ⇌ H3SO+4 + HSO−4The equilibrium constant for the autoprotolysis is Kap = = 2.7×10−4The comparable equilibrium constant for water, Kw is 10−14, a factor of 1010 smaller.
In spite of the viscosity of the acid, the effective conductivities of the H3SO+4 and HSO−4 ions are high due to an intramolecular proton-switch mechanism, making sulfuric acid a good conductor of electricity. It is an excellent solvent for many reactions; because the hydration reaction of sulfuric acid is exothermic, dilution should always be performed by adding the acid to the water rather than the water to the acid. Because the reaction is in an equilibrium that favors the rapid protonation of water, addition of acid to the water ensures that the acid is the limiting reagent; this reaction is best thought of as the formation of hydronium ions: H2SO4 + H2O → H3O+ + HSO−4 Ka1 = 2.4×106 HSO−4 + H2O → H3O+ + SO2−4 Ka2 = 1.0×10−2 HSO−4 is the bisulfate anion and SO2−4 is the sulfate anion. Ka1 and Ka2 are the acid dissociation constants; because the hydration of sulfuric acid is thermodynamically favorable and the affinity of it for water is sufficiently strong, sulfuric acid is an excellent dehydrating agent.
Concentrated sulfuric acid has a powerful dehydrating property, removing water from other chemical compounds including sugar and other carbohydrates and producing carbon and steam. In the laboratory, this is demonstrated by mixing table sugar into sulfuric acid; the sugar changes from white to dark brown and to black as carbon is formed. A rigid column of black, porous carbon will emerge as well; the carbon will smell of caramel due to the heat generated. C 12 H 22 O 11 ⏞ sucrose → H 2 SO 4 12 C + 11 H 2
The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial plants. Their growth form can be climbers, shrubs and stemless plants, all known as palms; those having a tree form are colloquially called palm trees. They are flowering a family in the monocot order Arecales. 181 genera with around 2600 species are known, most of them restricted to tropical and subtropical climates. Most palms are distinguished by their large, evergreen leaves, known as fronds, arranged at the top of an unbranched stem. However, palms exhibit an enormous diversity in physical characteristics and inhabit nearly every type of habitat within their range, from rainforests to deserts. Palms are among the most extensively cultivated plant families, they have been important to humans throughout much of history. Many common products and foods are derived from palms. In contemporary times, palms are widely used in landscaping, making them one of the most economically important plants. In many historical cultures, because of their importance as food, palms were symbols for such ideas as victory and fertility.
For inhabitants of cooler climates today, palms symbolize the vacations. Whether as shrubs, trees, or vines, palms have two methods of growth: solitary or clustered; the common representation is that of a solitary shoot ending in a crown of leaves. This monopodial character may be exhibited by prostrate and trunk-forming members; some common palms restricted to solitary growth include Roystonea. Palms may instead grow in sparse though dense clusters; the trunk develops an axillary bud at a leaf node near the base, from which a new shoot emerges. The new shoot, in turn, produces a clustering habit results. Sympodial genera include many of the rattans and Rhapis. Several palm genera have both solitary and clustering members. Palms which are solitary may grow in clusters and vice versa; these aberrations suggest. Palms have large, evergreen leaves that are either palmately or pinnately compound and spirally arranged at the top of the stem; the leaves have a tubular sheath at the base that splits open on one side at maturity.
The inflorescence is a spadix or spike surrounded by one or more bracts or spathes that become woody at maturity. The flowers are small and white, radially symmetric, can be either uni- or bisexual; the sepals and petals number three each, may be distinct or joined at the base. The stamens number six, with filaments that may be separate, attached to each other, or attached to the pistil at the base; the fruit is a single-seeded drupe but some genera may contain two or more seeds in each fruit. Like all monocots, palms do not have the ability to increase the width of a stem via the same kind of vascular cambium found in non-monocot woody plants; this explains the cylindrical shape of the trunk, seen in palms, unlike in ring-forming trees. However, many palms, like some other monocots, do have secondary growth, although because it does not arise from a single vascular cambium producing xylem inwards and phloem outwards, it is called "anomalous secondary growth"; the Arecaceae are notable among monocots for their height and for the size of their seeds and inflorescences.
Ceroxylon quindiuense, Colombia's national tree, is the tallest monocot in the world, reaching up to 60 m tall. The coco de mer has the largest seeds of 40 -- 50 cm in diameter and weighing 15 -- 30 kg each. Raffia palms have the largest leaves of any plant, up to 25 m long and 3 m wide; the Corypha species have the largest inflorescence of any plant, up to 7.5 m tall and containing millions of small flowers. Calamus stems. Most palms are native to subtropical climates. Palms can be found in a variety of different habitats, their diversity is highest in lowland forests. South America, the Caribbean, areas of the south Pacific and southern Asia are regions of concentration. Colombia may have the highest number of palm species in one country. There are some palms that are native to desert areas such as the Arabian peninsula and parts of northwestern Mexico. Only about 130 palm species grow beyond the tropics in humid lowland subtropical climates, in highlands in southern Asia, along the rim lands of the Mediterranean Sea.
The northernmost native palm is Chamaerops humilis, which reaches 44°N latitude along the coast of southern France. In the southern hemisphere, the southernmost palm is the Rhopalostylis sapida, which reaches 44°S on the Chatham Islands where an oceanic climate prevails. Cultivation of palms is possible north of subtropical climates, some higher latitude locals such as Ireland, Scotland and the Pacific Northwest feature a few palms in protected locations. Palms inhabit a variety of ecosystems. More than two-thirds of palm species live in humid moist forests, where some species grow tall enough to form part of the canopy and shorter ones form part of the understory; some species form pure stands in areas with poor drainage or regular flooding, including Raphia hookeri, common in coastal freshwater swamps in West Africa. Other palms live in tropical mountain habitats above 1000 m, such as those in the genus Ceroxylon native to the Andes. Palms may live in grasslands and scrublands associated with a water source, in desert oases such as the date palm.
A few palms are adapted to basic lime soils, while others are ada
History of candle making
Candle making was developed independently in many places throughout history. Candles were used by the early Greeks to honour the goddess Artemis' birth on the sixth day of every lunar month. Candles were made by the Romans beginning about 500 BC; these were true made from tallow. Evidence for candles made from whale fat in China dates back to the Qin Dynasty. In India, wax from boiling cinnamon was used for temple candles. In parts of Europe, the Middle-East and Africa, where lamp oil made from olives was available, candle making remained unknown until the early middle-ages. Candles were made from tallow and beeswax in ancient times, but have been made from spermaceti, purified animal fats and paraffin wax in recent centuries; the early Greeks used candles to honour the goddess Artemis' birth on the sixth day of every lunar month. Romans began making true dipped candles from tallow, beginning around 500 BC. While oil lamps were the most used source of illumination in Roman Italy, candles were common and given as gifts during Saturnalia.
The mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang, contained candles made from whale fat. The word zhú was used as candle during the Warring States period; the Han Dynasty Jizhupian dictionary of about 40 BC hints at candles being made of beeswax, while the Book of Jin covering the Jin Dynasty makes a solid reference to the beeswax candle in regards to its use by the statesman Zhou Yi. An excavated earthenware bowl from the 4th century AD, located at the Luoyang Museum, has a hollowed socket where traces of wax were found; these Chinese candles were molded in paper tubes, using rolled rice paper for the wick, wax from an indigenous insect, combined with seeds. Wax from boiling cinnamon was used for temple candles in India. Yak butter was used for candles in TibetThere is a fish called the eulachon or "candlefish", a type of smelt, found from Oregon to Alaska. During the 1st century AD, indigenous people from this region used oil from this fish for illumination. A simple candle could be made by putting the dried fish on a forked stick and lighting it.
After the collapse of the Roman empire, trading disruptions made olive oil, the most common fuel for oil lamps, unavailable throughout much of Europe. As a consequence, candles became more used. By contrast, in North Africa and the Middle East, candle-making remained unknown due to the availability of olive oil. Candles were commonplace throughout Europe in the Middle Ages. Candle makers made candles from fats saved from the kitchen or sold their own candles from within their shops; the trade of the chandler is recorded by the more picturesque name of "smeremongere", since they oversaw the manufacture of sauces, vinegar and cheese. The popularity of candles is shown in Saint Lucy festivities. Tallow, fat from cows or sheep, became the standard material used in candles in Europe; the unpleasant smell of tallow candles is due to the glycerine. The smell of the manufacturing process was so unpleasant that it was banned by ordinance in several European cities. Beeswax was discovered to be an excellent substance for candle production without the unpleasant odour, but remained restricted in usage for the rich and for churches and royal events, due to their great expense.
In England and France, candle making had become a guild craft by the 13th century. The Tallow Chandlers Company of London was formed in about 1300 in London, in 1456 was granted a coat of arms; the Wax Chandlers Company existed prior to 1330 and acquired its charter in 1484. By 1415, tallow candles were used in street lighting; the first candle mould comes from the 15th century in Paris. With the growth of the whaling industry in the 18th century, spermaceti, an oil that comes from a cavity in the head of the sperm whale, became a used substance for candle making; the spermaceti was obtained by crystallizing the oil from the sperm whale and was the first candle substance to become available in mass quantities. Like beeswax, spermaceti wax did not create a repugnant odor when burned, produced a brighter light, it was harder than either tallow or beeswax, so it would not soften or bend in the summer heat. The first "standard candles" were made from spermaceti wax. By 1800, an cheaper alternative was discovered.
Colza oil, derived from Brassica campestris, a similar oil derived from rapeseed, yielded candles that produce clear, smokeless flames. The French chemists Michel Eugène Chevreul and Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac patented stearin in 1825. Like tallow, this had no glycerine content; the manufacture of candles became an industrialised mass market in the mid 19th century. In 1834, Joseph Morgan, a pewterer from Manchester, patented a machine that revolutionised candle making, it allowed for continuous production of molded candles by using a cylinder with a moveable piston to eject candles as they solidified. This more efficient mechanized production produced about 1,500 candles per hour; this allowed candles to become an affordable commodity for the masses. At this time, candlemakers began to fashion wicks out of braided strands of cotton; this technique makes wicks curl over as they burn, maintaining the height of the wick and therefore the flame. Because much of the excess wick is incinerated, these are referred to as "self-trim
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, transdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement. Evangelicals believe in the centrality of the conversion or "born again" experience in receiving salvation, in the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity, in spreading the Christian message; the movement has had a long presence in the Anglosphere before spreading further afield in the 19th, 20th and early 21st centuries. Its origins are traced to 1738, with various theological streams contributing to its foundation, including English Methodism, the Moravian Church, German Lutheran Pietism. Preeminently, John Wesley and other early Methodists were at the root of sparking this new movement during the First Great Awakening. Today, evangelicals are found across many Protestant branches, as well as in various denominations not subsumed to a specific branch.
Among leaders and major figures of the evangelical Protestant movement were John Wesley, George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, Billy Graham, Bill Bright, Harold John Ockenga, John Stott and Martyn Lloyd-Jones. The movement gained great momentum during the 18th and 19th centuries with the Great Awakenings in Great Britain and the United States. In 2016, there were an estimated 619 million evangelicals in the world, meaning that one in four Christians would be classified as evangelical; the United States has the largest concentration of evangelicals in the world. American evangelicals are a quarter of the nation's population and its single largest religious group. In Great Britain, evangelicals are represented in the Methodist Church, Baptist communities, among evangelical Anglicans; some evangelical Christian denominations are grouped together in the World Evangelical Alliance. The word evangelical has its etymological roots in the Greek word for "gospel" or "good news": εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, from eu "good", angel- the stem of, among other words, angelos "messenger, angel", the neuter suffix -ion.
By the English Middle Ages, the term had expanded semantically to include not only the message, but the New Testament which contained the message, as well as more the Gospels, which portray the life and resurrection of Jesus. The first published use of evangelical in English was in 1531, when William Tyndale wrote "He exhorteth them to proceed in the evangelical truth." One year Sir Thomas More wrote the earliest recorded use in reference to a theological distinction when he spoke of "Tyndale his evangelical brother Barns". During the Reformation, Protestant theologians embraced the term as referring to "gospel truth". Martin Luther referred to the evangelische Kirche to distinguish Protestants from Catholics in the Roman Catholic Church. Into the 21st century, evangelical has continued in use as a synonym for Protestant in continental Europe, elsewhere; this usage is reflected in the names of Protestant denominations, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.
In the English-speaking world, evangelical was applied to describe the series of revival movements that occurred in Britain and North America during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Christian historian David Bebbington writes that, "Although'evangelical', with a lower-case initial, is used to mean'of the gospel', the term'Evangelical', with a capital letter, is applied to any aspect of the movement beginning in the 1730s." According to the Oxford English Dictionary, evangelicalism was first used in 1831. The term may be used outside any religious context to characterize a generic missionary, reforming, or redeeming impulse or purpose. For example, the Times Literary Supplement refers to "the rise and fall of evangelical fervor within the Socialist movement". One influential definition of evangelicalism has been proposed by historian David Bebbington. Bebbington notes four distinctive aspects of evangelical faith: conversionism, biblicism and activism, noting, "Together they form a quadrilateral of priorities, the basis of Evangelicalism."Conversionism, or belief in the necessity of being "born again", has been a constant theme of evangelicalism since its beginnings.
To evangelicals, the central message of the gospel is justification by faith in Christ and repentance, or turning away, from sin. Conversion differentiates the Christian from the non-Christian, the change in life it leads to is marked by both a rejection of sin and a corresponding personal holiness of life. A conversion experience can be emotional, including grief and sorrow for sin followed by great relief at receiving forgiveness; the stress on conversion differentiates evangelicalism from other forms of Protestantism by the associated belief that an assurance of salvation will accompany conversion. Among evangelicals, individuals have testified to both gradual conversions. Biblicism is a high regard for biblical authority. All evangelicals believe in biblical inspiration, though they disagree over how this inspiration should be defined. Many evangelicals believe in biblical inerrancy, while other evangelicals believe in biblical infallibility. Crucicentrism is the centrality that evangelicals give to the Atonement, the saving death and resurrection of Jesus, that offers forgiveness of sins and new life.
This is understood most in terms of a substitutionary atonement, in which Christ died as a substitute for sinful humanity by takin
Battersea is a district of south west London, within the London Borough of Wandsworth. It is located on the south bank of the River Thames, 2.9 miles south west of Charing Cross. A part of Surrey, Battersea was centred on a church established on an island at the mouth of the Falconbrook. Battersea is mentioned in Anglo-Saxon times as Badrices īeg = "Badric's Island" and "Patrisey"; as with many former parishes beside major rivers some land was reclaimed by draining marshland and building culverts for streams. The original village nucleus is marked by St. Mary's Church, on a site that has featured churches since the 9th century; the settlement appears in the Domesday Book as Patricesy, held by Westminster. Its Domesday Assets were: 17 ploughlands of cultivated land, it rendered: £75 9s 8d. The former parish of Battersea included, in a few hundred acres at Penge; the borough dates from the London Government Act of 1899, includes the greater part of the original ecclesiastical parish of St. Mary Battersea.
Under the same Act Penge a hamlet of Battersea, was constituted a separate urban district...the curious anomalies of local government led to its formation as a separate urban district and its transfer to the county of Kent in 1900. Penge was a wooded district. Before the Industrial Revolution, much of the large parish was farmland, providing food for the City of London and surrounding population centres. At the end of the 18th century, above 300 acres of land in the parish of Battersea were occupied by some 20 market gardeners, who rented from five to near 60 acres each. Villages in the wider area: Wandsworth, Tooting, Balham – were separated by fields. Industry in the area was concentrated to the north west just outside the Battersea-Wandsworth boundary, at the confluence of the River Thames, the River Wandle which gave rise to the village of Wandsworth; this was settled from the 16th century by Protestant craftsmen – Huguenots – fleeing religious persecution in Europe, who planted lavender and gardens and established a range of industries such as mills and dyeing, bleaching and calico printing.
Industry developed eastwards along the bank of the Thames during the Industrial Revolution from 1750s onwards. Bridges erected across the Thames encouraged growth. Inland from the river, the rural agricultural community persisted. Along the Thames, a number of large and, in their field, pre-eminent firms grew; the 1874 Ordnance Survey map of the area shows the following factories, in order, from the site of the as yet unbuilt Wandsworth Bridge to Battersea Park: Starch manufacturer. Between these were numerous wharfs for shipping. In 1929, construction started on Battersea Power Station, being completed in 1939. From the late 18th century to comparatively recent times Battersea, north Battersea, was established as an industrial area with all of the issues associated with pollution and poor housing affecting it. Industry declined and moved away from the area in the 1970s, local government sought to address chronic post-war housing problems with large scale clearances and the establishment of planned housing.
Some decades after the end of large scale local industry, resurgent demand among magnates and high income earners for parkside and riverside property close to planned Underground links has led to significant construction. Factories have been replaced with modern apartment buildings; some of the council owned properties have been sold off and several traditional working men's pubs have become more fashionable bistros. Battersea neighbourhoods close to the railway have some of the most deprived local authority housing in the Borough of Wandsworth, in an area which saw condemned slums after their erection in the Victoria era. Battersea was radically altered by the coming of railways; the London and Southampton Railway Company engineered their railway line from east to west through Battersea, in 1838, terminating at the original Nine Elms railway station at the north east tip of the area. Over the next 22 years five other lines were built, across which all trains from London's Waterloo and Victoria termini would as today travel.
An interchange station was
Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell referred to as Mrs Gaskell, was an English novelist and short story writer. Her novels offer a detailed portrait of the lives of many strata of Victorian society, including the poor, are of interest to social historians as well as lovers of literature, her first novel, Mary Barton, was published in 1848. Gaskell's The Life of Charlotte Brontë, published in 1857, was the first biography of Brontë. In this biography, she only wrote of the moral, sophisticated things in Brontë’s life, the rest she left out, deciding that certain, more salacious aspects were better kept hidden. Among Gaskell's best known novels are Cranford and South, Wives and Daughters, each having been adapted for television by the BBC. Gaskell was born Elizabeth Cleghorn Stevenson on 29 September 1810 in Lindsey Row, London, at the house, now 93 Cheyne Walk, she was the youngest of eight children. Her father, William Stevenson, a Unitarian from Berwick-upon-Tweed, was minister at Failsworth, but resigned his orders on conscientious grounds.
That position did not materialise and instead Stevenson was nominated Keeper of the Treasury Records. His wife, Elizabeth Holland, came from a family from the English Midlands, connected with other prominent Unitarian families, including the Wedgwoods, the Martineaus, the Turners and the Darwins; when she died 13 months after giving birth to her youngest daughter, she left a bewildered husband who saw no alternative but to send Elizabeth to live with her mother's sister, Hannah Lumb, in Knutsford, Cheshire. Elizabeth's future while she was growing up was uncertain, as she had no personal wealth and no firm home, though she was a permanent guest at her aunt and grandparents' house, her father remarried to Catherine Thomson in 1814. They had a son, William, in 1815, a daughter, Catherine, in 1816. Although Elizabeth spent several years without seeing her father, to whom she was devoted, her older brother John visited her in Knutsford. John was destined for the Royal Navy from an early age, like his grandfathers and uncles, but he did not obtain preferment into the Service and had to join the Merchant Navy with the East India Company's fleet.
John went missing in 1827 during an expedition to India. A beautiful young woman, Elizabeth was well-groomed, tidily dressed, kind and considerate of others, her temperament was calm and collected and innocent, she revelled in the simplicity of rural life. Much of Elizabeth's childhood was spent in Cheshire, where she lived with her aunt Hannah Lumb in Knutsford, the town she immortalised as Cranford, they lived in a large red-brick house called "Sandlebridge" that overlooked the township of Alderley Edge. From 1821 to 1826 she attended a school run by the Miss Byerleys at Barford House, after that Avonbank in Stratford-on-Avon, where she received the traditional education in arts, the classics and propriety given to young ladies at the time, her aunts gave her the classics to read, she was encouraged by her father in her studies and writing. Her brother John sent her modern books, descriptions of his life at sea and his experiences abroad. However, she was unhappy at Sandlebridge. Seeking new experiences, she opened her mind to the solace of nature, finding company in the silence of the heath.
On other occasions when her cousins came to play she found consolation in young friendships. Exploring the green hollows, old shady glades of ruined cottages, she collected wild flowers and watched the singing birds; the pleasure natural things brought reflected in her literary observations. At Sandlebridge, among the visitors and cousinage she played shuffleboard on the kitchen table. A young Elizabeth would go shopping to a woman in Knutsford who had an ancient place and parterres amidst an open blasted heath. Church House was directly accessible in Cranford with its high walls and garden walks, she generated self-respect from the country life. Her family visited the'Royal George Hotel', which impressed upon her a sensibility for the subtler points of architecture. Led by an interpreter, Gaskell told Anne Thackeray Ritchie how like Cranford it was. Sandlebridge would be demolished before 1900, only its chimney remaining, she learnt from Lord Clive that his mother was a friend of the whiggish Holland set.
After leaving school at the age of 16, Elizabeth travelled to London to spend time with her Holland cousins. She spent some time in Newcastle upon Tyne and from there made the journey to Edinburgh, her stepmother's brother was the miniature artist William John Thomson, who in 1832 painted a portrait of Elizabeth Gaskell in Manchester. A bust was sculpted by David Dunbar at the same time. On 30 August 1832 Elizabeth married William Gaskell, in Knutsford, they spent their honeymoon in North Wales, staying with Samuel Holland, near Porthmadog. The Gaskells settled in Manchester, where William was the minister at Cross Street Unitarian Chapel. Manchester's industrial surroundings influenced Elizabeth's writing in the industrial genre, their first child, a daughter, was stillborn in 1833. A son, died in infancy, this tragedy was the catalyst for Gaskell's first novel, Mary Barton, their other children were Marianne, Margaret Emily, known as Meta, Florence Elizabeth, Julia Bradford. Marianne and M