Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
John de St Paul
John de St Paul known as John de Owston and John de Ouston, was an English-born cleric and judge of the fourteenth century. He was Archbishop of Dublin 1349–62 and Lord Chancellor of Ireland 1350–56, he had been Master of the Rolls in England 1337–40. Apart from a brief period of disgrace in 1340, he enjoyed the confidence of King Edward III, he was described as a zealous advocate of English policy in Ireland, but as a pragmatic statesman, willing to conciliate the Anglo-Irish ruling class. He did much to enlarge and beautify Christ Church, although no trace of his work survives, having been destroyed by the Victorian rebuilding of the Cathedral; the St Paul family are thought to have come to Yorkshire from Guienne. They may have had a family connection to the Counts of Saint-Pol, since Marie de St Pol, Countess of Pembroke employed John as her attorney, he was born about 1295 at Owston, South Yorkshire. He was most the son of Thomas de St Paul, brother to Robert de St Paul, Lord of the manor of Byram cum Sutton.
He was said by some to be illegitimate, although this was contradicted. He was appointed a clerk in the English Chancery in around 1318 and became rector of Ashby David in Lincoln in 1329, the first of numerous clerical benefices he was to receive, of which the most important was the office of Archdeacon of Cornwall. From 1334 he was appointed guardian of the Great Seal in the absence of the Lord Chancellor and in 1337 he became Master of the Rolls, he was granted a house in Chancery Lane in 1339. He was Lord Keeper in 1339. In 1340 King Edward III, while engaged in the Siege of Tournai, received numerous complaints of corruption and maladministration against his officials, he returned to England with great speed, dismissed most of the offending officials, including St Paul, imprisoned and deprived of the Mastership of the Rolls. After a personal plea for clemency on his behalf by the Archbishop of Canterbury, John de Stratford, St Paul was soon released from custody, but he was not restored to the Mastership.
In 1349 he was made Archbishop of Dublin. He received a commission from Pope Clement VI to proceed against certain heretics who, having fled from the Diocese of Ossory, had been sheltered by his predecessor in the See of Dublin, Alexander de Bicknor, he held a Synod in Dublin in 1351, which dealt with a wide range of issues, including the observance of Good Friday, the banning of secret marriages, the ritual of genuflection. He maintained the long-running dispute with Richard FitzRalph, Archbishop of Armagh over the latter's claim to be Primate of Ireland, he persuaded the King to revoke his order which gave the See of Armagh precedence, to remove the cause to Rome for the Pope's adjudication. He obtained numerous benefits for the Archdiocese of Dublin, his extensive additions to Christ Church Cathedral, which he undertook at his own expense, included the long choir and the new organ. Most of his innovations, including the "long quire" were destroyed in the 1870s, when the interior of the cathedral was altered beyond recognition.
He was Lord Chancellor of Ireland, with one brief interval, from 1350 to 1356. In 1358 he was appointed to the Privy Council of Ireland, the Lord Deputy of Ireland was instructed to pay great heed to his advice, he sat on a Royal Commission to explore for and oversee gold and silver mines in 1360. In 1361 he was summoned to a Great Council in Dublin: although he was a strong supporter of English rule in Ireland, he urged a policy of moderation and an amnesty for Anglo-Irish leaders, in opposition to the Crown, he advised that the gentry of the Pale should live permanently on their estates and fortify their homes. He died on 9 September 1362 and was buried in Christ Church Cathedral, which he had done much to improve at his own expense, under the high altar
Archbishop of York
The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The archbishop is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of York and the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, which covers the northern regions of England as well as the Isle of Man; the Archbishop of York is an ex officio member of the House of Lords and is styled Primate of England. The archbishop's throne is in York Minster in central York and the official residence is Bishopthorpe Palace in the village of Bishopthorpe outside York; the incumbent, from 5 October 2005, is John Sentamu who signs as +Sentamu Ebor:. Six of the early bishops of York and one archbishop were canonised by the Roman Catholic Church, five more recent archbishops achieved the supreme Archbishopric of Canterbury. There was a bishop in Eboracum from early times. Bishops of York are known to have been present at the councils of Nicaea. However, this early Christian community was destroyed by the pagan Anglo-Saxons and there is no direct succession from these bishops to the post-Augustinian ones.
The diocese was refounded by Paulinus in the 7th century. Notable among these early bishops is Wilfrid; these early bishops of York acted as diocesan rather than archdiocesan prelates until the time of Ecgbert of York, who received the pallium from Pope Gregory III in 735 and established metropolitan rights in the north. Until the Danish invasion the archbishops of Canterbury exercised authority, it was not until the Norman Conquest that the archbishops of York asserted their complete independence. At the time of the Norman invasion York had jurisdiction over Worcester and Lincoln, as well as the dioceses in the Northern Isles and Scotland, but the first three sees just mentioned were taken from York in 1072. In 1154 the suffragan sees of the Isle of Man and Orkney were transferred to the Norwegian archbishop of Nidaros, in 1188 all the Scottish dioceses except Whithorn were released from subjection to York, so that only the dioceses of Whithorn and Carlisle remained to the archbishops as suffragan sees.
Of these, Durham was independent, for the palatine bishops of that see were little short of sovereigns in their own jurisdiction. Sodor and Man were returned to York during the 14th century, to compensate for the loss of Whithorn to the Scottish Church. Several of the archbishops of York held the ministerial office of Lord Chancellor of England and played some parts in affairs of state; as Peter Heylyn wrote: "This see has yielded to the Church eight saints, to the Church of Rome three cardinals, to the realm of England twelve Lord Chancellors and two Lord Treasurers, to the north of England two Lord Presidents." The bishopric's role was complicated by continued conflict over primacy with the see of Canterbury. At the time of the English Reformation, York possessed three suffragan sees, Durham and Sodor and Man, to which during the brief space of Queen Mary I's reign may be added the Diocese of Chester, founded by Henry VIII, but subsequently recognised by the Pope; until the mid 1530s the bishops and archbishops were in communion with the pope in Rome.
This is no longer the case, as the Archbishop of York, together with the rest of the Church of England, is a member of the Anglican Communion. Walter de Grey purchased York Place as his London residence, which after the fall of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, was renamed the Palace of Whitehall; the Archbishop of York is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England after the Archbishop of Canterbury. Since 5 October 2005, the incumbent is the Most Reverend John Sentamu, an ex officio member of the House of Lords; the Province of York includes 10 Anglican dioceses in Northern England: Blackburn, Chester, Liverpool, Newcastle, Sheffield and York, as well as 2 other dioceses: Southwell and Nottingham in the Midlands and Sodor and Man covering the Isle of Man. Accord of Winchester Story, Joanna. "Bede and the Letters of Pope Honorius I on the Genesis of the Archbishopric of York". English Historical Review. Cxxvii: 783–818. Doi:10.1093/ehr/ces142.
Aubrey Osborn Gwynn was an Irish Jesuit historian. Aubrey Gwynn was born in Dublin on 17 February 1892, his father was the author and sometime Member of Parliament Stephen Gwynn. His mother Mary Gwynn was a first cousin of his father's, her own father being the Reverend James Gwynn, sometime chaplain of the Octagon Chapel, Bath; the Gwynn family at that time adhered to the Protestant tradition. Aubrey Gwynn converted to Roman Catholicism at the age of ten, at the same time as his mother May Gwynn was received into the Roman Catholic Church, he attended Clongowes Wood College, a Jesuit secondary school in Dublin, from 1903 to 1908 studied at University College and Campion Hall, Oxford. In 1912, while still a student at University College, he became a member of the Society of Jesus. After graduating Aubrey Gwynn worked as a teacher at Clongowes College and Milltown Park. In 1927 Father Aubrey was appointed Lecturer in Ancient History at Dublin, he went on to lecture in Medieval History in 1948 he became the college’s Professor of Medieval History, a post he retained until 1962.
He was President of the Royal Irish Academy from 1958 to 1961. Aubrey Gwynn wrote extensively on church history as well as on other topics, his brother Denis Rolleston Gwynn was an historian, being for much of his life Professor of Modern Irish History at University College, Cork. A watercolour portrait of Aubrey Gwynn as a child by his godfather Walter Osborne is in the collection of the National Gallery of Ireland. Roman Education from Cicero to Quintilian The English Austin Friars in the Time of Wyclif The Medieval Province of Armagh, 1470–1545 The Writings of Bishop Patrick 1074–1084 Medieval Religious Houses: Ireland with R. N. Hadcock The Irish Church in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries, edited by Gerard O'Brien Twelfth Century Reform Anglo-Irish Church Life: Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries 1968 Aubrey Gwynn, Cathal Óg mac Maghnusa and the Annals of Ulster, edited by Nollaig Ó Muraíle J. A. Watt, J. B. Morrall, F. X. Martin, Medieval Studies Presented to Aubrey Gwynn S. J. At ricorso.net
Richard Clarke (bishop)
Richard Lionel Clarke is an Irish Anglican bishop and author. Since 2012, he has been the Archbishop of Primate of All Ireland; as such, he is the senior hierarch of the Church of Ireland. Clarke was born on 25 June 1949 in Ireland, he was educated at a fee-paying independent school in Dublin. He attended Trinity College and King's College London where he studied history and theology. Clarke was ordained a deacon in 1975 and priest in 1976, serving as a curate in Holywood, County Down for two years from 1975-77 and again as a curate at St Bartholomew's with Christ Church, Leeson Park, Dublin from 1977-79, before he serving as Dean of Residence at Trinity College, Dublin for five years. Clarke travelled thence to Bandon, County Cork, where he served as rector until 1993 when he was appointed Dean of Cork. Clarke was elected and consecrated to the bishopric of Meath and Kildare in 1996. In 2012, he was elected, in succession to Alan Harper, to be the Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland.
His translation to Armagh took effect on 15 December 2012, on which date he was enthroned at St Patrick's Cathedral. He has two children and 3 grandchildren, as of 2017, his wife, died in 2009. Clarke is the author of And Is It True?, The Unharmonious Blacksmith and A Whisper of God
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon rather than in Rome. The situation arose from the conflict between the papacy and the French crown, culminating in the death of Pope Boniface VIII after his arrest and maltreatment by Philip IV of France. Following the further death of Pope Benedict XI, Philip forced a deadlocked conclave to elect the French Clement V as Pope in 1305. Clement refused to move to Rome, in 1309, he moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years; this absence from Rome is sometimes referred to as the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy". A total of seven popes reigned at Avignon, all French, all under the influence of the French Crown. In 1376, Gregory XI moved his court to Rome, but after Gregory's death in 1378, deteriorating relations between his successor Urban VI and a faction of cardinals gave rise to the Western Schism. This started a second line of Avignon popes.
The last Avignon antipope, Benedict XIII, lost most of his support in 1398, including that of France. The schism ended in 1417 at the Council of Constance, after two popes had reigned in opposition to the papacy in Rome. Among the popes who resided in Avignon, subsequent Catholic historiography grants legitimacy to these: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI: 1342–1352 Pope Innocent VI: 1352–1362 Pope Urban V: 1362–1370 Pope Gregory XI: 1370–1378 The two Avignon-based antipopes were: Clement VII: 1378–1394 Benedict XIII: 1394–1423 Benedict XIII was succeeded by three antipopes, who had little or no public following, were not resident at Avignon: Clement VIII: 1423–1429 Benedict XIV: 1424–1429 or 1430 Benedict XIV: 1430?–1437The period from 1378 to 1417, when there were rival claimants to the title of pope, is referred to as the "Western Schism" or "the great controversy of the antipopes" by some Roman Catholic scholars and "the second great schism" by many secular and Protestant historians.
Parties within the Roman Church were divided in their allegiance among the various claimants to the office of pope. The Council of Constance resolved the controversy in 1417 when the election of Pope Martin V was accepted by all. Avignon and the small enclave to the east remained part of the Papal States until 1791, under pressure from French revolutionaries, they were absorbed by the short-lived revolutionary Kingdom of France, which, in turn, was abolished in favor of the French First Republic the following year; the papacy in the Late Middle Ages played a major temporal role in addition to its spiritual role. The conflict between the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor was fundamentally a dispute over which of them was the leader of Christendom in secular matters. In the early 14th century, the papacy was well past the prime of its secular rule – its importance had peaked in the 12th and 13th centuries; the success of the early Crusades added to the prestige of the Popes as secular leaders of Christendom, with monarchs like those of England and the Holy Roman Emperor acting as marshals for the popes and leading "their" armies.
One exception was Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, twice excommunicated by the Pope during a Crusade. Frederick II was moderately successful in the Holy Land; this state of affairs culminated in the unbridled declaration of papal supremacy, Unam sanctam, in November 1302. In that papal bull, Pope Boniface VIII decreed that "it is necessary to salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff." This was directed to King Phillip IV of France who responded by saying, "Your venerable conceitedness may know that we are nobody's vassal in temporal matters." In 1303 AD, Pope Boniface VIII followed up with a bull that would excommunicate the king of France and put the interdict over France, depose the entire clergy of France. Before this was finalized, Italian allies of the King of France broke into the papal residence and beat Pope Boniface VIII, he died shortly thereafter. Nicholas Boccasini was elected as his successor and took the name Pope Benedict XI, he absolved King Phillip IV and his subjects of their actions against Pope Boniface VIII.
However, Benedict XI died within eight months of being elected to the papacy. After eleven months, Bertrand de Got, a French man and a personal friend of King Phillip IV, was elected as pope and took the name Pope Clement V. Beginning with Clement V, elected 1305, all popes during the Avignon papacy were French. However, this makes. Southern France at that time had a culture quite independent from Northern France, where most of the advisers to the King of France were based; the Kingdom of Arles was still independent at that time, formally a part of the Holy Roman Empire. The literature produced by the troubadours in the Languedoc is unique and distinct from that of Royal circles in the north. In terms of religion, the South produced its own variety of Christianity, declared heretical; the movement was fueled in no small part by the strong sense of independence in the
Archbishop of Canterbury
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby, enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. Welby is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", sent from Rome in the year 597. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams. From the time of Augustine until the 16th century, the archbishops of Canterbury were in full communion with the See of Rome and received the pallium from the Pope. During the English Reformation, the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope. Thomas Cranmer became the first holder of the office following the English Reformation in 1533, while Reginald Pole was the last Roman Catholic in the position, serving from 1556 to 1558 during the Counter-Reformation. In the Middle Ages there was considerable variation in the methods of nomination of the Archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops.
At various times the choice was made by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral, the Pope, or the King of England. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has been more explicitly a state church and the choice is that of the Crown. Today the archbishop fills four main roles: He is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury, which covers the eastern parts of the County of Kent. Founded in 597, it is the oldest, he is the metropolitan archbishop of the Province of Canterbury, which covers the southern two-thirds of England. He is the senior primate and chief religious figure of the Church of England. Along with his colleague the Archbishop of York he chairs the General Synod and sits on or chairs many of the church's important boards and committees; the Archbishop of Canterbury plays a central part in national ceremonies such as coronations. As spiritual leader of the Anglican Communion, the archbishop, although without legal authority outside England, is recognised by convention as primus inter pares of all Anglican primates worldwide.
Since 1867 he has convened more or less decennial meetings of worldwide Anglican bishops, the Lambeth Conferences. In the last two of these functions, he has an important ecumenical and interfaith role, speaking on behalf of Anglicans in England and worldwide; the archbishop's main residence is Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth. He has lodgings in the Old Palace, located beside Canterbury Cathedral, where the Chair of St Augustine sits; as holder of one of the "five great sees", the Archbishop of Canterbury is ex officio one of the Lords Spiritual of the House of Lords. He is one of the highest-ranking men in England and the highest ranking non-royal in the United Kingdom's order of precedence. Since Henry VIII broke with Rome, the archbishops of Canterbury have been selected by the English monarch. Since the 20th century, the appointment of archbishops of Canterbury conventionally alternates between Anglo-Catholics and Evangelicals; the current archbishop, Justin Welby, the 105th Archbishop of Canterbury, was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 4 February 2013.
As archbishop he signs himself as + Justin Cantuar. His predecessor, Rowan Williams, 104th Archbishop of Canterbury, was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 27 February 2003. Prior to his appointment to Canterbury, Williams was the Bishop of Monmouth and Archbishop of Wales. On 18 March 2012, Williams announced he would be stepping down as Archbishop of Canterbury at the end of 2012 to become Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge. In addition to his office, the archbishop holds a number of other positions; some positions he formally holds ex officio and others so. Amongst these are: Chancellor of Canterbury Christ Church UniversityVisitor for the following academic institutions: All Souls College, Oxford Selwyn College, Cambridge Merton College, Oxford Keble College, Oxford Ridley Hall, Cambridge The University of Kent King's College London University of King's College Sutton Valence School Benenden School Cranbrook School Haileybury and Imperial Service College Harrow School King's College School, Wimbledon The King's School, Canterbury St John's School, Leatherhead Marlborough College Dauntsey's School Wycliffe Hall, Oxford Governor of Charterhouse School Governor of Wellington College Visitor, The Dulwich Charities Visitor, Whitgift Foundation Visitor, Hospital of the Blessed Trinity, Guildford Trustee, Bromley College Trustee, Allchurches Trust President, Corporation of Church House, Westminster Director, Canterbury Diocesan Board of Finance Patron, St Edmund's School Canterbury Patron, The Worshipful Company of Parish Clerks Patron, Prisoners Abroad Patron, The Kent Savers Credit Union The Archbishop of Canterbury is a president of Churches Together in England.
Geoffrey Fisher, 99th Archbishop of Canterbury, was the first since 1397 to visit Ro