Bezdan is a village located in Bačka, Serbia. It is situated in West Bačka District; the village has its population numbers at 5,263 people. It was first mentioned in 1305 under the name of Battyan; the village was destroyed during an Ottoman invasion in the 16th century. With the establishment of Habsburg rule, the village was settled by Hungarians, Poles and Germans; the first church in the village was built in 1755, the current one was constructed in 1846. Hungarians = 2,983 Serbs = 1,256 Croats = 424 Yugoslavs = 141 others. 1961: 6,813 1971: 6,427 1981: 6,085 1991: 5,472 2002: 5,263 2008: 4,318 List of places in Serbia List of cities and villages in Vojvodina Slobodan Ćurčić, Broj stanovnika Vojvodine, Novi Sad, 1996. Homepage of Bezdan History of Bezdan www.soinfo.org
Čonoplja is a village in Serbia. It is situated in the West Bačka District, Vojvodina province; the village has its population numbering 4,359 people. In Serbian, the village is known as Čonoplja, in German as Tschonopel, in Croatian as Čonoplja, in Bunjevac as Čonoplja, in Hungarian as Csonoplya; the oldest relics found at this location are dated back to the late Stone Age. Relics from the 7th and 8th centuries were found, but they give no exact indication as to the tribes who lived there; the village was first mentioned in the 14th century as Conoklija, during the administration of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. During the Ottoman administration, the village of Čonoplja was populated by ethnic Serbs. In 1590, the village had 28 households. In the 17th century, ethnic Bunjevci settled in the village, while in the 18th and 19th century Germans and Hungarians settled here as well. There was a census in Bačka in 1715; however 31 households were mentioned for Sivac, including a certain Teša Čonopljanin, aged 50, born in Čonoplja and had run away from the Turks in 1685.
In 1747, population of Čonoplja counted 5 salaši with 42 people. They were Dalmatians of Catholic confession. A few German families could be found as early as in 1758. Shortly thereafter, they left for other neighboring villages. A Paul Witsch is mentioned, interviewed in connection with having stolen a horse, but acquitted of a charge. Freiherr Anton von Cothmann, a representative of Empress Maria Theresia, visited Čonoplja in 1767 and his assessment was not complimentary. Bad houses, untidy streets and big neglected fields, he decided to propose the place for settlement by Germans. The plans in Vienna were to settle Reformed Germans there, but this was dropped, as the Dalmatians who lived there, were all Roman Catholics. On May 16, 1786, 109 German families were to settle in Čonoplja; the major part 30 families, came from Elsass and Lothringen today in France, 30 from the eastern part of Hunsrück, a mountain range south of Koblenz, Germany. From this time to the end of World War II, Čonoplja was trilingual.
In 1803, the population of Čonoplja numbered 2,734 people. The All Saints Church, still in existence, was built in 1819. Before this, a small church made of wood stood at the same place, its interior is splendidly painted, 5 bells ring for the church. Its dimensions are 44 meters by 12 meters. At the edge of the Telečka hill, above the Calvary, there is the Antonius Chapel; the Calvary, with its 14 Stations of the Cross and statues of saints, was among the most beautiful in Bačka. On each July 2 many of the faithful, including those from the surrounding villages, used to go on a pilgrimage to the Čonoplja Brünndl Chapel; the headstones at the cemetery were made of marble or artificial stone. Many families used to have a vault and in front of it, there was a column made of black Swedish marble, a white cross was attached to its top. In 1869, the population of Čonoplja was 5,310, had decreased to 4,536 by 1910; this was caused by emigration to other places. The railroad Sombor – Čonoplja – Krnjaja – Vrbas was opened on December 21, 1906.
Electric power has been supplied to Čonoplja since 1921. Although Čonoplja was a rather agricultural place, many priests and teachers emerged. Many Donauschwaben farmers from Čonoplja owned a szállás. There was wine and fruit growing, hemp farmers and mills, fattening of pigs, poultry breeding; the biggest farm within the boundaries of Čonoplja was the Kerschner farm with 1,200 jochs of field. The village founded the following: A brickyard, construction tradesmen, construction materials store, clothing trade, hat maker, weaving mill, knitting business, timber processing and trading, cooper, leather processing, metal processing, grocery store, butcher shop, confectioner, soft drink production, mills, fish farm, drugstore and savings bank. There was a cinema and a spa on the road to Sombor. Many clubs, from firefighters to a soccer club, offered an opportunity for leisure time activities. There was a library. A theatre group performed in regular intervals; the Subotica journal "Neven" wrote in early February 1921: "Čonoplja is a small, nicely equipped village in the Middle of the Bačka region".
In 1940, the population of the village numbered 4,879 people, included: 2,597 Germans, 1,442 Hungarians, 721 Croats, 38 Jews, 38 Serbs, 2 Slovaks, 2 Russians, 1 Romanians, 3 other Slavs, 15 other non-Slavs. The descendants of the Germans who settled in 1786 had lived in peace in Čonoplja for 158 years. World War II brought the misfortune. In October 1944, as the consequence of the war events and devastating Axis occupation of Yugoslavia, most of the German population left from the village together with withdrawing German army; those who stayed were sent to work camps, where many of them died. Those who were expelled from their properties and estates that did not die in these camps or that escaped, left the area and ended up spread over the world. War victims from the Čonoplja Donauschwaben numbered 258 people and included: 94 who were killed fighting as Axis soldiers or those missing during the flight, 26 who died during the flight, 5 killed by Yugoslav partisan
Apatin is a town and municipality located in the West Bačka District of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. As of 2011 census, the population of the town is 17,411, while the municipality has 28,929 inhabitants. In Serbian, the town is known as Apatin, while the same name is used in German, Romanian and Hungarian. According to some claims, the name Apatin is derived from the old form Opaty, by which the town was first mentioned in the 11th century; the Municipality of Apatin is located on the left bank of the Danube river, between the municipaltiies of Sombor and Odžaci. Apatin is situated in the north-western part of the spacious plain in Bačka, on the left side of the Danube, it is in the autonomous province of Vojvodina. The favourable geographic position, proximity to the Danube, natural wealth of this area attracted people through all ages and made them settle here; because of these reasons in pre-historic times, cultures such as the Sarmatians, the Celts, the Goths and many others were replacing each other within this region, one by one.
In the 1st century, during the Roman conquest, the settlement was turned into a military trench with fortifications, played an important role in the defense of the Pannonia province. Subsequently, the area came under control of the Huns and Avars. In the 6th century the Slavs settled, in the 9th century, the area was included into the Bulgarian Empire. Bulgarian duke Salan who had residence in Titel ruled over region of Bačka. In the 10th century the Hungarians came to Central Europe, thereby establishing a state, populated by both and Slavs; the first mentioning of Apatin in any written script was in the year 1011, by the Abbey of Kalocsa Bishopric. According to other source, Apatin was firstly mentioned in 1407. During this time, settlement was part of the Bodrogiensis County within the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. During the 14th and 15th centuries, the area became feudalistic, in exchange for lands, the vassals would need to complete military service to the lord of the property. Many fishermen and millers began to settle down in this area.
In 1417, Apatin is mentioned as a property of Stefan Lazarević, crowned as the Despot of Serbia in 1402. In 1526-1527 it belonged to the short-lived Serb state of Emperor Jovan Nenad, soon after this area became part of the Ottoman Empire. During the Ottoman administration Apatin was part of the Sanjak of Segedin and was populated by ethnic Serbs. In the end of the 17th century it became part of the Habsburg Monarchy. Many of the refugees during the massive migration of Serbs led by Arsenije Čarnojević in 1690, came to Apatin and Prigrevica, thus the Serb population in this area increased. A new wave of colonisation occurred in 1748 when many German colonists settled in Apatin, pushing out the Serbs by force, who evacuated towards Stapar; the German colonists came from many different regions. The gathering centre was in Ulm and from that point they were transported by the Danube to Apatin, which became the main base of the German expansion in Vojvodina; the church was built near the port and the city square was built at this time.
The real estate value of buildings, such as schools, fishermen’s station, hand craft’s workshops, began to rise. The Chamber of Court decided to put forth economic objectives to better the economy, in 1756 the brewery and distillery were built. In 1764 a large textiles factory was built. In 1760 Apatin was proclaimed a town and a main trade centre with a special status. At the end of the 18th century, a catastrophic flood destroyed the old town square, ruined half of the settlement; the new square was built north-westward from the brewery. The town as seen today, began to take shape. During the 18th and in the early part of 19th century, Apatin had prospered economically because of developed trade and shipbuilding. During the initial years of the Habsburg administration, Apatin was administratively a part of the Batsch County within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. Subsequently it was included into the newly formed Batsch-Bodrog County. In 1848-1849 Apatin was part of the Serbian Voivodship, a Serb autonomous region within Austrian Empire, between 1849 and 1860 it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a separate Austrian province.
After abolishment of the voivodeship, in 1860 it was again included into Batsch-Bodrog County within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary, which became one of two autonomous parts of the Monarchy after 1867. In the year of 1869 numerous banks and saving-banks were established, that opened the door to industrial development. A great number of brickyards produced brick and tile, which were used to construct many buildings in Vienna and all in Pest. In 1912 Apatin was connected to Sombor and Sonta by the railroad, the following year, a shipyard was founded. Today, the shipyard has been modernized as it the only shipyard on the whole Danube which has a special lift for drawing boats out onto the docks. According to 1910 census, most of the inhabitants of Apatin spoke the German language. In 1918, as part of Banat, Bačka and Baranja, Apatin became part of the Kingdom of Serbia, which together with the Kingdom of Montenegro and the State of Slovenes and Serbs formed the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. In 1918-1919, Apatin was part of the Banat, Bačka and Baranja region and part of the Novi Sad District.
Between 1922 and 1929, the town w
Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia
The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, known more by its Yugoslav abbreviation AVNOJ, was the political umbrella organization for the national liberation councils of the Yugoslav resistance against the Axis occupation during World War II. It became the Yugoslav provisional wartime deliberative body, it was established on November 26, 1942 to administer territories under the control of the Partisans. After the Yugoslavian army capitulated on April 17, 1941, Yugoslavia was distributed between Germany, Bulgaria and the newly formed puppet states: Independent State of Croatia, Independent State of Montenegro, Albanian Kingdom and Nedić Serbia. Opposition to these occupation regimes caused the formation of resistance movements, resulting in the Communist Party of Yugoslavia only active in the underground but fast gaining popularity, assuming the role of leading the forces in the Yugoslavian resistance; the KPJ as an organisation comprised people from, drew support from, the whole of Yugoslavia.
On November 26, 1942, the Partisan leaders of Yugoslavia convened the first AVNOJ meeting at Bihać, in a liberated pocket called the Bihać Republic in the northwest of Bosnia, in the hope of gaining political legitimacy. The Slovene delegation could not attend due to intense fighting, but it approved the federal build-up of the new Yugoslavia. Comprising a committee of both the communist and non-communist Partisan representatives, under Josip Broz Tito, AVNOJ proclaimed support for: democracy. In January 1943, Germany mounted a fourth large-scale anti-partisan offensive to strengthen its control of Yugoslavia by destroying the central command of the Partisan movement – the Central Committee of the KPJ – and the primary Partisan hospital; the Partisans and engaged in major battles with the Chetnik formations of Colonel Draža Mihajlović, Ustasha militias and the combined German and Italian regular forces, were forced into retreat until an elaborate deception plan allowed the Partisans to escape their pursuers.
Despite the tactical defeat and the loss of men and equipment, the Partisan central command remained intact and the hospital safe which, over time, enabled the continuation of further operations against the enemy. All the major strategic military offensives of the Axis and their collaborators were thwarted. In May of the same year, Italian and Croatian troops launched a fifth concerted offensive against the Partisans in south eastern Bosnia, near the Sutjeska river. Again, faced by superior enemy numbers and potential encirclement, the Partisans escaped defeat but not without cost. However, the fact that after their successful breakout the Partisans were still able to mount major counter offensives proved to be a turning point in the battle for control of Yugoslavia; when Italy surrendered in September, the Partisans were further aided by captured Italian armour, control of additional coastal territory, the shipment of supplies from the Allies in Italy. "We are convinced that our Allies will not misunderstand this historic step taken by our people, but rather that they will do everything to give our people their moral and material help and backing, this through the representatives elected by the people themselves in their own country."
In its second conference in the Bosnian town of Jajce, from November 29 to November 30, 1943, Tito declared the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia to be the superior executive authority in the country. The decisions and the resolutions of the second AVNOJ conference were: to create a federal Yugoslavia, based on the right of self-determination of nations, in which the southern Slavic peoples who would live in six constituent republics with equal rights. Stalin, the Soviet leader, was enraged when he found out that he was not being informed of the November meeting, barred Tito from declaring AVNOJ as a provisional government; the Western Allies, were not alarmed, because they knew that the Partisans were the only Yugoslav resistance group fighting the Germans. In December 1943, Roosevelt and Stalin decided to support the Partisans; the United Kingdom joined a month and stopped supplying the Chetniks. The first Soviet mission arrived at Partisan headquarters, shortly thereafter.
The United States kept a military mission with Mihajlović to encourage continued Chetnik aid for downed American fliers. In May 1944, German airborne forces attacked Tito's headquarters in Drvar. Tito fled to Italy, established a new headquarters on the Adriatic island of Vis. Afte
Serbia the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Montenegro to the southwest; the country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population is about seven million, its capital, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the 6th century, establishing several sovereign states in the early Middle Ages at times recognized as tributaries to the Byzantine and Hungarian kingdoms; the Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Vatican and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entirety of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in the north of the country.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. Following disastrous casualties in World War I, the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, peacefully dissolved in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, CERN, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025. Serbia dropped in ranking from Free to Partly Free in the 2019 Freedom House report. Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality.
An upper-middle income economy with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high on the Human Development Index, Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index. The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs and Sorbs in different variants: Surbii, Serbloi, Sorabi, Sarbi, Serboi, Surbi, etc; these authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical presence was/is not disputed, but there are sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World. Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb, Ukrainian pryserbytysia, Old Indic sarbh-, Latin sero, Greek siro. However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond derived the denomination of Srb from srbati. Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать, сьорбати, сёрбаць, srbati, сърбам and серебати.
From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". However, between the period from 1992 to 2006, the official names of the country were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Archeological evidence of Paleolithic settlements on the territory of present-day Serbia are scarce. A fragment of a human jaw was believed to be up to 525,000 -- 397,000 years old. Around 6,500 years BC, during the Neolithic, the Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of Southeastern Europe. Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube. During the Iron Age, Thracians and Illyrians were encountered by the Ancient Greeks during their expansion into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century BC.
The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled throughout the area in the 3rd century BC and formed a tribal state, building several fortifications, including their capital at Singidunum and Naissos. The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province of Illyricum was established; as a result of this, contemporary Serbia extends or over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia and Macedoni
Hungarians known as Magyars, are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture and language. Hungarians belong to the Uralic-speaking peoples. There are an estimated 14.2–14.5 million ethnic Hungarians and their descendants worldwide, of whom 9.6 million live in today's Hungary. About 2.2 million Hungarians live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary before the Treaty of Trianon and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries Slovakia, Romania, Croatia and Austria. Significant groups of people with Hungarian ancestry live in various other parts of the world, most of them in the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Brazil and Argentina. Hungarians can be classified into several subgroups according to local linguistic and cultural characteristics; the Hungarians' own ethnonym to denote themselves in the Early Middle Ages is uncertain. The exonym "Hungarian" is thought to be derived from Oghur-Turkic On-Ogur. Another possible explanation comes from the Old Russian "Yugra".
It may refer to the Hungarians during a time when they dwelt east of the Ural Mountains along the natural borders of Europe and Asia before their conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Prior to the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in 895/6 and while they lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe east of the Carpathian Mountains, written sources called the Magyars "Hungarians", specifically: "Ungri" by Georgius Monachus in 837, "Ungri" by Annales Bertiniani in 862, "Ungari" by the Annales ex Annalibus Iuvavensibus in 881; the Magyars/Hungarians belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance, it is possible that they became its ethnic majority. In the Early Middle Ages, the Hungarians had many names, including "Węgrzy", "Ungherese", "Ungar", "Hungarus"; the "H-" prefix is a addition of Medieval Latin. The Hungarian people refer to themselves by the demonym "Magyar" rather than "Hungarian". "Magyar" is Finno-Ugric from the Old Hungarian "mogyër". "Magyar" derived from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, the "Megyer".
The tribal name "Megyer" became "Magyar" in reference to the Hungarian people as a whole. "Magyar" may derive from the Hunnic "Muageris" or "Mugel". The Greek cognate of "Tourkia" was used by the scholar and Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII "Porphyrogenitus" in his De Administrando Imperio of c. AD 950, though in his use, "Turks" always referred to Magyars; this was a misnomer, as while the Magyars had adopted some Turkic cultural traits, they are not a Turkic people. The historical Latin phrase "Natio Hungarica" had a wider and political meaning because it once referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary, regardless of their ethnicity or mother tongue. During the 4th millennium BC, the Uralic-speaking peoples who were living in the central and southern regions of the Urals split up; some dispersed towards the west and northwest and came into contact with Iranian speakers who were spreading northwards. From at least 2000 BC onwards, the Ugrian speakers became distinguished from the rest of the Uralic community, of which the ancestors of the Magyars, being located farther south, were the most numerous.
Judging by evidence from burial mounds and settlement sites, they interacted with the Indo-Iranian Andronovo culture. In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Hungarians moved from the west of the Ural Mountains to the area between the southern Ural Mountains and the Volga River known as Bashkiria and Perm Krai. In the early 8th century, some of the Hungarians moved to the Don River to an area between the Volga and the Seversky Donets rivers. Meanwhile, the descendants of those Hungarians who stayed in Bashkiria remained there as late as 1241; the Hungarians around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate. Their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i.e. Bulgars and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. Tradition holds; the names of the seven tribes were: Jenő, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer, Nyék, Tarján. Around 830, a rebellion broke out in the Khazar khaganate; as a result, three Kabar tribes of the Khazars joined the Hungarians and moved to what the Hungarians call the Etelköz, the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River.
The Hungarians faced their first attack by the Pechenegs around 854, though other sources state that an attack by Pechenegs was the reason for their departure to Etelköz. The new neighbours of the Hungarians were the eastern Slavs. From 862 onwards, the Hungarians along with their allies, the Kabars, started a series of looting raids from the Etelköz into the Carpathian Basin against the Eastern Frankish Empire and Great Moravia, but against the Balaton principality and Bulgaria. In 895/896, under the leadership of Árpád, some Hungarians crossed the Carpathians and entered the Carpathian Basin; the tribe called Magyar was the leading tribe of the Hungarian alliance that conquered the centre of the basin. At the same time, due to their involvement in the 894–896 Bulgaro-Byzantine war, Hungarians in Etelköz were attacked by Bulgaria and by their old enemies the Pechenegs; the Bulgarians won the decisive b
The Serbs are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans. The majority of Serbs inhabit the nation state of Serbia, as well as the disputed territory of Kosovo, the neighboring countries of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro, they form significant minorities in North Slovenia. There is a large Serb diaspora in Western Europe, outside Europe there are significant communities in North America and Australia; the Serbs share many cultural traits with the rest of the peoples of Southeast Europe. They are predominantly Eastern Orthodox Christians by religion; the Serbian language is official in Serbia, co-official in Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina, is spoken by the plurality in Montenegro. The modern identity of Serbs is rooted in traditions. In the 19th century, the Serbian national identity was manifested, with awareness of history and tradition, medieval heritage, cultural unity, despite living under different empires. Three elements, together with the legacy of the Nemanjić dynasty, were crucial in forging identity and preservation during foreign domination: the Serbian Orthodox Church, the Serbian language, Kosovo Myth.
When the Principality of Serbia gained independence from the Ottoman Empire, Orthodoxy became crucial in defining the national identity, instead of language, shared by other South Slavs. The tradition of slava, the family saint feast day, is an important ethnic marker of Serb identity, is regarded their most significant and most solemn feast day; the origin of the ethnonym is unclear. Genetic studies on Serbs show that they have close affinity with the rest of the Balkan peoples, those within former Yugoslavia. Serbia's people are among the tallest in the world, after Montenegro and the Netherlands, with an average male height of 1.82 metres. Slavs settled the Balkans in the 6th and 7th centuries. Up until the late 560s their activity was raiding, crossing from the Danube, though with limited Slavic settlement through Byzantine foederati colonies; the Danube and Sava frontier was overwhelmed by large-scale Slavic settlement in the late 6th and early 7th century. What is today central Serbia was an important geo-strategical province, through which the Via Militaris crossed.
This area was intruded by barbarians in the 5th and 6th centuries. The numerous Slavs assimilated the descendants of the indigenous population; the history of the early medieval Serbian Principality is recorded in the 10th-century work De Administrando Imperio, which describes the Serbs as a people living in Roman Dalmatia, subordinate to the Byzantine Empire. Numerous small Serbian states were created, chiefly under Vlastimorović and Vojislavjević dynasties, located in modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. With the decline of the Serbian state of Duklja in the late 11th century, "Raška" separated from it and replaced it as the most powerful Serbian state. Prince Stefan Nemanja conquered the neighbouring territories of Kosovo and Zachlumia; the Nemanjić dynasty ruled over Serbia until the 14th century. Nemanja's older son, Stefan Nemanjić, became Serbia's first recognized king, while his younger son, founded the Serbian Orthodox Church in the year 1219, became known as Saint Sava after his death.
Over the next 140 years, Serbia expanded its borders, from numerous minor principalities, reaching to a unified Serbian Empire. Its cultural model remained Byzantine, despite political ambitions directed against the empire; the medieval power and influence of Serbia culminated in the reign of Stefan Dušan, who ruled the state from 1331 until his death in 1355. Ruling as Emperor from 1346, his territory included Macedonia, northern Greece and all of modern Albania; when Dušan died, his son Stephen Uroš V became Emperor. With Turkish invaders beginning their conquest of the Balkans in the 1350s, a major conflict ensued between them and the Serbs, the first major battle was the Battle of Maritsa, in which the Serbs were defeated. With the death of two important Serb leaders in the battle, with the death of Stephen Uroš that same year, the Serbian Empire broke up into several small Serbian domains; these states were ruled by feudal lords, with Zeta controlled by the Balšić family, Raška, Kosovo and northern Macedonia held by the Branković family and Lazar Hrebeljanović holding today's Central Serbia and a portion of Kosovo.
Hrebeljanović was subsequently accepted as the titular leader of the Serbs because he was married to a member of the Nemanjić dynasty. In 1389, the Serbs faced the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo on the plain of Kosovo Polje, near the town of Pristina. Both Lazar and Sultan Murad; the battle most ended in a stalemate, afterwards Serbia enjoyed a short period of prosperity under despot Stefan Lazarević and resisted failing to the Turks until 1459. The Serbs had taken an active part in the wars fought in the Balkans against the Ottoman Empire, organized uprisings. After allied Christian forces had captured Buda from the Ottoman Empire in 1686 during the Great Turkish War, Serbs from Pannonian Plain joined the troops of the Habsburg Monarchy as separate units known as Serbian Militia. Serbs, as volunteers, massively joined