Walter De Maria
Walter Joseph De Maria was an American artist, sculptor and composer, who lived and worked in New York City. Walter de Maria's artistic practice is connected with Minimal art, Conceptual art, Land art of the 1960s. LACMA director Michael Govan said that "I think he's one of the greatest artists of our time." Govan, who worked with De Maria for a number of years, found De Maria's work "singular and direct." De Maria was born in 1935 in California. His parents were the proprietors of a local restaurant in Albany. Walter De Maria's first academic interest was music—first piano percussion, he took to sports and cars, of which he made drawings. By 1946 he had joined a musicians' union. De Maria studied history and art at the University of California, Berkeley from 1953 to 1959. Trained as a painter, he began using other media. In the 1960s, De Maria and his friend, the avant-garde composer La Monte Young, participated in happenings and theatrical productions in the San Francisco area. From his exposure to the work of La Monte Young and dancer Simone Forti, among others, De Maria developed an interest in task-oriented, game-like projects that resulted in viewer-interactive sculptures.
For example, his Boxes for Meaningless Work is inscribed with the instructions, "Transfer things from one box to the next box back and forth and forth, etc. Be aware that what you are doing is meaningless."In 1960, De Maria moved to New York City where he married his wife Susanne Wilson one year later. His early sculptures from the 1960s were influenced by Dada and constructivism; this influence led De Maria into using simple geometric shapes and industrially manufactured materials such as stainless steel and aluminium – materials which are characteristic of Minimal art. With the support of collector Robert C. Scull, De Maria started making pieces in metal in 1965. In the mid-1960s, he became involved in various artistic activities, his piece, for John Cage, was included in the seminal 1966 Primary Structures exhibit at the Jewish Museum in New York. He appeared in happenings, composed two musical works, produced two films. De Maria ran a gallery on Great Jones Street in lower Manhattan with his wife Susanna, showing Joseph Cornell's collection of rare films, Robert Whitman's Happenings, exhibiting De Maria's Minimalist sculptures made of wood.
In 1965 De Maria became the drummer in the New York-based rock group the Primitives and an artist/musician collaborative group called The Druds. The Primitives was a precursor to The Velvet Underground. In 1980, De Maria bought a four-story, 16,400-square-foot Con Edison substation at 421 East Sixth Street, an adjacent lot at No. 419, between First Avenue and Avenue A. In February 2014, this property was selling for $25 million. Businessman and art collector Peter Brant purchased De Maria's studio for $27 million. Brant's plans for the space were unknown. De Maria went to California in May 2013 to celebrate his mother's 100th birthday and had a stroke there a few days later, he remained there for treatment. He died in Los Angeles on July 25, 2013, at the age of 77, he is survived by Christine De Maria. From 1968 De Maria produced Minimalist sculptures and installations such as the Munich Erdraum of 1968, he realized Land art projects in the deserts of the south-west US, with the aim of creating situations where the landscape and nature and weather would become an intense and psychic experience.
In his work, De Maria stressed that the work of art is intended to make the viewer think about the earth and its relationship to the universe. The Lightning Field is De Maria's best-known work, it consists of 400 stainless steel posts arranged in a calculated grid over an area of 1 mile × 1 km. The time of day and weather change the optical effects, it lights up during thunder storms. The field is maintained by Dia Art Foundation, it has been speculated that The Lightning Field influenced the imagery of author Cormac McCarthy's epilogue in his 1985 novel, Blood Meridian. In the 1960s and 1970s, De Maria created enduring urban works; as complementary pieces, Vertical Earth Kilometer, The Broken Kilometer, address the idea of unseen or abstracted distance. Vertical Earth Kilometer is a one-kilometer-long brass rod, two inches in diameter, drilled into Friedrichsplatz Park in central Kassel, Germany; the rod's circular top, flush to the earth's surface, is framed by a two-meter square plate of red sandstone.
In 1979, De Maria meticulously arranged five hundred brass rods for The Broken Kilometer, a permanent installation at 393 West Broadway in New York. In contrast to the hard metal of both Kilometer pieces, the third of these urban works, The New York Earth Room, is a 3,600-square-foot room filled to a depth of 22 inches with 250 cubic yards of earth. In 1977, the artist recreated the work at the Heiner Friedrich Gallery in New York, permanently reinstalled in 1980 at 141 Wooster Street, New York; the Broken Kilometer is part of De Maria's series of monumental sculptures using a horizontal format, which feature groupings of elements ordered according to precise calculations. This series includes 360°/I-Ching, A Computer Which Will Solve Every Problem in the World/3-12 Polygon
Judy Chicago is an American feminist artist, art educator, writer known for her large collaborative art installation pieces about birth and creation images, which examine the role of women in history and culture. By the 1970s, Chicago had founded the first feminist art program in the United States. Chicago's work incorporates a variety of artistic skills, such as needlework, counterbalanced with labor-intensive skills such as welding and pyrotechnics. Chicago's most well known work is The Dinner Party, permanently installed in the Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art at the Brooklyn Museum; the Dinner Party celebrates the accomplishments of women throughout history and is regarded as the first epic feminist artwork. Other notable art projects by Chicago include International Honor Quilt, The Birth Project and The Holocaust Project. Judy Chicago was born Judith Sylvia Cohen in 1939, in Chicago, Illinois, her father came including the Vilna Gaon. Unlike his family predecessors, Arthur became a Marxist.
He worked nights at a post office and took care of Chicago during the day, while May, a former dancer, worked as a medical secretary. Arthur's active participation in the American Communist Party, liberal views towards women and support of worker's rights influenced Chicago's ways of thinking and belief. During the McCarthyism era in the 1950s, Arthur was investigated, which made it difficult for him to find work and caused the family much turmoil. In 1945, while Chicago was alone at home with her infant brother, Ben, an FBI agent visited their house; the agent began to ask the six-year-old Chicago questions about her father and his friends, but the agent was interrupted upon the return of May to the house. Arthur's health declined, he died in 1953 from peritonitis. May did not allow them to attend the funeral. Chicago did not come to terms with his death. May loved the arts, instilled her passion for them in her children, as evident in Chicago's future as an artist, brother Ben's eventual career as a potter.
At age of three, Chicago began to draw and was sent to the Art Institute of Chicago to attend classes. By the age of 5, Chicago knew that she "never wanted to do anything but make art" and started attending classes at the Art Institute of Chicago, she applied but was denied admission to the Art Institute, instead attended UCLA on a scholarship. While at UCLA, she became politically active, designing posters for the UCLA NAACP chapter and became its corresponding secretary. In June 1959, she became romantically linked with Jerry Gerowitz, she moved in with him, for the first time having her own studio space. The couple hitch hiked to New York in 1959, just as Chicago's mother and brother moved to Los Angeles to be closer to her; the couple lived in Greenwich Village for a time, before returning in 1960 from Los Angeles to Chicago so she could finish her degree. Chicago married Gerowitz in 1961, she was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society. Gerowitz died in a car crash in 1963, devastating Chicago and causing her to suffer from an identity crisis until that decade.
She received her Master of Fine Arts from UCLA in 1964. While in grad school, Chicago's created a series, abstract, yet recognized as male and female sexual organs; these early works were called Bigamy, represented the death of her husband. One depicted an abstract penis, "stopped in flight" before it could unite with a vaginal form, her professors, who were men, were dismayed over these works. Despite the use of sexual organs in her work, Chicago refrained from using gender politics or identity as themes. In 1965, Chicago displayed work at the Rolf Nelson Gallery in Los Angeles. In 1968, Chicago was asked why she did not participate in the "California Women in the Arts" exhibition at the Lytton Center, to which she answered, "I won't show in any group defined as Woman, Jewish, or California. Someday when we all grow up there will be no labels." Chicago began working in ice sculpture, which represented "a metaphor for the preciousness of life," another reference towards her husband's death. In 1969, the Pasadena Art Museum exhibited a series of Chicago's spherical acrylic plastic dome sculptures and drawings in an "experimental" gallery.
Art in America noted that Chicago's work was at the forefront of the conceptual art movement, the Los Angeles Times described the work as showing no signs of "theoretical New York type art." Chicago would describe her early artwork as minimalist and as her trying to be "one of the boys". Chicago would experiment with performance art, using fireworks and pyrotechnics to create "atmospheres", which involved flashes of coloured smoke being manipulated outdoors. Through this work she attempted to "soften" the landscape. During this time, Chicago began exploring her own sexuality in her work, she created the Pasadena Lifesavers, a series of abstract paintings that placed acrylic paint on Plexiglas. The works blended colors to create an illusion that the shapes "turn, open, vibrate, wiggle," representing her own discovery that "I was multi-orgasmic." Chicago credited Pasadena Lifesavers, as being the major turning point in her work in relation to women's sexuality and representation. As Chicago made a name for herself as an art
Tony Smith (sculptor)
Anthony Peter Smith was an American sculptor, visual artist, architectural designer, a noted theorist on art. He is cited as a pioneering figure in American Minimalist sculpture. Smith was born in South Orange, New Jersey to a waterworks manufacturing family started by his grandfather and namesake, A. P. Smith. Tony contracted tuberculosis around 1916. In an effort to speed his recovery, protect his immune system, protect his siblings, his family constructed a one-room prefabricated house in the backyard, he had tutors to keep up with his school work. His medicine came in little boxes. Sometimes he visited the waterworks factory, marveling at the industrial production and fabrication processes. Smith commuted to a Jesuit high school in New York City. In the spring and summer of 1931 he attended Fordham University, in the fall enrolled at Georgetown University. Smith was disillusioned with formal education, returned to New Jersey in January 1932, during the Great Depression, he opened a second-hand bookstore in Newark on Broad Street.
From 1934 to 1936, he worked days at the family factory and attended evening courses at the Art Students League of New York where he studied anatomy with George Bridgman and watercolor with George Grosz, painting with Vaclav Vytlacil. In 1937, he moved to Chicago intending to study architecture at the New Bauhaus, where he absorbed the interdisciplinary curriculum but was disillusioned; the following year, Smith began working for Frank Lloyd Wright's Ardmore Project near Philadelphia, where he began as a carpenter helper and bricklayer, was named Clerk-of-the-Works. After a brief period with Wright in Taliesin, Smith worked building the Armstrong house in Ogden Dunes, Indiana; this period ended when his mother fell ill in 1940 and Smith returned to New Jersey. His father died on December 1 of that year. In 1940, Smith began his career as an independent architectural designer, which lasted until the early 1960s, he built twenty private homes and envisioned many unrealized projects, such as the 1950 Model Roman Catholic Church, with paintings on glass by Jackson Pollock.
His work included homes for many in the art community, including Fritz Bultman, Theodoros Stamos Fred Olsen, Betty Parsons. Despite these successes, the architect-client relationship frustrated Smith enough that he gravitated toward his artwork. Smith returned to the East Coast after two years in Hollywood and began teaching, while developing architectural projects, at the same time as developing various theoretical ideas and painting abstractly, he became a central member of the New York School community, with ties ranging from Gerald Kamrowski to Jackson Pollock, Barnett Newman and Mark Rothko. He lived in Germany and traveled extensively in Europe from 1953–55, accompanying his wife Jane, there as an opera singer. There he developed a new group of architectural projects and painted extensively, including the landmark group of Louisenberg paintings. Chiara Smith was born in 1954. Twins Beatrice and Seton were born after the family returned to South Orange, in 1955. Smith taught architecture and design-related classes at the Delahanty Institute and Pratt Institute, where he developed Throne.
This critical early work developed from a class assignment for students at Pratt to determine the simplest possible three-dimensional joint that could be stacked for more than two levels. Smith enhanced the geometrical solution of four triangular prisms by adding another joint, resulting in a new form with seven triangular prisms enclosing two tetrahedra. After some time passed, he decided that the resulting form was something other than a design exercise, so titled it Throne because the symmetrical abstraction reminded him of the dense volume of an African beaded throne. Smith joined the faculty at Vermont. In 1960 a class project investigating close-packed cells based on D'Arcy Thompson's book Growth & Form sparked Smith's search for artistic inspiration in the natural world; the resulting agglomeration of 14-sided tetrakaidecahedrons, the ideally efficient soap-bubble cell, is known as the Bennington Structure. This was the first time Smith saw the impact that enlarged geometric shapes could have as independent but architecturally scaled forms - as sculpture.
While recovering from an automobile accident at home in 1961, Smith started to create small sculptural maquettes using agglomerations of tetrahedrons and octahedrons. By 1962 he was teaching at Hunter College. In this year he created Black Box; the dense rectangular prism, less than two feet high, developed from a mundane object, a 3 x 5" file card box that Smith saw on the desk of his Eugene Goossen, his colleague and friend. Smith enlarged the proportions of the box five times, like a recent class assignment, he phoned a local fabricator, Industrial Welding, whose billboard he had seen while driving on the New Jersey Turnpike and asked them to deliver it to his suburban home. Although the welders assumed he was crazed, they treated the project with the utmost workmanship and the result was a stunning form to Smith. With this piece, entitled Black Box, Smith had discovered a sculpting process that he continued to hone. Where others saw a pure geometric shape, Smith saw it as a mysterious form.
The title alluded to the corrupt administration
David Hall (video artist)
David Hall was an English artist, whose pioneering work contributed much to establishing video as an art form. David Hall studied at the Royal College of Art. During the 1960s he showed his work internationally, he won first prize at the Biennale de Paris in 1965 and took part in other key shows including the seminal Primary Structures exhibition at the Jewish Museum, New York in 1966 which marked the beginning of Minimalist art. In 1966 he was a founder of the pioneering artists' organisation Artist Placement Group, APG, along with Barbara Steveni, John Latham, Barry Flanagan, Anna Ridley, Jeffrey Shaw among others. APG was a milestone in Conceptual Art in Britain, reinventing the means of making and disseminating art, it was during this time he began working with film and at the beginning of the 1970s turned to video as an art medium. His work in video and his writings in Studio International and elsewhere contributed to the establishment of this as a genre in the visual arts, it was here he introduced the term "time based media".
He was curator of early shows, influenced emerging artists as a teacher. In 1971 he made ten "Interruptions" broadcast intentionally unannounced and uncredited on Scottish Television. Seven of these works were distributed on video as TV Interruptions, are acknowledged as the first artist interventions on British television and as an formative moment in British video art; the first multi-channel video installation shown in the UK was his 60 TV Sets at the exhibition A Survey of the Avant-Garde in Britain, Gallery House, London 1972, expanded as 101 TV Sets at The Video Show, Serpentine Gallery, London 1975. In 1972 he founded the first time based media course at Maidstone College of Art. In 1976 he made. Here David Hall revisited the theme of his classic This is a Video Monitor made in 1973. Other works by artists had been broadcast by now, but Hall set out to turn the domestic television set into a form of video sculpture through the intervention of his transmitted images. In 1976 he initiated and was a founder of the artists' organisation London Video Arts in collaboration with Stuart Marshall, Stephen Partridge, Tamara Krikorian, Roger Barnard, David Critchley and others.
This acted as an artist-led workshop and a distribution service. He has exhibited single screen and installation work internationally for more than forty years at many venues including Documenta Kassel, Tate Gallery London, Centre Georges Pompidou Paris, National Museum Reina Sofia Madrid, Museum of Contemporary Art Barcelona, Museum of Modern Art Vienna. In March and April 2012, in his solo exhibition End Piece... the centrepiece installation 1001 TV Sets reprised the early 1970s works, coincided with the switch-off of analogue broadcast transmissions in the London area. The exhibition, curated by Michael Maziere included two other installations Progressive Recession and TV Interruptions: The Installation and was at the Ambika P3 gallery, Marylebone Road, London, UK. A report in the Independent newspaper referred to him as the "Godfather of British Video Art". Hall has sculpture, videotapes, installations and/or related material in the collections of the Tate Gallery London, Museum of Modern Art New York, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia Madrid, Gemeente Museum The Hague, West Australia Art Gallery Perth, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Arts Council of England, Contemporary Arts Society, British Film Institute, Great South West Corporation Atlanta USA, Richard Feigen Gallery New York, Visual Resources Inc.
New York, Royal College of Art, Harvard University, ZKM Karlsruhe, other public and private collections worldwide. Films and videotapes held by Lux London, National Film and Television Archive, Rewind Archive Scotland, the Venice Biennale Archive. In January 2012 David Hall received the inaugural Samsung Art+ Lifetime Achievement Award from an international jury at a British Film Institute celebratory event. Tate acquired his iconic work'TV Interruptions' in 2014, featured it during the month of his death at TATE Britain. Richard Saltoun Gallery, London showed a selection of his work from July 17–14 August 2015, DAVID HALL SITUATIONS ENVISAGED, curated by Stephen Partridge. Documenta 6 exhibition cat. Paul Dierichs KG and Co, Germany, 1977. Kunst und Video, DuMont Buchverlag, Cologne, 1983 Video-Skulptur, Retrospectiv und Aktuell 1963-1989, DuMont Buchverlag, Cologne, 1989 Videography: Video Media as Art and Culture, Sean Cubitt, MacMillan 1993. A Directory of British Film and Video Artists, ed. David Curtis, Arts Council/John Libbey, 1996.
Diverse Practices: A Critical Reader on British Video Art, ed. Julia Knight, University of Luton/Arts Council England, 1996 ISBN 978-1860205002 Video: un art contemporain, Françoise Parfait, Editions du Regard, Paris 2001. Video Art: A Guided Tour, Catherine Elwes, I. B. Tauris, 2005, ISBN 978-1850435464 Experimental Film and Video: An Anthology, Jackie Hatfield ed. John Libbey, 2006. 100 Video Artists, edited by Rosa Olivares, EXIT Publications in collaboration with the Fundacion ICO, 2010, ISBN 978-8493734701 The End of Television: David Hall’s 1001 TV Sets, Steven Ball, Moving Image Review and Art Journal, Vol 2, No 1, Intellect Books, 2013. Official web site REWIND Artists' video in the 70s and 80s: Interview with David Hall REWIND interview transcribed Video Art: the early years Video art, Mick Hartney, MoMA, 2009 A History of Experimental Film and Video, A. L. Rees, British Film Institute
Lyman Emmet Kipp, Jr. was a sculptor and painter who created pieces that are composed of strong vertical and horizontal objects and were painted in bold primary colors recalling arrangements by De Stijl Constructivists. Kipp is an important figure in the development of the Primary Structure style which came to prominence in the mid-1960s. Kipp's early work in the 1950s focused on plaster reliefs and cast bronzes, he moved on to large, welded pieces composed of post and beam elements emphasizing the vertical during the 1960s. Finding it difficult to transport large, welded pieces, he turned to angled sections and sheets of steel and aluminum that could be bolted together on site; the pieces were painted with bright colors and the thin edges were defined with bright, complementary colors. In the late 1970s, Kipp's steel sheets began to move into the air on thin legs. Kipp was a founding member of ConStruct, the artist-owned gallery that promoted and organized large-scale sculpture exhibitions throughout the United States.
Other founding members include Mark di Suvero, Kenneth Snelson, John Raymond Henry and Charles Ginnever. Kipp's health deteriorated and he died peacefully on March 30, 2014, his last known works were in 2011. 1950 - 1952 Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, NY 1952 - 1954 Cranbrook Academy of Art, Michigan 1960 - 1963 Bennington College, Vermont 1962 - 1963 Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, NY 1963 - 1968 Hunter College, NYC 1966 Dartmouth College, NH 1968 - 1975 Lehman College, NYC 1975 - 1978 Hunter College, NYC 1978 - 1985 Hunter College, NYC 1985 Hunter College, NYC 1966 Guggenheim Fellowship 1966 Fulbright Grant 1967 Summer Research Grant, City University of New York 1970 City University Faculty Research Grant 1975 City University Faculty Research Grant 1977 Art Park, Lewiston, NY 1980 Hand Hollow Foundation, New York 1982 Schuster Grant Alabama Cherokee, 1977, University of Alabama, HuntsvilleArizona Hudson Bay, 1968, Museum of Art, University of Arizona, TucsonCalifornia Trap II, 1965, University Art Museum, University of California, Berkeley Chickasaw, 1977, California State University, San Bernardino Highline, 1976, Federal Building & Post Office, Van NuysColorado Alto, 1984, Hoffman Heights Library, Aurora Red Wing, 1974, Aurora Corporate Plaza, AuroraDistrict of Columbia Alternate Design for Highline, 1975, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington Salamanca, 1969, Smithsonian American Art Museum, WashingtonFlorida Dollbaby, 1991, Pinewood Park, Largo Levenworth, 1978, Pinewood Park, Largo D, Greynolds Park, North Miami Beach Tonawanda, 1977, Am South Bank, Naples Kenosha, 1984, von Liebig Art Center, Naples Untitled, 1984, von Liebig Art Center, Naples Untitled, 1984, von Liebig Art Center, Naples E, 1979, Vero Beach Museum of Art, Vero BeachIndiana Range, 1974, Fort Wayne Museum of Art, Fort WayneMassachusetts Auro, 1965, List Visual Arts Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Bartar, 1968, Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, Hanover Median II, 1963, Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, HanoverMichigan No.
1-1959, 1959, Museum of Art, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Oshkosh, 1978, Grand Rapids Art Museum, Grand Rapids Bullshoals, 1978, Grand Rapids Art Museum, Grand Rapids Kobi, 1982, Grand Rapids Art Museum, Grand Rapids Study for Zephyr, 1973, Grand Rapids Art Museum, Grand Rapids Salute to Knowledge, 1981, Grosse Pointe Public Library, Grosse Pointe Farms Muscoot, 1979, Calvin College Campus, Grand Rapids Long Distance, 1979, Calvin College Campus, Grand RapidsNebraska Ulysses, 1972, Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery and Sculpture Garden, University of Nebraska, LincolnNew York Wild Rice, 1967, The Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza Art Collection, west plaza, Albany Directional I, 1962, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo Flat Rate II, 1969, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo Trianon, 1963, Whitney Museum of American Art, NYC Lockport 1977, 1977, Storm King Art Center, Mountainville Untitled, Storm King Art Center, Mountainville Placid, 1978, Lake Placid Center for the Arts, Lake PlacidNew Jersey Yoakum Jack, 1977, William Paterson University, WaynePennsylvania Music Box, 1956, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia Manly, 1980, Hartwood Acres Park, Pittsburgh Wink, 1980, Penn State University, University ParkTennessee Dragon Fly, 1995, Sculpture Fields of Montague Park, Chattanooga Hugo, 1980, Sculpture Fields of Montague Park, ChattanoogaWisconsin Bullfinch, 1968, Lynden Sculpture Garden, Milwaukee Lodgepole, 1968, Lynden Sculpture Garden, Milwaukee Janovy, Karen O. Siedell, Daniel A.
Sculpture from the Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery ISBN 978-0-8032-7629-1 Sculpture Off the Pedestal Library of Congress: 73-88657 Construct Kipp Website
Carl Andre is an American minimalist artist recognized for his ordered linear format and grid format sculptures. His sculptures range from large public artworks to more intimate tile patterns arranged on the floor of an exhibition space. In 1988, Andre was acquitted in the death of his wife, artist Ana Mendieta. Andre was born in Quincy, MA, he completed primary and secondary schooling in the Quincy public school system and studied art at Phillips Academy in Andover, MA from 1951 to 1953. While at Phillips Academy he became friends with Hollis Frampton who would influence Andre's radical approach to sculpture through their conversations about art and through introductions to other artists. Andre served in the U. S. Army in North Carolina 1955–56 and moved to New York City in 1956. While in New York, Frampton introduced Andre to Constantin Brâncuși through whom Andre became re-acquainted with a former classmate from Phillips Academy, Frank Stella, in 1958. Andre shared studio space with Stella from 1958 through 1960.
Andre's early work in wood may have been inspired by Brâncuși, but his conversations with Stella about space and form led him in a different direction. While sharing a studio with Stella, Andre developed a series of wooden "cut" sculptures. Stella is noted as having said to Andre "Carl, that's sculpture, too."From 1960 to 1964 Andre worked as freight brakeman and conductor in New Jersey for the Pennsylvania Railroad. The experience with blue collar labor and the ordered nature of conducting freight trains would have a influence on Andre's sculpture and artistic personality. For example, it was not uncommon for Andre to dress in overalls and a blue work shirt to the most formal occasions."During this period, Andre focused on writing and there is little notable sculpture on record between 1960 and 1965. The poetry would resurface most notably in a book called 12 Dialogues in which Andre and Hollis Frampton took turns responding to one another at a typewriter using poetry and free-form essay-like texts.
Andre's concrete poetry has exhibited in the United States and Europe, a comprehensive collection of, in the collection of the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam. In 1965 he had his first public exhibition of work in the Shape and Structure show curated by Henry Geldzahler at the Tibor de Nagy Gallery. Andre's controversial Lever was included in the seminal 1966 show at the Jewish Museum in New York entitled Primary Structures. In 1969 Andre helped organize the Art Workers Coalition. In 1970 he had a solo exhibition at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1972, Britain's Tate Gallery acquired an arrangement of firebricks; the piece was exhibited several times without incident, but became the center of controversy in 1976 after being featured in an article in The Sunday Times and being defaced with blue food dye. The "Bricks controversy" became one of the most famous public debates in Britain about contemporary art. - "I realized. I did not improve it in any way." [quote, c. 1959. Each one, like any area on the surface of the earth, supports a column of air that weighs – what is it?
14.7 pounds per square inch. So in a sense, that might represent a column. It's not an idea, it's a sense of something you know, a demarked place... I have nothing to do with Conceptual art. I'm not interested in ideas..". - "We live in a world of replicas, I try in a world of replicas to produce things that are not replicas of anything." - "Up to a certain time I was cutting into things. I realized that the thing I was cutting was the cut. Rather than cut into the material, I now use the material as the cut in space." - "My work is atheistic and communistic. It's atheistic because it's without spiritual or intellectual quality. Materialistic because it's made out of its own materials without pretension to other materials, and communistic because the form is accessible to all men." - "Actually my ideal piece of sculpture is a road." The gradual evolution of consensus about the meaning of Carl Andre's art can be found in About Carl Andre: Critical Texts Since 1965, published by Ridinghouse in 2008. The most significant essays and exhibition reviews have been collated into one volume, including texts written by some of the most influential art historians and critics: Clement Greenberg, Donald Kuspit, Lucy R. Lippard, Robert C.
Morgan, Barbara Rose and Roberta Smith. He is represented by the Paula Cooper Gallery in New York, by Konrad Fischer Galerie in Düsseldorf and Berlin, by Sadie Coles HQ in London, Yvon Lambert Gallery in Paris. In 1979 Andre first met artist Ana Mendieta through a mutual friendship with artists Leon Golub and Nancy Spero at AIR Gallery in New York City. Andre and Mendieta married in 1985, but the relationship ended in tragedy. Mendieta fell to her death from Andre's 34th story apartment window in 1985 after an argument with Andre. There were no eyewitnesses. A doorman in the street below had heard a woman screaming "No, no, no, no," before Mendieta's body landed on the roof of a building below. Andre had what appeared to
John McCracken (artist)
John Harvey McCracken was a minimalist artist. He lived and worked in Los Angeles, Santa Fe, New Mexico, New York. After graduating from high school, McCracken served in the United States Navy for four years before enrolling in the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland, earning a B. F. A. in 1962 and completing most of the work for an M. F. A. During these years he studied with Gordon Onslow Tony DeLap. Taught: 1965–1966: University of California, Irvine 1966–1968: University of California, Los Angeles 1968–1969: School of Visual Arts, New York City 1971–1972: Hunter College, New York 1972–1973: University of Nevada, Reno 1973–1975: University of Nevada, Las Vegas 1975–1976: University of California, Irvine 1975–1985: College of Creative Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara Internationally recognized John McCracken commenced developing his earliest sculptural work while in grad school at California College of Arts and Crafts along with Minimalists John Slorp and Peter Schnore, painters Tom Nuzum, Vincent Perez, Terry StJohn, 1964, 1965.
Well known Dennis Oppenheim, enrolled in the M. F. A. program at nearby Stanford, was a frequent visitor to this more vibrant graduate program. While experimenting with three-dimensional canvases, McCracken began to produce art objects made with industrial techniques and materials, sprayed lacquer, pigmented resin, creating the more minimalistic works featuring highly-reflective, smooth surfaces, he applied techniques akin to those used in surfboard construction—popular in Southern California. McCracken was part of the Light and Space movement that includes James Turrell, Peter Alexander, Larry Bell, Robert Irwin and others. In interviews, however, he cited his greatest influences as the hard edge works of the Abstract Expressionist Barnett Newman and Minimalists like Donald Judd, Dan Flavin and Carl Andre. Early objects created by John McCracken were derived from company logos such as the Chevron corporation logo, his sculptures deal with the interrelationships existing between the material design.
In 1966, McCracken generated his signature sculptural form: the plank, a narrow, rectangular board format that leans at an angle against the wall while entering into the three-dimensional realm and physical space of the viewer. He conceived the plank idea in a period when artists across the stylistic spectrum were combining aspects of painting and sculpture in their work and many were experimenting with sleek, impersonal surfaces; as the artist noted, "I see the plank as existing between two worlds, the floor representing the physical world of standing objects, cars, human bodies... and the wall representing the world of the imagination, illusionist painting space, human mental space." The sculptures consist of plywood forms coated with layers of polyester resin. While the polished resin surface recalls the aesthetic of 1960s southern California surfboard and Kustom Kar cultures, the title was drawn from advertising slogans in fashion magazines. In addition to the planks, the artist creates wall pieces and free-standing sculptures in varying geometrical shapes and sizes, ranging from smaller forms on pedestals to large-scale, outdoor structures in the shape of pyramids, ziggurats and crystals.
He worked in polished stainless steel and bronze and made work that in effect sliced the planks into thin, repeating elements that leaned against the wall in rows. In McCracken's work, color was used as "material." Bold solid colors with their polished finish reflect the unique California light or mirror the observer in a way that takes the work into another dimension. His palette included bubble-gum pink, lemon yellow, deep sapphire and ebony applied as a monochrome. Sometimes an application of multiple colors marbleizes or runs down the sculpture's surface, like a molten lava flow. McCracken makes each resin or lacquer work by hand rather than using industrial fabrication; each is handmade by McCracken himself, who paints them. The monochrome surfaces are sanded and polished many times to such a degree of reflectiveness that they seem translucent, he made objects of stained wood or, in recent years polished bronze and reflective stainless steel. In 2010, for example, he created various sculptures that are polished to produce such a high degree of reflectivity that they activate their surroundings and seem camouflaged.
In 1971 to 1972 he made a seen series of paintings based on Hindu and Buddhist mandalas, first shown at Castello di Rivoli in 2011. John McCracken: Sketchbook was published in 2008 by Santa Fe-based Radius Books. During the 1970s and early 1980s, a period when he devoted his time to teaching at the University of Nevada in Reno and Las Vegas and at the University of California, Santa Barbara, McCracken received little critical attention. A 1985 move to Los Angeles with his wife, artist Gail Barringer, revived his career in terms of newly conceived bodies of work and museum exhibitions, recognition by a younger generation of artists and curators. McCracken had lived in Santa Fe since 1994. McCracken was included in every important exhibition of Minimalist sculpture in both the United States and Europe, starting with “Primary Structures” at the Jewish Museum in 1966 and with "American Sculpture of the Sixties" at the Los Angeles County Museum. A retrospective of McCracken's work was hosted by the Castello di Rivoli - Museo d'Arte Contemporanea, Turin in the spring of 2011.
Other recent solo exhibitions include Inverleith House at the Royal Botanic Gar