Ruston-Bucyrus Ltd was an engineering company established in 1930 and jointly owned by Ruston and Hornsby based in Lincoln and Bucyrus-Erie based in Bucyrus, the latter of which had operational control and into which the excavator manufacturing operation of Ruston and Hornsby was transferred. The Bucyrus company proper, from which the Bucyrus component of the Ruston-Bucyrus name was created, was an American company founded in 1880, in Bucyrus, Ohio. During the Second World War, the company developed a trench cutting machine known by the code name Cultivator No. 6 at the behest of Winston Churchill. A limited company, Ruston-Bucyrus Ltd. was formed by Paul and Frank Murray as Co-Directors. This has no ties to RB Cranes which holds all of the original machine information & drawings Gradually Universal Excavators designed by Bucyrus-Erie replaced Ruston and Hornsby designed models; the original range of standardised rope-operated machines included 10RB, 17RB, 19RB and 33RB and were upgraded through some intermediate models including the 54RB to a main selling range in the 1960s of 22RB, 30RB, 38RB, 61RB and 71RB.
In addition, there were the large machines including the 110RB which evolved into the 150RB. The 22RB was the most popular machine, assembled on a production line basis; the machine concept was a standard base to each model on which optional front-end equipment could be mounted with appropriate counterbalances, crawler track frames and minimal additional machinery. The most common variants included face shovel, lifting crane and grabbing crane. Less common variants included drag shovel and pile driver; some cranes were lorry-mounted. All machines had 360 degree rotation on a conical section roller path; the machines were operated by a system of levers which operated toggle clutches into the drumshafts. Despite the significant power being transmitted, the lever system was, if set up relatively easy for the operator to use; the main control functions were superseded by pneumatic control. Most machines were fitted with diesel engines; the 22RB used a 6YDA Ruston and Hornsby engine. Electric motor options were available and used on the large machines.
The model size, an elusively defined number, was the standard face shovel capacity in cubic feet. All the above machines were mounted on crawler tracks; the company manufactured walking draglines, which were large capacity machines, model 5W the most common, with the upper machinery deck mounted upon a circular tub with motion provided by overhanging cams with paddle feet which, when rotated, lifted the entire machine and produced individual steps of forward motion, a waddling action somewhat like a duck as the end of the boom would raise and lower. Because of the size and weight, walking draglines were transported to the worksite in sections and assembled there; these large machines were used for removal of overburden on, for example, opencast coal sites. In the late 1960s, the Company designed a range of 360 degree hydraulic backactors which were popular in the Far East and extended the life of the company. In the early days of RB, they produced a few other products including a range of lorry-mounted drilling rigs used for water bore holes.
They produced a design for a self-erecting tower crane in an era when tower cranes were rare. In the 1960s, there used to be a bridge over the High Street in Lincoln stating that Ruston Bucyrus was the largest Excavator manufacturer in the World; the factory ran the length of Beevor Street, about 900m, apart from a short piece on the north side where a drivebelt manufacturing business was based. The grounds were up to 400m wide. There were more than 30 bays in the factory, most of which were about 150m long, nearly all fitted with overhead cranes. At the far end of the Works, there was an extra-large bay for assembly of the large machines including the 150RB and walking draglines. Beyond, the testing area where cranes were taken for calibration; the company employed up to 2000 persons on the site with manufacturing on both night shifts. With exception of foundry work all manufacturing processes were completed on site; the machine shops used, for the period, the latest in technology including tape-programming and high-speed tipped tooling.
There were eight service depots around the UK and a team of service engineers operated from the Lincoln Works to service international customers. Ruston Bucyrus cranes and excavators had been exported to most parts of the World; the period of the smaller quarry excavator was lost when quarrying turned to more substantial blasting and the use of wheeled loaders. In 1985 Ruston Bucyrus was bought by its management, severing all links with Bucyrus-Erie resulting in the formation of'R-B Lincoln', which became R-B International, a subsidiary of Lincoln Industries. Production of existing Ruston-Bucyrus designed cable excavator/crane models from the 22RB to the 71RB continued at the Lincoln factory with'Improved Crane Dragline' versions offered. From 1985 onwards all new machines carried the'RB' name instead of'Ruston-Bucyrus' and in 1987 a new mechanical/hydraulic powered 51–60 model developed from the 38-RB was offered for use as a crane or dragline excavator In 1990 RB bought from its rival Priestman, the design and manufacturing rights to Priestman's Variable Counterbalance hydraulic/cable long reach excavator range and its extensive range of Grabs.
In 1992 RB introduced its CH series of hydraulic crane/dragline models with further models added in 1999. In 1996 R-B changed ownership in a buy-in management buy out but in 2000 R-B International entere
Port of Hull
The Port of Hull is a port at the confluence of the River Hull and the Humber Estuary in Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, England. Seaborne trade at the port can be traced to at least the 13th century conducted at the outfall of the River Hull, known as The Haven, or as the Old Harbour. In 1773, the Hull Dock Company was formed and Hull's first dock built, on land occupied by Hull town walls; the first dock east of the river, Victoria Dock, opened in 1850. Docks along the banks of the Humber to the west were begun in 1862 with the construction of the West Dock Albert Dock, the William Wright extension, opened in 1880, a dock further west, St Andrew's Dock, opened in 1883. In 1885, a new eastern dock was built, Alexandra Dock, connected to a new railway line constructed by the same company, the Hull Barnsley & West Riding Junction Railway and Dock Company. In 1914, King George Dock was built jointly by the competing railway companies, the Hull and Barnsley company and the North Eastern Railway.
As of 2016 Alexandra is being modernised for use in wind farm construction, with a factory, estuary side quay under construction, a development known as Green Port Hull. The Town Docks, Victoria Dock, St Andrew's Dock fell out of use by the 1970s and were closed, some infilled and redeveloped, with the Humber and Railway docks converted for leisure craft as Hull Marina. Other facilities at the port included the Riverside Quay, built on the Humber banks at Albert Dock for passenger ferries and European trains, the Corporation Pier, from which a Humber Ferry sailed to New Holland, Lincolnshire. Numerous industrial works were served by the River Hull, which hosted a number of dry docks. To the east of Hull, Salt End near Hedon became a petroleum distribution point in the 20th century, with piers into the estuary for shipment, developed as a chemical works; as of 2010, the main port is operated by Associated British Ports and is estimated to handle one million passengers per year. An important event in the history of Hull as a port was its acquisition by king.
In 1297, it became the only port from which goods could be exported overseas from the county of Yorkshire. Thus in the 13th and 14th centuries Hull was a major English port for the export of wool, much of it to Flanders, with wine being a major import. During this period the River Hull was made navigable as far as the important town of Beverley, roads built connecting Hull to Beverley and Holderness and to the via regia between Hessle and Beverley near to Anlaby. By the 15th century trade with the Hanseatic league had become important and in the same period the growth of the English cloth industry meant that the export of cloth from Hull increased while wool exports decreased; the 16th century brought a considerable reduction in the amount of cloth traded through the port, but the export of lead increased. By the late 17th century Hull was the third port in the realm after London and Bristol, with export of lead and cloth, imports of flax and hemp as well as iron and tar from the Baltic; until 1773, trade was conducted via the Old Harbour known as The Haven, a series of wharves on the west bank of the River Hull, with warehouses and the merchants' houses backing on to the wharves along the High Street.
By the 18th century it was becoming clear that the Haven was unfit for the increasing amount of trade: it was not only narrow, but tidal and prone to a buildup of mud from the estuary. An additional stimulus to change was the demand for a'legal quay' on which customs officials could examine and weigh goods for export without causing excessive delay to shipment. In 1773, the Hull Corporation, Hull Trinity House and Hull merchants formed a Dock Company, the first statutory dock company in Britain; the Crown gave the land which contained Hull's city walls for construction of docks, an Act of Parliament was passed in 1774 allowing the Dock Company to raise up to £100,000 by shares and loans. Three docks, known as the Town Docks, which followed the path of the town walls were constructed by the company between 1778 and 1829: The Old Dock Queen's Dock, Humber Dock, Junction Dock Prince's Dock. An extension of the Town Docks was built in 1846 just north of the terminus of the recently opened Hull and Selby Railway.
The first dock in Hull east of the River Hull was constructed between 1845 and 1850. In 1860, a rival company, the West Dock Company, was formed to promote and build new docks suitable for the increasing amounts of trade and the increasing size of steam ships; the site for the proposed dock was on the Humber foreshore to the west of the River Hull. The Dock Company
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Marfleet is an area of Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, England, in the east of the city, near King George Dock. Marfleet was until the late 20th century a small village outside the urban area of Hull – developments including the Hull and Holderness Turnpike, the Hull and Holderness Railway and the King George Dock, as well as establishments of factories in the area from the late 19th century onwards caused the development of the area into an industrial suburb. Parts of the former village, including the church still exist, isolated within the predominately industrial landscape. Modern Marfleet is an area within the built up area of Kingston upon Hull on the eastern side of the River Hull – it consists of remnants of the former village, including the historic church, surrounded by industrial buildings and port-side warehousing. Approximate boundaries can be represented by the Holderness Drain to the west; the A1033 Hull to Hedon road passes directly east-west through the area, the dock end of the Hull Docks Branch railway reaches King George Dock.
Marfleet Avenue runs northwards from the A1033, to the east the original route of Marfleet Lane passes the old village centre. To the west is Alexandra Dock and the area known as Southcoates, beyond, Drypool. Marfleet is located on low-lying ground – the area is all below 5 metres above sea level. Marfleet Ward contains the village as well as part of Southcoates south of the Hull Docks branch, as well as large parts of the Preston Road and Greatfield estate – it extends as far east as the Old Fleet Drain; the ward's population in 2011 was 13,633. The former village has an'island' like character in the industrial setting is now surrounded – the village was designated as a conservation area in 1994. Older buildings surviving in the area include "The Grange"; the village is a small place, chiefly of scattered farm houses, A large old farm-house, with a rookery attached, a small chapel are the only things worth noticing. Marfleet was mentioned as Mereflet, part of the manor of Mappleton; the etymology of the name is thought to refer to a "pool stream" – the area is low lying and to flood, with several drains or streams in the area outfalling onto the Humber.
A church at Marfleet dates to at least the early 13th century. It was rebuilt in 1793, repaired 1875, rebuilt again in 1883-4. Marfleet began a separate parish from Paull by the 18th century. Land around Marfleet was enclosed by an act of 1763. Taxes were levied during the medieval period for upkeep of drains and a sluice – work on the outlet of the modern Holderness Drain at Marfleet began 1832. A direct turnpike road between Hull and Hedon was established an act of parliament, opened 1833; the church in the 1840s was a slated roofed brick building with buttresses, with a wooden cupola at the western end. A twelve sided turf maze of the Chartes type once existed in the area, known as the Walls of Troy, near the Humber banks, it was destroyed sometime in the mid 19th century. Other lost features include a manor house. In 1854 the Hull and Holderness Railway and its Marfleet railway station opened. In the mid 19th century Marfleet consisted of a few farms; the village was well outside the urban spread of Hull, with approaching 2 miles of enclosed fields between it and the furthest extend of urban Hull at Drypool.
Marfleet Lane ran north-south through the village, connecting to the turnpike, with the short Church Lane running east to the church. The turnpike trust was discontinued in 1881, Marfleet became part of the borough of Hull in 1882. In 1885 the Drypool and Marfleet Steam Tramways Company was formed with the aim of operating steam tram service from Drypool terminating at Marfleet – the company was acquired by the Hull Corporation in 1899, by the early 1900s an electric tram service was running along Hedon Road to Marfleet; the situation was little changed by the first decade of the 20th century – a leather works had been established by H. H. Fenner & Co. and a railway line branching from the Holderness line for a new dock had been built west of the village. The works had included reclamation of land at the Humber foreshore, extended the river frontage much further south to the line of earlier low water mark on the Humber Bank, coline
The Yorkshire Post
The Yorkshire Post is a daily broadsheet newspaper, published in Leeds in northern England. It covers the whole of Yorkshire as well as parts of north Derbyshire and Lincolnshire but goes beyond just local news and its masthead carries the slogan "Yorkshire's National Newspaper". Alongside The Scotsman it is one of the flagship titles owned by Johnston Press. Founded in 1754, it is one of the oldest newspapers in the country, its focus on international and national news gives it a wider focus than that associated with a provincial newspaper. It has satellite offices in Harrogate, Scarborough and York, as well as correspondents in Westminster and the City of London; the current editor is James Mitchinson. The paper was founded in 1754, as the Leeds Intelligencer, making it one of Britain's first daily newspapers; the Leeds Intelligencer was a weekly newspaper until it was given its current name and was published daily in 1866. The first issue of The Yorkshire Post, on 2 July 1866, included the following statement: The newspaper broke the story of the Edward VIII abdication crisis under the editorship of Arthur Mann.
In 1939, the Yorkshire Post absorbed a rival, the Leeds Mercury, founded in 1718 and at its peak was quite liberal in comparison to the Leeds Intelligencer in the late 18th century. At its peak in the 1950s, the Yorkshire Post sold 120,000 copies a day; this figure had dropped to 40,000 by 2012. By the second half of 2017 it was selling less than 22,000 copies a day, a decline of 9% year-on-year; as well as publishing regular supplements on sport, rural affairs and motoring it runs an extensive business section with two weekly pull-out supplements. In 2012, as its parent company Johnston Press sought to cut costs, it was merged with the Yorkshire Evening Post – the local newspaper for Leeds - with the editor, Peter Charlton, overseeing both titles; the merger saw the formation of combined departments for news, business and features – with correspondents writing for both titles. Among its current staff are investigative journalist Rob Waugh, as well as sports writers Richard Sutcliffe and Nick Westby.
In February 2012 Johnston Press announced that printing of The Yorkshire Post and Yorkshire Evening Post in Leeds would be switched to their plant at Dinnington near Sheffield and the Leeds printing facility closed. In September 2013, it was announced the Wellington Street premises would be demolished as journalists had moved out. Preliminary demolition began in March 2014, while in April 2014 it was announced the iconic tower would be spared. In March 2014,'The' was reintroduced on the name of the paper after 46 years. 1754: Griffith Wright 1785: Thomas Wright 1805: Griffith Wright Jr 1819: William Cooke Stafford 1822: Alaric Watts 1842: W. T. Bolland 1848: Christopher Kemplay 1866: John R. K. Ralph 1882: Charles Pebody 1890: H. J. Palmer 1903: J. S. R. Phillips 1920: Arthur Mann 1939: Linton Andrews 1961: Kenneth Young 1964: J. Edward Crossley 1969: John Edwards 1989: Tony Watson 2003: Rachael Campey 2004: Peter Charlton 2013: Jeremy Clifford 2015: James Mitchinson Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher.
The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers pp 366–72 British Library picture of the Leedes Intelligencer 19 May 1761
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull abbreviated to Hull, is a port city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It lies upon the River Hull at its confluence with the Humber Estuary, 25 miles inland from the North Sea, with a population of 260,700. Hull lies east southeast of York and northeast of Sheffield; the town of Wyke on Hull was founded late in the 12th century by the monks of Meaux Abbey as a port from which to export their wool. Renamed Kings-town upon Hull in 1299, Hull has been a market town, military supply port, trading hub and whaling centre and industrial metropolis. Hull was an early theatre of battle in the English Civil Wars, its 18th-century Member of Parliament, William Wilberforce, took a prominent part in the abolition of the slave trade in Britain. After suffering heavy damage in the Second World War, Hull weathered a period of post-industrial decline, gaining unfavourable results on measures of social deprivation and policing. In the early 21st century spending boom before the late 2000s recession the city saw large amounts of new retail, commercial and public service construction spending.
Tourist attractions include The Hull People's Memorial, the historic Old Town and Museum Quarter, Hull Marina and The Deep aquarium. Sports teams include Championship League football club Hull City and rugby league clubs Hull F. C. & Hull Kingston Rovers. The University of Hull now enrols more than 16,000 students, it is ranked among the best in the Humber region. Hull was the 2017 UK City of Culture and in the same year the city's Ferens Art Gallery hosted the prestigious Turner Prize. Kingston upon Hull stands on the north bank of the Humber Estuary at the mouth of its tributary, the River Hull; the valley of the River Hull has been inhabited since the early Neolithic period but there is little evidence of a substantial settlement in the area of the present city. The area was attractive to people because it gave access to a prosperous hinterland and navigable rivers but the site was poor, being remote, low-lying and with no fresh water, it was an outlying part of the hamlet of Myton, named Wyke.
The name is thought to originate either from a Scandinavian word Vik meaning inlet or from the Saxon Wic meaning dwelling place or refuge. The River Hull was a good haven for shipping, whose trade included the export of wool from Meaux Abbey, which owned Myton. In 1293 the town of Wyke was acquired from the abbey by King Edward I, who on 1 April 1299 granted it a royal charter that renamed the settlement King's town upon Hull or Kingston upon Hull; the charter is preserved in the archives of the Guildhall. In 1440, a further charter incorporated the town and instituted local government consisting of a mayor, a sheriff and twelve aldermen. In his Guide to Hull, J. C. Craggs provides a colourful background to Edward's naming of the town, he writes that the King and a hunting party started a hare which "led them along the delightful banks of the River Hull to the hamlet of Wyke …, charmed with the scene before him, viewed with delight the advantageous situation of this hitherto neglected and obscure corner.
He foresaw it might become subservient both to render the kingdom more secure against foreign invasion, at the same time to enforce its commerce". Pursuant to these thoughts, Craggs continues, Edward purchased the land from the Abbot of Meaux, had a manor hall built for himself, issued proclamations encouraging development within the town, bestowed upon it the royal appellation, King's Town; the port served as a base for Edward I during the First War of Scottish Independence and developed into the foremost port on the east coast of England. It prospered by exporting wool and woollen cloth, importing wine and timber. Hull established a flourishing commerce with the Baltic ports as part of the Hanseatic League. From its medieval beginnings, Hull's main trading links were with northern Europe. Scandinavia, the Baltic and the Low Countries were all key trading areas for Hull's merchants. In addition, there was trade with France and Portugal; as sail power gave way to steam, Hull's trading links extended throughout the world.
Docks were opened to serve the frozen meat trade of New Zealand and South America. Hull was the centre of a thriving inland and coastal trading network, serving the whole of the United Kingdom. Sir William de la Pole was the town's first mayor. A prosperous merchant, de la Pole founded a family. Another successful son of a Hull trading family was bishop John Alcock, who founded Jesus College and was a patron of the grammar school in Hull; the increase in trade after the discovery of the Americas and the town's maritime connections are thought to have played a part in the introduction of a virulent strain of syphilis through Hull and on into Europe from the New World. The town prospered during the 16th and early 17th centuries, Hull's affluence at this time is preserved in the form of several well-maintained buildings from the period, including Wilberforce House, now a museum documenting the life of William Wilberforce. During the English Civil War, Hull became strategically important because of the large arsenal located there.
Early in the war, on 11 January 1642, the king named the Earl of Newcastle governor of Hull while Parliament nominated Sir John Hotham and asked his son, Captain John Hotham, to secure the town at once. Sir John Hotham and Hull corporation declared support for Parliament and denied Charles I entry into the town. Charles I responded to these events by besieging the town; this siege helped precipitate open conflict between the forces of Parliament a